and the

Common Speech
with notes on
the tongue of
the Rohirrim

[See Appendix F - LOTR
It is of note that J.R.R. Tolkin claimed that in dealing with the Hobbit tongue - and therefore the Common Speech, and thus the language of the Rohirrim, he adapted terms into familiar English; thus it should be kept in mind that some words, while appearing familiar, were quite foreign when spoken by those of Middle Earth; for example, 'Rivendell' - Imladris in the Elvish - was actuallly Karningul in the Common Speech - Westron.]

For more information on these entries and anglicized forms, see LOTR Dictionary; Professor Tolkien
      states that many H names were created for their sound and had no traceable meaning

AS        =     Anglo Saxon
arch      =     archaic
CS         =     Common Speech or Westron
H          =     Hobbit
LOTR   =    Lord of the Rings
M         =     Mannish tongues
OE        =     Old English
Roh      =     the tongue Rohirric; most of the names are already anglicised

-a     the Hobbit ending - a - was masculine as a rule; J.R.R.. Tolkien changed to -o, thus 'anglicising' it
[Adaldrida     (Brandybuck); anglicised form of H female name; German edel, OE æðel 'noble'; OE ðridda
      'third'; most H names are rendered in older English forms and are not developed here except where
      central to story development; see LOTR Dictionary for those listed in that index.]

Balc     CS; horrible
Ban     CS; ba-, ban- half-, almost; a shortened Shire name, derived from Bannatha, presumably because
      they laid no claim to the apellation 'halfling' [see next]
banakil     CS; halfling
Banzir     Samwise; 'Sam' anglicised for ban; also see zir; 'half-wise'
Barabatta     Bree [M]; quick-talker; short form Batti; anglicised form Barnabas, short form Barney;
      nickname of inn-keeper of Bree
bas-     CS; village
Bilba     H form of Bilbo; see -a
Bolgra      H name; CS bolg- bulge, fat
Bophîn     CS? H bophan; in contemporary British a 'boffin' is an intellectual worker, but in H it related
      more to contemporary British 'boff' - a hearty laugh; in CS said not to have anything to do with
      laughter... perhaps just '[hearty?] fellow'
Branda-nîn     H; 'border-water', Shire name for Elvish Baranduin [see LOTR Dictionary]; see anglicised
      form Brandywine, but this form seems to borrow from the Elvish - e.g. REG- Quenya réna, Noldorin
      rhein, rhain border... NEN- Quenya nén water, Noldorin nen, plural nîn [see The Etymologies]
Brandu     H; old [see next], but in another place 'foam', thus making Elvish 'Baranduin' [Brown River] into
      anglicised H Brandywine, 'brown foam' or 'beer'
Brandugamba     H; for anglicised Brandybuck; see previous
Bree     CS [arch]; hill [see LotR Dictionary]

Carbandur     abandoned; see Karningul
cast     H; gift, treasure; anglicised form mathom
castu     Roh form of cast
chet     Anglicized CS [arch]; forest; Celtic (Brythonic) cet [or ced], Old Welsh coit 'forest', Middle
      English heth heath (untilled ground); from Germanic *haithiz
cubuc     H; hole-dweller; anglicised form: Hobbit, a stylised form of ancient English hol-bytla  [see LOTR
      Dictionary]; see Ban, kuduk
cubug     H [arch]; hole-dweller; possibly an ancient M word that was adapted also to CS; see previous
cugbagu     Roh; an older form of the previous two entries

Fallohide     anglicised; AS fealu fallow, tawny; hide = skin; 'fair-skinned'; one of the three Hobbit 'clans';
      the actual H rendering of the name is not available

gad     H; fixed, closed
galab     CS; also galap; game; H form galb-
Galbassi     H; Gamgee is the anglicised form; from a place-name: Galabas, H Galb(b)as; see galab; also
      see bas village
Galpsi     H reduced form of Galbassi
gamba     CS; stag; OE bucca male deer - as in H Brandugamba - Oldbuck [modified to Brandybuck]
globa     Roh; see next
gluva     H; inhabited hole; Roh form globa; see smial
grad     Roh; mark, boundry

hamanullas     H; a small blue flower anglicised to Lobelia; possibly related to ancient Elvish name Aman;
      the Elven stem KHAP- 'enfold' has a Noldorin form hammad 'clothing' [see The Etymologies]
Hamfast     anglicized form of H Ranugad; AS ham village, dwelling; AS fæst fixed, enclosed; 'stay-at-home'
Harfoots     anglicised name of one of the three Hobbit 'clans'; 'hairfeet'; OE hær, German har 'hair'; the
      actual H rendering of the name is not available
him(a)     H; beer
hloth     CS; H loth; hole, two-room dwelling
hlothran     CS; H lothran; village; hloth see previous; see also ran(u); anglicised form Cotton [Cottage

isen     anglicised form; iron; AS isen iron, weapon; actual Roh word not available

Kali     CS; jolly, gay; ?AS (ge-)sælig happy?
Kalimac     H & CS for anglicised name Meriadoc; 'merry' + -doc, a Celtic ending
Karningul     CS; Rivendell; Elvish: Imladris
kast     see cast
kili     abandoned; see kali
kuduk     Roh? CS? same as cubuc - hole-dweller, Hobbit; perhaps shortening of kûd-dûkan [next]
kûd-dûkan     Roh; same as kuduk, cubuc - hole-dweller; see previous

labin     CS; bag
Labin-nec     H; Bag End
Labingi    H; anglicised form: Baggins; believed to be connected with CS labin 'a bag'
lo-, loho     Roh; horse [combining form]; anglicised form: éo-
lograd     Roh; horse-mark
Lohtur     Roh; horse-folk
Lothran     H; see hlothran; anglicised form: Cotton; may be an alteration of hloth-ram(a) 'cotman,
luthur, luthran     CS; down, fluff

mathom     [malthom] anglicised form of H cast; gift, treasured thing; AS maðum
Maura     M? H name of Frodo, but not found in H; however, the related Roh term maur- means 'wise,
      experienced'; Frodo is a German form of the word related to the OE frod wise [poetic]; Old Norse froðr
      old, experienced

Nahald     Northern M & CS; secret; actual name of anglicised Déagol, an ancient Hobbit; AS nihol,
      neowol obscure, deep down ?
nargian      CS; genitive plural form of narac 'dwarf'; Elvish nauko, naug dwarf

phur     CS [arch]; to delve; phuru delvings
Phurunargian     CS [arch]; dwarf-dig; Elvish Moria, Dwarvish Khazad Dûm; see nargian; originally
      Tolkien assigned the name Kubalnargia, taken from kubal, kubu 'delve', which seems more logical in
      light of the H cubuc, a burrower or hole-dweller
Pippin     see Razanur

ram(a)     H; dweller?
ran(u)     CS; a group of dwelling holes on a hillside, village
rapha     Bree [M]; dwelling, inn?; one note assigns the meaning 'burr', presumably a 'bristle'; see
RasputaRaspûta      H; 'hornblower', but see Tóbias; a H name
raza     CS; stranger
razan    CS; foreign
Razanur     H; the name of a legendary 'traveler'; Razanur Tuc - Peregrin (Pippin) [Latin peregre a foreign
      country; peregrinor to travel in foreign lands; 'pippin' from Middle English pepin apple - see razar;
      the combination sets up a typical Hobbit jest]
razar     CS; a small apple; see previous
rog     Roh; plur. rogin; Woses [see LOTR Dictionary]

sharku    Black Speech? old man; perhaps remotely connected with Elven stem THUS- Quenya saura foul
smial     anglicised form of H gluva - inhabited hole, warren; derived from OE smygel burrow; a typical H
      jest: smial for 'smile' - a pleasant mouth or 'opening'
Soval Pharë     CS; name of the 'Common Speech'; pharë may share a common source with phur- 'dig'; in
      Elven fáre - sufficiency' - is derived from PHAR- reach, suffice, although Noldorin faras - from SPAR-
      hunt - seems as likely related [see The Etymologies]
Stoor     H; big; from Scandinavian stór- big; one of the three Hobbit 'clans'; the actual H rendering of the
      name is Tung
Sûza [-t]     H; Shire, office, estate; in Gondor more at 'province', similar to Noldorin lhann [Elvish root
      LAD- wide] - in the sense of 'region'

tapuc     H; rabbit
thain     anglicized form; AS ðegn freeman, official; similar to 'sheriff', 'burgermaster'
tharantin     H; quarter, fourth part
tharni     H [arch]; mostly used the same as English 'farthing' - a quarter section; also used in Gondor for a
      coin; see previous
Tóbias     H; 'hornblower', but see Raspûta; a H name
Tragu     Northern CS; worm, burrower; actual name of anglicised form - Smaug [see LOTR Dictioanry]
trahald     Northern CS [arch]; burrowing
trahan     Roh; same as trahald
trân     H; same as trahan
tuca      H [arch]; daring? H name Tûk; 'Took' is the anglicised form of this prominent H family name
tung     H; big; see Stoor
tur     Roh; land, people
turac      Roh; king; anglicised to Théoden

wini      Roh; friend [used for horses]; an anglicised form? - OE winë friend; [see Unfinished Tales, Part
      Three, Chapter II, 'Notes', p. 325]

zara     H [abandoned?]; old
Zilbirapha     Bree name, anglicized to Butterburr; AS bur bower, shelter [as in arbor]; one note says
      zilib = butter and raph(a) = burr
zir(a)     CS; wise

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