*** L o r d   o f   t h e   R i n g s***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* A - C *

AS       Anglo-Saxon
B          Black Speech
CS        Common Speech
D          Dwarvish
Etym    Etymologies
H          or 'Hob' - Hobbit Dictionary [mixed with CS]
M        Mannish
Nol      Noldorin [ancient Elven]
Num    Númenórean
OE       Old English
Q         Quenyan [High Elven]
Roh     Rohirric
S          Sindarin [Common Elven]
Sil        Silmarillion Appendix - Dictionary
comb.    combining form
plur.       plural
fem        feminine
masc     masculine

Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [Sil]
Words of the language of the Rohirrim are traced to possible roots in the ancient Elven tongue,
      although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are derived from ancient
      English, especially Anglo Saxon


Accursed Years     anglicized form of CS; the years from when Sauron occupied Morder and forged the
      Rings of Power to his fall by the Last Alliance - Second Age
Aglarond     S; Glittering caves; the caverns of Helm's Deep; see Sil
Aiglos (Spear of Gil-galad)     also Aeglos; S; icicle; AYAK- sharp ... Nol oeg [Etym]; GOLÓS- snow ...
      Nol gloss snow-white [Etym], S loss
Aldalómë     Q; Tree shadow; alda tree (Q) [Sil]; lómë dusk [Sil], from DO3, DÔ- Q lóme shades of night
      [Etym]; a name given to Fangorn Forest by the Ents
Aldor     Roh; 'the Old (Prince)'; possibly related to ar(a)- royal [Sil]; BOR- endure [Etym]; AS aldorman
      alderman - person of rank, from eald old; in this context, taking the AS, aldor means 'elder' in a
      respectful sense, such as 'patriarch'; see Orald; third king of Rohan
alfirin     S; immortal; also uilos [S: 'ever-white'; see OY- eternal - Etym] and simbelmynë [Roh:
      'Evermind' (see Simbelmynë)]; in the book of Tolkien's 'Letters' the word is translated immortal; LA-
      no, not, Q , Nol al- [Etym]; PHIR- Q firin dead, Q ilfirin 'immortal' [Etym; the S form would be
      alfirin, the -in suffix being a plural form - 'no deaths': i.e. (figuratively) 'never forgotten']; flowers that
      grew on the graves of mortal kings
Ambaróna     Q; ?Sunrise; AM²- up, Q am-, amba upwards [Etym]; RO- rise, Q róna, Nol amrûn east
      [Etym]; under AM²- the form ambaron, ambaróne uprising, sunrise, [East] occurs; the only obvious
      explanation for this interpretation is that Fangorn Forest lay to the East of and hard by the Misty
      Mountains; this author originally analysed this terms as MBAR- dwell [-ing], Q a-mbar, Nol ambar
      [Etym] + ONO- beget, Q onna creature [Etym] = 'creature home'; the Ents were the only sentient
      creatures in Middle-earth until the Elves 'awakened' [when there was no Sun], thus likely thought
      their home was the only extant 'dwelling'; a name given to Fangorn Forest by the ancient Ents; they
      were later instructed in the Elven tongues
Amon Dîn     S; Silent hill; amon hill [Sil], from AM²- up [Etym]; dîn silent [Sil; source not certain;
      perhaps THIN- grey, Nol thin twilight (Etym) > Old S dhín - perhaps as a 'quiet' time of day (likewise
      see TIN- Etym)]; beacon-hill in northern Gondor
Amon Hen     S; Hill of the eye; amon- see previous; KHEN-D-E- eye, Q hen, Nol hên, hîn [an older form
      of this base, KHEN-, means 'look at, observe']; the Seat of Seeing; hill on the west of the Anduin
         Hill of the Eye     anglicized form of above
         Hill of Sight     anglicized form of above
Amon Lhaw     S; Hill of hearing; amon- see previous; LAS²- listen ... Nol lhaw ears; hill on the east of
      the Anduin
         Hill of Hearing     anglicized form of above
Amon Sul     S; Windy hill; amon- see previous; sûl wind [Sil]; see also Sil; see Weathertop
Amroth     Silvan; Up-climber; an Elven prince; AM²- up, rise [Etym]; while -roth might normally be
      attributed to groth (grod) cave [Sil], here it is said to derive from RAT- walk, Nol rath [Etym], Silvan
      roth [presumed] 'climb'; the name Up-climber is attributed to his people living on flets, platforms in
      the high trees; see Cerin Amroth
Anárion     Q; Heir of the Sun; see Sil
Anborn     S; Ever faithful; an(d ) long [Sil]; BOR- endure ... BORÓN- endurance, faithful; a Ranger
Ancalagon the Black     S and anglicized form of CS; Biting-Storm; see Sil
Ancient Tongue     anglicized form of CS; Quenyan, High Elven
Ancient World     anglicized form of CS; First Age
Anduin (The Great River)     S; Great river; an(d ) long [Sil], from ÁNAD-, ANDA- long, Nol ann [Etym],
      S an-; duin river [Sil]; mighty river from the northern mountains to the sea through Gondor
         Ethir     S; in CS: Mouths of Anduin; ETER- open [Etym], with ET- out ... Nol ethir mouth of a river
                  [Etym; et- + sîr 'river' (Sil; s > h in the middle of words)]
Andúril     S; Flame of the west: Sword of Elendil; andúnë sunset, west [Sil; NA¹- towards, Nol an- +
      NDU- go down (of Sun) {Etym} = 'West']; ril brilliance [Sil]; sword of Aragorn, reforged from:
         Narsil     Q; (the Sword that was Broken); Silver flash; nár fire, flame [Sil]; sil- shine white or
                  silver [Sil]; the implication is 'Sun and Moon', symbolising the opposition of both to evil
Anfalas (Langstrand)     S; Long shore; an(d ) long [Sil; see Anduin]; PHAL-, PHÁLAS- foam, Nol falas
      shore [Etym]; OE lang long; OE strand shore; coastal area of Gondor
Angband     Nol; Iron hell; see Sil
Angbor     S; Iron fist; anga iron [Sil]; KWAR- fist (as clutching a tool), Nol paur [Etym], S -bor [Q kw >
      S f (ph), p or b; au > o]; man of Gondor; see Lord of Lamedon
Angmar      S; Keep of iron; ang- see previous; bar dwelling [Sil], b > m [lenited] following hard 'g' -
      'home'; the 'Witch-kingdom' of the north in the Third Age
Angrenost (Isengard)     S; Iron fortress; see Sil
ann-thennath     also ann-thannath; S; ÁNAD-, ANDA- long ... Nol ann [Etym]; the last element could
      relate to TAN- make, fashion, as the term refers to a long poem or lay [Etym] - 'long creations'; in
      recently published notes Tolkien lists an element in Q tanta harp, tanta- (verb) to harp; it cannot be
      stated however that it could necessarily lead to the form listed here; one scholar of S traces the term
      to STINTA- short, Nol thinnas 'shortness' [Etym] - 'long shorts', referring to the rhyming metre;
      another possibility might be found in the appendix to Morgoth's Ring, Volume X of The History of
      Middle-earth series, where Tolkien identifies the word tanna as 'sign', verb tana to show [S?], not
      in Etym, but perhaps related to TEK- write signs or letters, or even TEÑ- line, row [Etym]; -ath is a
      collective plural used in S to be all-inclusive [see Sil entry Argonath]; 'long poetic lyrics', a style of
      Elvish epic song
Annúminas     S; Tower of the West; see Sil
Anor     Nol & S; Sun; see Sil
Anórien     S; Sun land; ANÁR- sun, Nol Anor [Etym]; -ien is a place-name suffix perhaps associated
      with YAN- sanctuary [Etym]; part of Gondor
Appledore     anglicised CS; AS æppelðorn crab-apple tree; a family name of Bree
Aragorn     Royal Zeal; the name is probably a bit of a blind - a play on words common to Elves, and
      thus the Dúnedain; ostensibly derived from ERÉK- thorn, Nol ereg holly tree [Etym], and ORO-
      high ... ÓR-NI- high tree [Etym] - 'tall thorny tree'; alternately it can read ar(a)- royal [Sil] and GOR-
      Nol -gorn impetuous, wrath [Etym], and even KOR- round, Nol corn circle [Etym], as with him the
      kingship of the Dúnedain would come full circle; see Sil Aragorn; also known in CS as 'Strider'; see
Arathorn     S; Royal Eagle; see Sil
Araw     S; Noble Horn(-blower); ÓROM- Q Oromë, Old Nol Araume [Etym], S Araw [the base is a blend
      of ORO- 'rise, high' and ROM- loud noise, horn-blast; Etym]; S name for the Vala Oromë; like so
      many 'high' names of old, it incorporates many creative concepts; for example, in S rhaw means
      'flesh', taken from ancient Q hrávë (srawe) [ar = privative sense 'not' + 'flesh']; the reason may be
      that when the Elves 'awoke', the first sentient being they encountered was Oromë [in material form],
      who instructed them in language; also implied is RAW- lion [roar], Nol rhaw [Etym], connected with
      RAB- wild, Nol rhaw [Etym], implied in Oromë's hunting chases and his loud horns; there is little
      doubt that Tolkien associated this name with the 'dawn' - ORO- rise, high [Etym; 'sun-rise'], and
      AR¹- day, Q ara dawn, Nol aur [Etym]; see Sil Oromë; see Gallery
Archet     Anglicized CS; High Wood; Celtic ard 'high' and chet 'forest' [see Chetwood (below), also Hob];
      a village of Bree-land
Argeleb II     S; Silver king; ar(a)- royal [Sil]; celeb silver [Sil; in S c > g in certain constructions], from
      KYELEP- silver, Nol celeb [Etym]; Dúnadan, king of Arthedain
Argonath     S; King-stones; two giant pillars on the Anduin marking the northern reaches of Gondor;
      see Sil
         Gate of Kings     anglicized form of CS
         Pillars of the King     anglicized form of CS
Arnach     see Lossarnach
Arnor     northern kingdom of the Dúnedain; see Sil
Arod     Roh; Swift; possibly related to LAK²- swift, Q alarka; AS arod quick, bold; horse of Rohan
Arvedui     S; Last king; ar(a)- royal [Sil]; the second element derives from MET- end [m = v by a
      process called 'lenition', likewise t > d]; -ui is a S adjectival form often used for numbers such as
      enchui 'sixth'; vedui means 'last'; the seer Malbeth prophesied at Arvedui's birth that he would be
      the last king of the Northern Kingdom; Dúnadan, last king of Arthedain
Arvernien     Nol? Realm of the beechtree; see Sil
Arwen     S; Royal maiden; ar- see previous; wen maiden [Sil]; Elven princess, married Aragorn [Elessar]
         Evenstar     see next
         Undómiel     Q; UNU- 'under', with NDU setting (of the Sun), [Etym]; DOMO- dim, *domi- twilight
               [Etym; from DO3- night]; êl star ['Elf' is implied; Sil]; also, -iel is a feminine ending taken from
               SEL-D- [< YEL-] daughter, Q yelde, -iel [Etym]; Evenstar
asëa aranion     asëa is a Q variant of athaya, a lost element meaning 'helpful', 'beneficial'; ar(a)- royal,
      aran king [Sil]; the -ion suffix appears to form a genitive plural: 'of kings', although of note is YO,
      YON- son Q -ion, Nol -ion [Etym; patronymic suffix]; perhaps implied is anna- gift [Sil]; figuratively
      called 'Kingsfoil' [see Athelas], technically perhaps Balm of Princes
Asfaloth     S; Sil - Appendix - under entry arien, identifies a root as-; in Morgoth's Ring, Part Five,
      p. 380, this element is identified as meaning 'warmth, light or solace'; the last elements might be
      attributed to PHAL-, PHÁLAS- foam [surf], Nol falf foam, faltho, to foam; the term implied 'spirited'
      or 'prancing' [Etym]; the ending contains loth flower, blossom [Sil] which may imply 'white' and also
      be a term of endearment; ?Fiery Blossom or ?Passion Flower; a swift Elven charger
Ashen Mountains     see also Ered Lithui
Athelas     S; kingsfoil; athaya [a lost element] helpful, beneficial; LAS¹- leaf, Q lasse [Etym], S las; a
      healing plant; AS æðele noble; Old French foil leaf; see asëa aranion
Azanulbizar (Dimrill Dale)     D

Bag End     anglicized form of CS Laban-neg Bag End; see next and Hob
Baggins     H; anglicized form of Labingi, a Hob word likely taken from the CS laban 'a bag'; the effect is
      two-fold: first, the 'bag' is a 'purse', which is drawn closed at one end - thus a Hobbit-hole; second, a
      'purse' bag is 'chubby', such as a 'pudding bag' - an excellent rich food for the domestic Hobbit
         Angelica     anglicized form of H; a white or purple flower with a carrot-like root
         Bilbo     Bilba - a serendipity H name, anglicized by channging H masc. suffix -a to -o
         Dora     anglicized form of H name; inspired by AS dora 'humble-bee'?
         Drogo     anglicized form of H name; inspired by AS dreogan experience, endure?
         Frodo     anglicized form of H name Maura wise, experienced; the OE word frod means 'wise'
         Mad     anglicized form of H name
Bagshot Row     anglicized form of H name; see previous
Bain     M; some scholars attribute the name to Old Norse - baedd [bâidh] boar, and as an archaic name
      'valiant warrior'; or perhaps Gaelic beann, beinn 'peak, horn' - high; a king of Dale
Baldor     Roh; Valiant; possibly related to BAL- Q Vala power [Etym], and TA-, TA3- noble, Nol Tor-
      as prefix, -dor as suffix [Etym]; AS bald, OE beald bold; AS deor brave, ferocious
Balin     D; perhaps derived from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Bláin [letters rearranged],
      although the name is not applied to a dwarf, but a giant; perhaps derived from ballr dangerous,
      extended to mean 'hero'; Dwarf companion of Bilbo; see Gallery
Balrog     (Durin's Bane) S; demon of power; see Sil
Bamfurlong     anglicized form of H name; Bean-row; Tolkien states that bam- is from OE 'bean', derived
      from Old German bona, bauno; AS furlang length - or breadth - of a furrow; Farmer Maggot's farm
      [although he grew mushrooms]
Banks     anglicized form of H name; a steep hillside, ideal for a Hobbit-hole
         Willie     anglicized form of H name
Barad-dûr     S; Dark tower; see Sil; fortress of Sauron in Mordor; see Lugbúrz; see Dark Tower
Barahir     S; Bold chief; Adan of the First Age; also a Fourth Age Dúnadan; see Sil
Baranduin     S; H Brandywine; a river that marked the border of the Shire; BARÁN- brown [Etym];
      duin river [Sil]
Baranor     M?; man of Gondor; could derive from a combination of  BARÁN- swarthy [Etym], and TA-,
      TA3- noble, Nol Tor- as prefix, -dor as suffix [Etym]; perhaps connected with Gaelic baran, Welsh
      barwn a baron
Baraz     D; see next
Barazinbar     D; see Caradhras
Bard the Bowman     M; ?Sentinel; the name could relate to BER- valiant [Etym]; perhaps connected
      with Old Norse vörð watch, Irish bárd, a guard, garrison; a man of Dale
Bardings, the     (Men of Dale); -ings is an OE collective suffix meaning 'folk'; see previous
Barrow Blade     anglicized form of H name of Samwise's sword
Barrow-downs     anglicized form of H name; the S name is Tyrn Gorthad [see Supplemental Section (in
      progress)]; downs east of the Old Forest in the Shire, occupied by evil 'wights' in the middle of the
      Third Age
Barrowfield     anglicized form of Roh; AS bær bier; AS beorg hill, mound; burial site of kings
Barrow-wights     anglicized form of CS; AS wiht creature
Battle Gardens     anglicized form of H name of a memorial
Battle of Bywater      anglicized form of H name of last battle of the War of the Ring
Battle of Dagorlad     comb. anglicized form of CS and S; battle of the Last Alliance with Sauron at the
      end of the Second Age; see Dagorlad
Battle of the Field of Celebrant     anglicized form of CS; battle against the Balchoth by Gondor and the
      Rohirrim in the Third Age; see Celebrant, Field of
Battle of Five Armies     anglicized form of CS; battle of Men, Elves and Dwarves against Orcs at the
      Lonely Mountain, Third Age
Battle of Greenfields     anglicized form of CS; battle in Third Age between Hobbits and Orcs in the
Battle of the Peak     anglicized form of CS; fought between Gandalf and a Balrog on the peaks above
      Moria near the end of the Third Age
Battle Pit     anglicized form of H; burial pit of enemies of Hobbits in the Battle of Bywater
Battle Plain     anglicized form of S Dagorlad
Beechbone     anglicized form of CS; an Ent
Beleriand     S? land of Balar; see Sil
Belfalas     pre-Num + S; great coasts? see Sil
         Bay of     see Sil
Beorn     M; Wild bear; it could relate to BOR- endure, Nol boron trusty man [Etym]; AS beorn hero,
      warrior; more at Old Norsr ber-serkr 'bear-sark', berserker, a wild warrior, björn bear; chief of the
Beornings, the     see previous; -ings is an OE collective suffix meaning 'folk'
Beregond     S; Champion of Gondor; BER- valiant, Nol beren bold [Etym]; -gond refers to Gondor,
      which derives from gond stone and dôr land [Sil]; man of Gondor
Beren     S; beren see previous; Valiant; Adan of the First Age; see Sil
Bergil     S; Brave star; ber- see previous; gil star [Sil]; young Adan of Gondor
Berúthiel, Queen     S; BARATH- lofty, queen, Nol bereth; -iel is a feminine ending from YEL-
      daughter, Nol iell, -iel [Etym]; the Appendix to Sil offers a base rûth anger, but in this name it is
      more likely the -u- is an interpolation from UGU-and UMU- negative stems, Q úmea evil, Nol um bad,
      evil [Etym] - added by those who knew her too well; an obscure unpopular Queen of Gondor with
      magical cats
Better Smials     anglicized form of H; OE smygel burrow [a H 'jest', as a smile is a 'pleasant opening'];
      the H & CS was trân, Roh trahan; see Battle Gardens; see Smaug; see Hob
Bifur     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Bívorr, Bifur; perhaps from býfur clumsyfeet; a
      Dwarf; see Gallery
Big Folk, People     See also Men; anglicized form of CS
Bill     anglicized form of H name (Bil) from Bildad (Bildat), Bilcuzal, etc.
Black Breath     anglicized form of CS; see Nazgûl
         Hand     anglicized form of CS; see Sil [Morgoth]
         Shadow     anglicized form of CS; Lord of the Nazgûl
         Years     anglicized form of CS; see Accursed Years
Black Captain      See Nazgûl
Black Country     anglicized form of CS; see Mordor
Black Gate (of Mordor)     anglicized form CS; see Morannon
Black Land     anglicized form of CS; see Mordor
Black One     anglicized form of CS; see Sauron
Black Pit     anglicized form of CS; see Moria
Black Rider(s)     anglicized form of CS; see Nazgûl
Blackroot Vale     anglicized form of CS; see Morthond
Black Stone     anglicized form of M; see Erech, stone of
Blessed Realm     anglicized form; see Sil [Aman]
Bob     anglicized form of H or M name
Boffin     anglicised form of CS? H bophan; in contemporary British a 'boffin' is an intellectual worker,
      but in H it related more to contemporary British 'boff' - a hearty laugh; in CS said not to have
      anything to do with laughter... perhaps just '[hearty?] fellow'
         Folco     anglicized form of H name; AS folgoð following, service?
Bofur     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Bávörr, Bofur; perhaps from bófi knave, rogue
      [a nickname]; a dwarf; see Gallery
Bolger     anglicized form of H Bolgra; CS bolg- bulge [Irish bolg belly, bag, Gaulish bolg- bag]
         Fredegar (Fatty)     anglicized form of H name; probably from Franconian Friedgar 'Spear of Peace'
Bombadil, Tom     name by Hobbits of Buckland for Iarwain Ben-adar, M 'very old', ageless; ?AS bonda
      freeman, householder, Old Norse bondi? ?AS bidan continue, endure?
Bombur     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Bömburr, Bombur; perhaps connected with
      bumbabumbur drum; a dwarf; see Gallery
Bonfire Glade     anglicized form of H; a clearing in the Old Forest where trees had been burnt
Book of the Kings     anglicized form of CS; a chronicle of Gondor
Books of Lore     anglicized form of CS; a library at Rivendell
Book of Mazarbul     anglicized form of D; found in Moria by the Fellowship of the Ring
Borgil     S; a Red star; the name would seem to derive from BOR- endure, ever, but it is said to contain
      the S form born hot, red; the element born is identified by Tolkien in his Letters, but a possible
      source has not been proposed; gil star [Sil]
Boromir     S; Faithful (jeweled) horn; name of three men; see Sil
Bounders     anglicized form of CS; Shire 'boundary' guard
Bracegirdle     anglicized form of H name; belt-stretchers; Middle English brace fit tightly ['embrace']
         Hugo     anglicized form of H name
Brand     M; OE, AS brand sword; Old Norse brandr firebrand, sword-blade; king of Dale
Brandybuck     also Oldbuck; anglicized form of H Brandugamba and Zaragamba; brand(u) is a H word
      for foam, and there is a bit of a Hobbit jest involved, as the brown 'foam' is presumed to be from beer
      [or, as anglicized, brandy]; 'buck' = male deer; see BARÁN- brown [Etym]; see Oldbuck; see Hob
         Esmeralda     anglicized form of H name; Middle French esmeralde emerald
         Gorbadoc     anglicized form of H name; actually, -doc is a Celtic ending
         Melilot     anglicized form of H name; Latin melilotos clover
         Meriadoc (Merry)     anglicized form of H Kalimac, from CS kali 'gay' or 'merry'; actually, -doc is a
              Celtic ending; see Hob
         Primula     anglicized form of H name; Latin botanical name for primrose
         Rory     anglicized form of H name
         Saradoc     anglicized form of H name; AS searu, sierwan to plan, equip? actually, -doc is a Celtic
Brandy Hall     anglicized form of H name; chief dwelling of the Brandybucks, so named because it was
      scituate on the banks of the Brandywine River, which name was itself an adaptation of the Elvish
      name for the river: Baranduin
Brandywine Bridge     anglicized form of H name; also 'Stonebows' [Middle English bowe, OE boga
Brandywine River     anglicized form of H name Branduhim ... brand(u) foam, him(a) beer; see
      Baranduin; see Hob
Bree     archaic form of CS for hill; Old Irish brigh hill; Welsh bryn,*brÿ, a form of bre hill; Brit.
      *briga; the Celtic is said to have been *bre3
Bree hill     anglicized form of CS; see previous
Bree-land     anglicized form of CS
Bregalad     (CS Quickbeam); S; while the word GALAD- tree [Etym] is obviously contained in the
      name, the true name is derived from BERÉK- wild, Nol bregol sudden, and [KAL- >] GAL- shine,
      Nol calad light [Etym; the S of galad is galadh], S galad; 'sudden-light'; an Ent
Brego     Roh; possibly related to BERÉK- Nol bregol violent, fierce [Etym]; Celt brigo strength; AS
      brego ruler, king; a king of Rohan
Bridge Inn     anglicized form of H name; an inn hard by Brandywine Bridge
Bridge, the (of Khazad-dûm)     anglicized form of CS; also Durin's Bridge in Moria , where Gandalf
      engaged the Balrog in combat and broke the stone arch of the span
Bridge of Stonebows     see Brandywine Bridge
Bridgefields     anglicized form of H name; area of the Shire
Brockhouse     anglicized form of H name; AS brocc badger [a 'burrower']
Brockenbores     anglicized form of H name; brock see previous; also Brockenborings
Brown Lands     anglicized form of CS; devastated area east of Mirkwood
Bruinen River     CS? loud water; the first element could be a variant of ROM- loud noise ... Nol rhû
      [Etym]; nen water [Sil]; the River of Rivendell; this is likely one of a few rare examples of
      combinations of [anglicized] CS and Elvish [somewhat akin to Sil entry Belfalas]; Middle English
      from Old French bruit noise + nen [see previous] = 'loudwater'; also Ford of Bruinen
Buck Hill     anglicized form of H name; hill of Bucklebury
Buckland     anglicized form of H name; area of the shire
Bucklebury     anglicized form of H name; chief settlement of Bucklebury
Budgeford     anglicized form of H name; village in the Shire; 'bulge' - see Bolger
Bundushathûr     D; anglicized CS - Cloudyhead; S Fanuidhol q.v.; one of the three peaks over Moria
burárum    Entish word for 'Orcs', or perhaps just 'scoundrels', as Saruman is included in the term; Ents
      took their speech used with other races from Q, but no common roots present themselves in this word;
      notable possibilities might be UR- Q úr fire, and 3ARAM- wolf; Entish was said to use extremely long
      laborious words
Burg     see Hornburg
Burrows     anglicized form of H name; a typical H 'jest', as their homes were burrows
         Milo     anglicized form of H name
Butterbur     anglicized form of CS name; man of Bree; 'butterbur' is an English colloquial name for the
      Petasites vulgaris plant, whose broad leaves were used to wrap pats of butter; the real name in CS
      was Zilbirapha - zilib 'butter' and raph(a) a 'burr'
         Barliman     anglicized form of CS name; more at 'brew' or 'brewer'; an innkeeper at Bree
Bywater     anglicized form of H name; village of the Shire; a stream called simply 'The Water' widens at
      this point to form a pool

Cair Andros     S; Ship of long-foam; KIR- ship (as cutting the water), Nol ceir [Etym]; S cair; an(d )
      long [Sil]; ros foam, spray [Sil]; an island in the Anduin with a promontory shaped like the prow of
      a ship
Calacirian, the (Calacirya)     Q; Light gap; kal- (gal-) shine, light [Sil]; kir- Q kirya cut, cleft [Sil; the
      -ya ending is a common adjectival suffix in Q, but is also used as a verbal form; kir- being a verb, -ya
      may actually here form a 'gerund', making a noun from a verb: (technically) a cleft-ing; it seems
      noteworthy that in many formations the -ya affix can be associated with void, abyss (Sil; see
      Moria, and the Rings of Power: Narya, Nenya and Vilya)]; the -ian ending is a place-name suffix
      perhaps associated with YAN- Q yána holy place, sanctuary [Etym]; the name is said to be modeled
      on the ancient Valarin tongue; a cleft in the mountains of Aman through which the light of the Two
      Trees shone over Eldamar
Calembel     S; Emerald Mall; calen (galen) green [Sil]; the last element derives from MBAL- street,
      shaped stone, pavement; a town near the Ciril River in Lamedon, Gondor
Calenardhon (Rohan)     S; [great] Green Province; calen- see previous; 3AR- hold, Nol ardh realm
      [Etym]; S follows the Nol ardh and appends -on, which is apparently an augmentative form: 'great'
      [see AD- ... annon Etym]; an area of Gondor that became Rohan
Calenhad     S; Green knap; calen- see previous; -had is said to derive from S 'sad' [s > h in the middle of
      a word; see Sil Appendix, entry sîr], which means a 'spot' or 'defined area'; the source of the word is
      a primitive root SAT 'space', a 'limited area', and the series includes such terms as sâdh sward, said
      private, and sant field; perhaps KHAG- mound, Nol hauð [Etym] is implied; one of the beacon hills
      of Gondor
Captains of the West     anglicized form of CS; chiefs of the Army of the West - the War of the Ring
Carach Angren     S; Jaws of Iron; carak- jaw, fang [Sil]; anga iron, angren 'of iron' [Sil]; a pass in
      Mordor; see Isenmouthe
Caradhras     S; Red horn; caran red [Sil]; RAS- Q rasse horn [Etym]; the variant -dhr is a S combining
      form for -nr-; a peak towering over Moria, home of a Balrog and the only known source of Mithril
Caras Galadon (Galadhon)     Telerin; (great) City of trees; KAR- make, Nol caras a city [Etym];
      GALAD- tree [Etym], S galadh [the variant spelling - Galad-on - may be due to the Elves of Lórien
      being of Silvan origin]; the -on form is likely augmentative ['great'; see Calenardhon above]; city of
         City of the Trees     anglicized form of above
Carchost     S; Fortress of the teeth; carak- fang, teeth, S carch [Sil]; os(t) fortress [Sil]; one of the
      Towers of the Teeth, along with Narchost, that became a stronghold of Mordor; see Morannon
Carn Dûm     S; Red pit; caran red [Sil], from KARÁN- red, Q karne, Nol caran; in Etym dûm occurs
      under DOMO- [< DO3-] as an 'Ilkorin' term meaning 'twilight'; the Ilkorin designation, intended to
      be an archaic form of S, was rejected and its forms folded into Doriathrin or abandoned; in Tolkien's
      earlier writings he identified Dûm as meaning 'valley' [The Return of the Shadow, The Ring Goes
      South, note #13: carndoom = Red Valley; also Narodûm with the same meaning (NAR¹-, Etym)]; it
      was subsequently changed to Dimrill Dale; in the older lexicons is the base TUMU with a sense of
      'hollow' or 'deep, hidden'; in Etym is the stem TUB- deep valley, Nol tum; in neither source can the
      form dûm be confirmed; however, it would seem Tolkien's intention was 'deep'; it has been pointed
      out that the term could be M: Gaelic càrn heap of stones [English: cairn]; dûm is more problematical,
      however; some associate it with Gaelic dùn 'heap, fortress' [OE tún = modern 'town'], but this does
      not produce a cognate dum, which leads rather to Celtic dom- 'deep'; certainly a problematical term;
      major city of the Witch Kingdom of Angmar in the far north
Carnimírië     Q; also Carnemíre; Red jewel (Adornment); carn- see previous, Q carnë; mîr jewel, Q
      mírë [Sil]; in his Letters Tolkien adds the gloss Adornment of Red Jewels, which means the ending
      [ri-ë], while genitive, incorporates a Common Eldarin stem RIG 'wreathe, twine', Q ría [RIG- crown,
      Etym]; a rowan tree of Fangorn Forest; the rowan tree [genus Sorbus] produces red berries
Causeway, the     anglicized form of H name; a road in the Shire, also a road in Gondor
Celebdil     S; silver tusk; CS - Silvertine (Silver Tooth: Mid English tine, OE, AS tind point, tooth);
      celeb silver [Sil]; til point, horn [Sil; -dil is a S variant]; one of the three peaks towering over Moria;
      D: Zirak-zigil; for more see Silvertine
Celeborn (Lord of the Galadrim, of Lórien)     S; Silver-Tree or White-Tree; celeb silver [Sil]; Orn tree
      [Sil]; an Elven lord
Celebrant, Field of     S and anglicized CS; silver lode; celeb- see previous; rant 'course' in river-names
      [Sil], from RAT-, Nol rant lode, vein [Etym]; river that flowed through Lórien; a meadow beside the
      Silverlode where a battle took place in the Third Age between Gondor and the Balchoth
Celebrant River (Silverlode)     see previous and Sil
Celebrían     S; Silver-crowned Treasure; celeb- see previous; the ending is a common female name
      suffix -ien, derived from YO, YON- son, yen daughter [-ion = masc. name suffix, -ien = fem. name
      suffix] [Etym]; the variation here incorporates RIG- Q rie crown, Nol rhî [Etym] + ANA¹ to, Nol ant
      gift [Etym], S -an = 'crown-gift' [rig- anna]; an Elven lady
Celebrimbor     S; Silver Fist; Elven lord; see Sil
Celos     S; also Kelos; freshet; kel- flow away [Sil; *kelu-]; one would want to choose los snow [Sil] for
      the final element, but the text of Unfinished Tales, Index, entry Celos states the final form derives
      from Q -sse, -ssa, a form of emphasis [some say locative], making the definition 'much flowing' or
      'freshet', often resulting from melting snow; perhaps 'snow' is then implied from the ending; a river
      in Gondor
Ceorl     Roh; rustic; contians the OE derivative éo- horse [AS eoh, poetic for 'war-horse']; the Elven
      root for horse is ROK- Q rokko horse, Nol roch, which explains the name 'Rohan'; AS ceorl churl;
      man of Rohan
Cerin Amroth     S [& Silvan?]; Garth of Amroth; KOR- round, Nol cerin [Etym; KOR- round + RIN-
      circle = round enclosure]; coron mound [Sil]; Amroth was an Elven king who built a house on Cerin
      Amroth; his name is apparently an archaic form of Elvish speech - Silvan: AM²- Q and Nol 'up'
      [Etym] + RAT- walk, Nol rath [Etym], Silvan roth 'climb' [presumed]; the name is attributed to the
      custom of his people to 'climb up' to platforms [flets] in tall trees where they lived in relative safety;
      a large mound in Lothlórien [the house had long since disappeared late in the Third Age]
Chamber of Mazarbul (Records)     comb. anglicized CS and D; records; library of records in Moria
Chambers of Fire       anglicized form of CS; the Crack of Doom in the core of Orodruin; see Sammath
      Naur; see Gallery
Chetwood, the     anglicized form of CS; chet is an archaic M word for 'forest', taken from the Celtic
      (Brythonic) cet [or ced], Welsh coed, Brit. *kaito [also see Hob]; a wood in Bree-land
Chief, the     See Sackville-Baggins, Lotho
Chubb     anglicized form of H name; a Hobbit family name; Chubby, similar to Bolger
Círdan     S; Ship builder; see Sil
Ciril     S; also Kiril; Bright water course; kir- cut, cleft [Sil]; ril brilliance, shimmer [Sil]; there could be
      a M cognate found in Welsh cwr [kør] corner, cyrion corners, Gaelic curran, curral crooks, as the
      Ciril forms a large crosier in its headwaters at the feet of the Ered Nimrais; a river in Gondor
Cirion     S; Ship [-master's] son; kir- cut, cleave - and by extension, a ship's prow [Sil], from KIR-
      Q kirya ship [Etym]; YO, YON- son, Q -ion, masc. ending [Etym]; the name of Isildur's [a great
      mariner of Númenor] son was Círyon, after whom this Dúnadan is likely named; a Steward of
Cirith Gorgor     S; Haunted pass; cir- see previous, related to KIRIS- cut, cleft, Nol criss [Etym]; cirith
      is the S form; gor horror, gorgor doubly horrifying [Sil]; one pass into Mordor at the juncture of the
      Ered Lithui and the Ephel Dúath, the place of the great gate Morannon
          The Haunted Pass     anglicized form of CS
Cirith Ungol     S; Pass of deep shadow; cirith see previous; UÑG- gloom, Q ungo dark shadow, Ilk
      ungol darkness [Etym]; however, the term ungol came to be used to denote the great spiders that
      spread across Middle Earth after Ungoliant somehow slipped in from the void when the Ainulindalë
      [song of making] began to take material form as the world [see Sil entry Ungoliant]; Ungoliant and
      her spawn weaved thick webs that caused darkness and gloom within; she escaped Aman for
      Middle Earth with Melkor just before the age of the Sun and Moon; her fate is unknown, although it
      is believed that she escaped to the far south and eventually devoured herself in her greed; Cirith
      Ungol was a high pass in the Ephel Dúath east of Gondor where the spider Shelob nested
         Tower of     anglicized form of CS; watch tower guarding the access to Mordor
Citadel, the     anglicized form of CS; the high precincts of Minas Tirith where the White Tower and the
      Fountain were located; see Gallery
Citadel of the Stars     anglicized form of CS; see Osgiliath; see Gallery
City, the     anglicized form of CS; see Minas Tirith
City of the Trees     anglicized form of CS; see Caras Galadon
Cleft, the     anglicized form of CS; a section of the track through Cirith Ungol
Closed Door, the     anglicized form of CS; see Fen Hollen; see Gallery
Cloudyhead     anglicized form of CS; S Fanuidhol; see Bundushathûr
Combe     anglicized form of CS; AS cumb valley, a hollow in a hillside; perhaps more at Gaelic cum keep,
      hold; village in Bree-land
Common Speech, the     anglicized form of CS term Soval Pharë; given the variety of tongues among
      both Elves and Men, not to mention the speech of Orcs and Dwarves and other speaking creatures,
      a Common Speech sprung up with some regional differences, based on the ancient pre-Númenórean
      Mannish tongue; one suspects that all the languages of Middle Earth had some common roots from
      the Elder Days, but they are not easily unraveled; Tolkien offers some guidance to terms in the CS,
      but mostly renders them as simple English, such as Rivendell for Karningul; Hobbit speech is an
      older form of CS, and is rendered in Middle and Old English; the language of Rohan was an archaic
      form of CS, thus Tolkien rendered it in ancient English; Merry and Pippin were surprised to discover
      that they understood much of the speech of Rohan; see Hobbitry; see Westron
Companions (of the Ring)     see next; see the One Ring
Company of the Ring     see previous; see the One Ring
Coomb     see Deeping Coomb
Cormallen, Field of     combined anglicized CS and  S; KOR- round, Q kor-, Nol cor-; [Etym]; mal- gold
      [Sil, which translates Cormallen as golden circle; the suffix is defined under SMAL- yellow, Nol
      genitive form mallen of gold (Etym); the 'golden' description is derived from the culumalda trees that
      encircled the field [cul(u) golden red, orange (Sil) + mal gold (Sil) + alda tree (Sil)]; site of the
      celebration of the overthrow of Sauron
Corsairs     anglicized form of CS; sea-faring enemy of the south of Gondor
Cotton     anglicized form of H name Lothran from CS hlotho 'a two-roomed dwelling', and ran 'a village';
      akin to Middle English origin of cottage - cot (-tage) and town - ton = cotton
         Farmer Tom     anglicized form of H name - Tomacca, Tomburan
         Jolly     anglicized form of H name
         Mrs.     anglicized form of H term
         Nibs     anglicized form of H name
         Nick     anglicized form of H name
         Rosie     anglicized form of H name [Hobbit females were usually named after flowers]
         Young Tom     anglicized form of H name - Tomacca, Tomburan
Council of Denethor     anglicized form of CS; council at Minas Tirith leading to the War of the Ring
Council of Elrond     anglicized form of CS; council held at Rivendell concerning what was to be done
      with the One Ring; see the One Ring
Council of the Wise     anglicized form of CS; various councils held to counter Sauron's strategies
Court of the Fountain     anglicized form of CS; see Citadel, the
Crack of Doom     anglicized form of CS; see Sammath Naur
cram     S; biscuit; KRAB- press, Nol cram - cake of compressed flour or meal [Etym]; there may be a M
      cognate in Gaelic cnàmh > creim chew, Swedish krama press; way-bread made for traveling by the
      men of Esgaroth
crebain     S; plur. of craban; corvine, from Latin corvus raven; KARKA- KORKA- crow Q korko, Nol
      -corch [Etym]; neither of these forms seem definitive of craban; this term may well have been
      adapted to S from Dunlendish; the Old German for 'raven' is hraban, the AS is crawa with the verb
      'to crow' crawan; Dunlendish is presumed to be equivalent to early English sources; Tolkien offers
      a Q form quáko for crow [probably onomatopoeic]; the Adûnaic word for 'crow' is khaau -
      obviously onomatopoeic; the most likely source of craban is the M tongues of the region of
      Fangorn Forest; crow-like birds of Fangorn Forest
Crickhollow     anglicized form of H name; Middle English crick creek; a place in the Shire
Crossroads, the     anglicized form of CS; an intersection in Gondor
Curtain, the     see Henneth Annûn

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