*** L o r d   o f   t h e   R i n g s ***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* D - F *

AS       Anglo-Saxon
B          Black Speech
CS        Common Speech
D          Dwarvish
Etym    Etymologies
H          or 'Hob' - Hobbit Dictionary [mixed with CS]
M        Mannish
Nol      Noldorin [ancient Elven]
Num    Númenórean
OE       Old English
Q         Quenyan [High Elven]
Roh     Rohirric
S          Sindarin [Common Elven]
Sil        Silmarillion Appendix - Dictionary
comb.    combining form
plur.       plural
fem        feminine
masc     masculine

Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [Sil]
Words of the language of the Rohirrim are traced to possible roots in the ancient Elven tongue,
      although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are derived from ancient
      English, especially Anglo Saxon


Daeron's Runes      anglicized form of CS; more of an alphabetic system devised by a Sindarin Elf at
      Doriath in the First Age; see Sil Daeron; see Sil Cirth
Dagorlad     S; battle field; dagor battle [Sil]; lad plain [Sil]; normally applied to the site of the battle
      between Sauron and the Last Alliance late in the Second Age
Dáin     D; a name sometimes included in the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Dáinn; perhaps from
      dáendi or dáindi, excellence, or  deyja, dáinn to die [probably in the sense of being a valiant
      warrior]; name of two Dwarves; see Gallery
Dale     anglicized form of CS; OE dæl valley, from Old Norse dalr, plur daler dale; city-state in the
      shadow of Mt. Erebor
Damrod     S? forged arms? NDAM- hammer, beat, Nol dam a hammer [Etym]; RAUTA- metal, -rod in
      names - first applied as 'copper', later 'metal' [Etym]; perhaps an armourer, although since he was a
      Ranger the name may just mean 'Mighty Hammer', indicating his favorite weapon; a M cognate might
      be Gaelic damh 'stag' and rud, roud > rúad 'red' - Red Stag; Dúnadan of Gondor
Dark Days     anglicized form of CS; probably the Second Age, when Sauron rose to replace his
      mentor Morgoth [Melkor]
Dark Door, the     anglicized form of CS; also the Gate of the Dead, at the base of the Dwimorberg
Dark Lord, the     anglicized form of CS; See Sauron
Dark Power, the     anglicized form of CS; See Sauron
Dark Tower (of Mordor)     anglicized form of CS; see Barad-dûr
Dark Years     anglicized form of CS; see Accursed Years
Dead, the     anglicized form of CS; the Men of the Mountains, without rest for many centuries, having
      broken their pledge to Isildur to fight Sauron in the Second Age; they were under a curse until they
      fulfilled their pledge; the Paths of the Dead at Dunharrow
         Grey Host     the Dead Men of Dunharrow
         Shadow Host     the Dead Men of Dunharrow
Dead City     anglicized form of CS; see Minas Morgul
Deadmen's Dike     anglicized form of H; see Fornost [- Erain]
Dead Marshes     anglicized form of CS; these marshes expanded in the Third Age to cover the graves
      of the slain at the Battle of Dagorlad
Déagol     anglicized equivalent of H Nahald 'apt to hide, secretive'; AS diegol hidden place, grave
Death Down     anglicized form of CS; a mound piled over a large number of Orcs killed at the Battle of
      the Hornburg
Deeping Coomb     anglicized form of Roh; AS deop deepness, abyss; coomb derives from Lower Latin
      cumba - tomb of stone, hollow; AS cumb valley; narrow valley of Rohan facing Helm's Deep
Deeping Stream     anglicized form of Roh; see previous; a stream that flowed from Helm's Deep in
Deeping Wall     anglicized form of Roh; see previous; a fortification across Helm's Deep
Denethor     S; name of an Elf and a Dúnadan of Gondor; it is possible the later use of the name has a
      different derivation; the Elvish Denethor is said to mean strong and slender [see Sil]; possibly the
      name of this faithful Steward for the Kings of Gondor implies adan [Sil], a source of Dúnedain;
      -(th)or could be related to a masc suffix that derives from TA-, TA3- noble ... found in names, as
      Tor-, -dor [Etym]; -e- could indicate a possessive; Adan of Nobility might be implied
Déor     Roh; Bold; possibly related to NDER- Nol doer man [Etym]; AS deor brave, ferocious; a king
      of Rohan
Déorwine     Roh; Brave Friend; deor see previous; OE wine friend; warrior of Rohan
Derndingle     anglicized form of CS; Covert; AS dierne hidden, secret, OE dyrnan to hide; dingle [of
      uncertain derivation, perhaps OE ding prison, Irish ding wedge] a small dell or secluded valley; a
      hollow in Fangorn Forest, site of the Entmoots
Dernhelm     anglicized form of Roh; dern- see previous; See Éowyn
Derufin     S? the name could relate to DER- (adult) male [Etym]; the last elements may relate to RO-
      rise, Nol rhufen east [Etym] - Man of the East, or perhaps from ROY²- red, ruddy [Etym], and
      SPIN- braid of hair, Nol fin [Etym] - 'red hair', although the medial -u- is not normal in S construction;
      the name is most likely M from Welsh derw oak trees, and ffon, plur ffÿn sticks - i.e.: 'sticks of oaks' or
      'arrows'; Archer of Gondor
Dervorin     S? the name could derive from DER- [see previous], and MOR- black [Etym] - Swarthy Man
      [-in is an adjectival ending in S; m > v by 'lenition']; man of Gondor
Dimholt, the     anglicized form of Roh; Dusky Bower; AS dimm dark, obscure; AS holt 'small wood' or
      'wooded hill'; grove of black trees in Rohan
Dimrill Dale     anglicized form of CS; Gloam-gill Hollow; dim- see previous; rill from OE rigol small
      brook; hollow outside the gates of Moria, the source of the Silverlode; see Azanulbizar; see
Dimrill Gate     anglicized form of CS; dimrill see previous; the Great Gates of Moria
Dimrill Stair     anglicized form of CS; dimrill see previous; track leading from Dimrill Dale to the
      Redhorn Pass
Dior     S; name of an Elf and a Dúnadan of Gondor; see Sil
Dol Amroth     S; Hill of Amroth; NDOL- knoll, Nol dôl [Etym]; dol head [Sil]; a hill with great hall in
      Gondor on the Bay of Belfalas; see Amroth; see Cerin Amroth
Dol Baran     S; Gold-brown Hill; dol- see previous; BARÁN- (golden) brown [Etym]; foothill south of
      the Misty Mountains
Dol Guldur     S; Hill of dark magic; dol- see previous; NGOL- wisdom, Nol gûl magic [Etym]; gûl
      sorcery [Sil]; dûr dark [Sil]; Sauron's fortress in southern Mirkwood
Dome of Stars     anglicized form of CS; tower in Osgiliath - early capital of Gondor - site of a Palantír
      Stone; see Sil Osgiliath; see Gallery
Dori     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: perhaps from darr spear, dart - 'spear-man'? or
      dári buffoon; a dwarf; see Gallery
Doriath     S; Land of the girdle [fence]; see Sil
Dorthonion     S; Land of pines; the archaic name was Orod-na-Thôn; orod mountain [Sil]; see Sil
Downs, the     anglicized form of H; see Barrow-downs
Downlands     anglicized form of H; see Barrow-downs
Dragon, the     anglicized form of CS trahan; the S roots are LOK- great serpent, dragon, Q lóke, Nol
      lhûg [Etym] ... Q angulóke dragon, with ANGWA snake [Etym]; the dragon of Erebor was called
      Trâgu by the people of Dale; see Smaug
Druadan Forest      S and anglicized form of CS; wild men ...; the first element is apparently neither S or
      CS, but derived from the wild people's own name for themselves: Drughu, adapted into S as Drû;
      the term could relate to the Welsh drwg [druug] - 'bad' [in the sense of 'wild' or 'uncivilised' here];
      when the Elves discovered that these 'wild men' of the forest could be recruited as allies against
      Morgoth [Melkor] in the First Age, they appended the ending: adan [see Sil Atani]; home of the
      Woses, a wild forest people allied with the Rohirrim in the War of the Ring
Duilin     S? Spring-song or Swallow; the name takes a different course from the normal DUI- water,
      river [Etym]; many of the Dúnedain of Gondor took Elvish names from the Elder Days; Duilin of
      Gondolin [First Age] was the leader of a group called 'the People of the Swallow', a 'Spring song-
      bird'; they used the swallow as a sign; TUY- Nol tui Spring, tuilin swallow [Etym; S dui-]; lin
      sing [Sil]; the name could be M, as could be also his brother's name Derufin, both archers; perhaps
      Welsh deilen, Celt [and Middle Irish] duille 'leaf' + -in (adjectival suffix) = Leafy [as camouflage for
      an archer]; nobleman of Gondor, son of the Lord of Morthond
Duinhir     S; River Lord; dui(-n)- river [Sil]; KHER- rule ... Nol hîr [Etym]; man of Gondor, lord of
Dúnadan     S; plural form: Dúnedain; see Sil; see also Aragorn, Halbarad
Dúnedain     S; see previous; see also Rangers
Dunharrow     anglicized form of Roh (OE) Dúnhaerg, hill sanctuary; the first element traces from Celt to
      OE dun, doun, a fortified hill - the same as English down [more at 'dune']; -harrow [OE hærg, AS
      hearg temple, sanctuary] would seem to indicate the Old French harau - call for help [as a refuge],
      more than OE harowe, a comb-like device used in agriculture to break up soil for planting; the term,
      however, might indicate the tines of the harrow turned upwards as a fortification; in some of
      Tolkien's drawings there is a line of pointed rocks on the approach that simulate a harrow; Tolkien
      makes the point that the sanctuary is 'heathen', built before the coming of the Rohirrim; fortress and
      refuge in Rohan
         Hold of     the refuge itself; AS heald, hold keeping, protection
Duinhir     S? River Lord? dui(-n)- river [Sil]; KHER- rule, Nol hîr [Etym]; The name could be M: Gaelic
      duine man + -(h)ir ?as an intensive suffix - ?Great Man; man of Gondor, lord of Morthond
Dúnadan     S; Man of the West [Númenor]; plural form: Dúnedain; see Sil; see also Aragorn, Halbarad
Dúnedain     S; West-men; see previous; see also Rangers
Dunharrow     anglicized form of Roh (OE) Dúnhaerg, 'hill sanctuary'; the first element traces from Celt
      to OE dun, doun, a fortified hill - the same as English down [more at 'dune']; -harrow [OE hærg, AS
      hearg temple, sanctuary] would seem to indicate the Old French harau - call for help [as a refuge],
      more than OE harowe, a comb-like device used in agriculture to break up soil for planting; the term,
      however, might intimate the tines of the harrow turned upwards as a fortification; in some of
      Tolkien's drawings there is a line of pointed rocks on the approach that simulate a harrow; Tolkien
      makes the point that the sanctuary is 'heathen', built before the coming of the Rohirrim; fortress and
      refuge in Rohan
         Hold of     the refuge itself; AS heald, hold keeping, protection
Dúnhere     Roh; possibly related to NDU- Nol dûn west [Etym]; heru lord [Sil]; most likely AS dun hill
      (fort), Celtic dunon, Old Irish dùn fortress, from Germanic dunaz [tunaz] fortified place [see
      Dunharrow]; AS here army, or perhaps hearg, here sanctuary; 'hill soldier'; or perhaps AS hearra <
      hea 'high, lofty' = 'Marshal of the Fortress [on the hill]'; man of Rohan, lord of Harrowdale
Dunland     anglicized form of Roh or CS; AS dunn - of dark color [the people as well as in the sense of
      being a rather 'unknown' land, similar to 'Darkest Africa' in the 19th Century]; an uncivilized sparsely
      populated area west of the Misty Mountains, home of the Dunlendings [next]
Dunlendings, the     anglicized form of Roh or CS; while this ancient people used their own tongue, the
      name could be related to DUN- dark [Etym], or AS dunn - of a dark color, as they were a swarthy folk;
      lendings for landers or people; also known in S as Gwathuirim: gwath, wath shadow [Sil; -ui is a S
      adjectival ending: 'shadow people' or 'people of shadow'], and RIM- numerous, as plur. -rim people
      [Etym]; Swarthy rustics; see Gallery
Durin     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Durinn; perhaps from dýrr, dýrri dear, precious;
      some say from Durinn sleepy; name of at least half a dozen Dwarves; see Gallery
Durin's Axe     D and anglicized CS; weapon of one of the patriarchs of the Dwarves from the Early
      Years, lost, found in Moria, lost again
Durin's Bane     D and anglicized CS; see Balrog; see Sil
Durin's Bridge     D and anglicized CS; see the Bridge of Khazad-dûm
Durin's Day     D and anglicized CS; the days of the first Durin, one of the patriarchs of the Dwarves
      and thus the first day of the Dwarvish year
Durin's Stone     D and anglicized CS; a memorial pillar to the first Durin; see Azanulbizar
Durin's Tower     D and anglicized CS; one of the three peaks over Moria, at the top of the Endless Stair;
      see Celebdil, Silvertine
Durthang     S; dark duress; dûr dark [Sil]; thang oppression [Sil], from STAG- press, Nol thang duress,
      need [Etym]; a fortress of Gondor, lost to the Orcs in the Third Age; no earlier name supplied
Dwalin     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Dvalinn; perhaps from dvelja, dvalinn tarry
      [perhaps Cautious]; a Dwarf; see Gallery
Dwarrowdelf, the     anglicized form of CS Phurunargian; Dwarf dig; AS dweorh - dwarf; AS delf - a
      mine [English delve]; see Moria
Dwarves     one of the speaking races of Middle Earth
Dwimmerlaik     Roh; given as meaning Spectre, an illusion; AS dwimor phantom; the last  element is
      stated to derive from Old Norse -leikr, OE -lac -like, somewhat as 'play-form'; a derogatory term by
      Éowyn referring  to the Lord of the Nazgûl
Dwimorberg (Haunted Mountain)     Roh; Tor of Terror; dwimor- see previous; AS beorg - hill;
      mountain behind Dunharrow in Rohan
Dwimordene     Roh; Haunted valley; dwimor- see previous; AS denu valley [English: den]; Roh name
      for Lórien

Eagles, the     anglicized form of CS; THOR-, THORON- Q soron plur. sorni eagle [Etym]; served
      often as the 'eyes' of the Valar in the distant West
Eärendil     S; Sea friend; ëar sea [Sil]; -(n)dil devoted to [Sil]; see Sil
Eärnur, King     S; Sea friend; see Sil
East Dales     anglicized form of Roh; a district of Rohan
Eastemnet     anglicized form of Roh; AS emnet plain; a district of Rohan
Easterlings     anglicized form of CS; one group known as Balchoth: the term could relate to BEL-
      mighty [Etym] and KOT- Nol coth enemy [Etym]; however, Unfinished Tales, Part Three, Chapter II,
      note #24, states that balc is a CS term for 'horrible'; hoth host [Sil] - a mixture of CS and S
Eastfarthing     anglicized form of H; a quadrant ['fourthing'] of the Shire
Eastfold     anglicized form of Roh; AS folde [enclosed] region; similarly: OE folden, from Danish folde -
      enclosure; a pocket in the mountains of southeast Rohan
Eastlands     anglicized form of CS; lands of the Easterlings, beyond the vales of the Anduin
East Road (the Road)     anglicized form of CS; main road through the Shire and eastward toward the
      Misty Mountains
East Wall     anglicized form of Roh; a cliff marking the eastern boundary of Rohan
Ecthelion     S; Keen; name of one Elf and two Dúnedain; the name was originally assigned to STELEG-
      Nol thela point, ecthel [Etym], with EK-, EKTE- spear [Etym]; in a note, however, Tolkien assigns the
      last part of the name to STÁLAG- stalwart, steadfast, Nol thalion hero [Etym], and in yet another
      place - probably more accurately - to STEL resolved [a Q & S base not in Etym]; the element ek- in S
      still means 'sharp point' ['stick out' from an ancient root *HEK 'out, outside'], connected to AYAK-
      sharp, Nol oeg sharp, piercing [Etym; S aeg; see Egladil]; -ion is normally a masculine name suffix
      [YO, YON- son, Q & Nol -ion - Etym]; two Stewards of Gondor; for a somewhat different translation,
      see Sil
Edain, the     see Sil Atani
Edoras     Roh; the Courts? could relate to echor circle [Sil] and RIG- Q rie crown [Etym]; AS eodor
      enclosure, region, prince [note element éo(h) 'horse']; capital of Rohan; see Gallery
Egladil     Silvan? the Angle; EK-, EKTE- spear, Nol êg thorn [point] [Etym; in early S *hekla > egla =
      'left out' = Moriquendi (see Sil); the Silvan may revert to AYAK- see Ecthelion above]; perhaps lad
      plain, valley [Sil; 'flat'] is intended or just implied; if the name is in the Silvan dialect, -il could be a
      conjunctive suffix ['and'] taken from IL- all [Etym] - 'pointed and flat'; alternately, the ending could
      derive from TIL- point [often used to denote a sharp triangle; Etym]; 'Sharp flat point' or simply
      'Park at the Point'; Tolkien also used the name Nelen ['the Angle'] for this green sward, from NEL-
      three, nelen (presumed, nel- + adjectival -en: three-ish) triangle (Etym)]; the name is likely of the
      Silvan tongue; a lawn at the heart of Lórien between the Silverlode and the Anduin; see Naith
Eilenach     said to be 'pre-Númenórean' or M; ?Fire Tooth; [perhaps the most researched Tolkien term
      by this author]; little is known of this beacon except that it is closely related etymologically to
      Halifirien, which was once called Eilenear; Halifirien ['holy mountain'] was a religious site of old,
      and further sanctified by the secret entombing of Isildur; the name could relate loosely to the Elvish
      3EL- sky, Nol elle, eilian [Etym], and AK- narrow, confined [Etym] - narrow sky, as the hill rose
      steeply out of the midst of the Druadan Forest; relating eilen- to AS halig 'holy', it might point
      back to Old Norse heilag; it would seem, however, that the term relates more closely to modern
      'heal(-ing)', of similar derivation as 'holy'; the AS was hælan, Old Saxon helian, German heilen [see
      Old Norse heill, heilan healing]; perhaps distantly related is the Greek ailin dirge; also possible is
      AS æling burning, perhaps here relating to funeral pyres; Gaelic eilean means an 'island' [above the
      forest cover?], Early Irish ailén [Gaelic ail = rock, stone]; -nach could relate to Middle Dutch nocke
      summit, Middle English nocke, from a root *hnukk- 'sharp projection, tip', or may be an adjectival or
      agental suffix in Gaelic: ?'The Rock (place)'; one of the beacon hills of Gondor, although the summit
      was said to be too small for a large fire
elanor     S; sun star; elen star [Sil]; ANÁR- sun, Nol anor [Etym]; a golden star-shaped flower of
      Lothlórien; also name given to the daughter of Samwise Gamgee
Elbereth     S; Star queen; name of Varda, Queen of the Valar; see Sil; see Gallery
Eldamar     S; Elven home; see Sil
Eldar, the     Q; People of the stars, or Elves of Aman; êl, elen star, and by extension 'Elf' [Sil]; similarly,
      ELED- depart, Q Elda 'departed' Elf [Q plur. Eldar]; see also Sil
Elder Days     anglicized form of CS; the term generally referred to the people of the First Age, but can
      include the ages prior to the appearance of the Sun and Moon, and, by some, all the time prior to the
      Third Age; elder alludes to the elders of ones kindred
Elder Kindred     see Eldar
Elder King, the     anglicized form of CS; a popular name of Manwë, king of the Valar, husband of Varda
Elendil     S; Elf Friend; elen- see Eldar; -(n)dil devoted to, friend [Sil]; see also Sil
Elessar     Q; Elf stone; elen star, and by extension 'Elf' [Sil]; SAR- Q sar stone [Etym]; the -s- infix may
      hint at S- demonstrative stem 'it' [Etym], because it denotes 'that stone', referring - by some accounts
      - to the ancient Elf-stone with healing powers; name taken by Aragorn at his coronation; see
Elf-friend     see the Edain, Elendil
Elf-havens     anglicized form of CS; probably the Grey Havens
Elfhelm     anglicized form of Roh; a rider of Rohan
Elfstone     Elessar; see Aragorn
Elladan     S; Elf man; êl, elen see Elrond [the ll- is apparently a poetic form]; adan 'man' see Sil; son of
      Elrond Half-elven
Elrohir     S; Elf horse-master; el- see previous; roch horse [Sil]; KHER- rule, Nol hîr master [Etym];
      son of Elrond Half-elven
Elrond (Half-elven)     S; êl, elen star, by extension 'Elf' [Sil]; ROD- cave, Ilkorin rond = domed roof,
      hence Elrond ('vault of heaven') [Etym; the Common Eldarin base was *RONO arch over, *rondo
      vaulted dome (seen from beneath)]; as is often the case with Elven Princes, the name has nuances:
      el- here implies 3EL- sky, Q helle, Nol elle, sky, heaven [Etym]; see Sil; see Gallery
Elvenhome     anglicized form of CS; see Eldamar
Elven-Smiths of Eregion     anglicized form of S; known in S as Gwaith-i-Mírdain; gwaith people [Sil],
      from WED- bind, N gweð [Etym], S plur. gwaith; -i- indicates a possessive article; MIR- Nol mîr
      jewel, precious thing [Etym], perhaps also implied MA3- hand ... MAG- use, Nol maer skilled [Etym];
      TAN- make, fashion, Q tano smith [Etym; the S would be -dan and the plur -dain]; Elves deceived
      by Sauron in the forging of the Rings of Power - Second Age; see Rings of Power; see the
      One Ring
Elves     first of the Children of Ilúvatar [Erusen]; anglicized form of Quendi -  Those Who Speak [the
      term was coined before Men awakened]; first divided into the Eldar [q.v.; ELED- depart] who chose
      to leave Middle-Earth for the Undying Lands, and the Avari [AB-, ABAR- refuse] who refused the
      invitation and stayed in Middle Earth; The Eldar were later divided into the Teleri [most of whom
      became attached to the sea, and lived on an island apart from Valinor], the Vanyar [who were the
      first to depart Middle Earth at the invitation of the Valar and content to never leave the Undying
      Lands], and the Noldor [from NGOL- wise, Q noldo Wise Folk; they crafted many of the wonders
      of the ages, but became wise in their own conceits and were expelled from the Undying Lands]; the
      Avari sometimes included the Sindar - Grey Elves [from THIN- grey, Q sinde, (Etym), Q -r plur.
      suffix], although they are more often accounted among the Teleri, because they set out for the
      Undying Lands but were delayed and finally settled in the West of Middle Earth, and the Silvan
      Elves [Danas, Q Nanar - from NDAN- back, Q nan on the contrary], who never heeded the invitation
      of the Valar and remained East of the Ered Luin, but later some migrated westward into Beleriand;
      sometimes the division is stated simply Kalaquendi 'Elves of the light' and Moriquendi, the Elves
      that never saw the light of the Two Trees in the Undying Lands
Elwing     S; Star Spray; see Sil
Emyn Arnen     S? Hills of Arnen, or hills beside the water; amon hill, S plur. emyn [Sil]; ar- beside,
      outside, S a- [Sil]; in his notes, Tolkien states that the ar- form here is 'Quenya-influenced Sindarin',
      thus 'Hills Beside the Water'; nen water [Sil]; some subsequent discussion by Tolkien about
      Arnen speculates that - rather than 'Quenya-influenced Sindarin' - perhaps the name is another of
      those 'pre-Númenórean' names that are 'no longer interpretable'; in this sense, if the name was
      inspired by the Welsh - as many of these 'pre-Númenórean' names were - the meaning would be little
      changed: ar- (preposition - obsolete) 'facing, adjoining' + nant stream [combining form -nen-] -
      facing the water; these hills were snuggled within an elbow bend of the Anduin across from Minas
      Tirith, thus beside the waters of the great river
Emyn Muil     S; Dreary hills; emyn see previous; MUY- hidden, Doriathrin [early S] muil vagueness;
      hills by the Anduin above the Falls of Rauros; The Fellowship of the Ring identifies them as 'dreary';
      like Emyn Arnen it may be possible to relate Muil to a M origin: Welsh moel bare hill, mwll stifling;
      the Gaelic might relate through mul mound, Old Norse múli jutting crag; these sharp rocks lay above
      the Dead Marshes
Encircling Mountains     see Sil Echoriath
Endless Stair     anglicized form of CS; a stair carved at Moria inside the peak of Zirak-zigil rising to
      Durin's Tower
[Enedwaith      S; Middle-folk; ÉNED- centre, Nol enedh middle (Etym); gwaith people (Sil; see Elven-
      Smiths of Eregion); a lost people of the far reaches of Gondor south of the Gwathlo - i.e. between
      Eriador and the old kingdom of Arnor in the north and west, and Gondor to the south and east; most
      died of a great plague]
Enemy, the     see Sauron
Entings     anglicized word for Ent children; for whatever reason Ents lost the desire to reproduce when
      the Entmaidens wandered into distant lands and apparently became extinct
Entmoot     anglicized form of Roh; Ent see next; moot from OE moten - assemble for conversation; a
      council of Ents
Ents     Roh; AS ent giant, eoten giant or monster; the name could relate to the S for 'Ent': onod, plur.
      enyd - see Onodrim; the Elvish base for 'giant' is NOROTH- Q norsa a giant [Etym]; Tolkien made it
      clear that he did not wish to draw parallels between the Olog-hai [Trolls; see Ettendales, from eoten]
      and the Onodrim [Ents; from ent]
Entwade     anglicized form of Roh; Ent see previous; fords near Edoras
Entwash River     anglicized form of Roh; AS waesc wash; the S form is Onodló - Onod(-rim) [see Ents]
      + LOG- wet, S fenland, a stem not in Etym; river flowing out of Fangorn Forest to Anduin
Entwives     anglicized form of Roh; see Entings
Entwood (Fangorn)     anglicized form of Roh; Fangorn Forest; see Fangorn
Éomer     Roh; Horseman of renown; OE éoh- war-horse; the second element could relate to MER-
      desire [Etym] or MIR- precious thing [Etym]; in its OE [Roh] origins it is probably AS mære famous,
      splendid; the name Eomer appears in the ancient epic poem Beowulf; a king of Rohan
Éomund     Roh; Horse Marshal; éo- see previous; the second element could relate to MOY- Nol muin
      dear [Etym]; AS mund hand, guardian; a marshal of the Mark
éored     Roh; Horse guard; éo- see previous; the second element could relate to RED- scatter, sow - i.e.:
      multitude [Etym]; AS eored troop; cavalry units
Eorl     Roh; OE eorl Earl [Beowulf], although éoh- war-horse seems implied in the context; Eorl was the
      first king of Rohan and a great warrior and horse-master; AS eorl warrior, chief
Eorlingas     Roh; the Rohirrim - literally sons of Eorl; éo- see previous; OE -lingas denoting 'a people'
      [children] or language [anglicized]
Éothain     Roh; éo- se previous; thain [AS ðegn] is an English title for an underling leader such as a
      minister, sheriff or burgermeister
Éowyn     Roh; éo- see previous; -wyn could certainly relate to WEN-, WENED- maiden [Etym]; OE wynn
      - joy; a valiant woman of Rohan
Ephel Dúath (Mountains of Shadow)     see Sil; the mountains that separated Gondor from Mordor
Erebor     S; Lonely mountain; ERE- be alone, Nol ereb isolated [Etym]; ORO- high, rise ... ÓROT-
      mountain [Etym], S orod; here the form is shortened to -or 'height'; ancient Dwarf-kingdom
      plundered by the dragon Smaug
Erech     ancient M; (hill of the) Pledge; the name could well relate to ÓROK- goblin, Danian [ancient
      Sylvan Elven tongue] urc, pl. yrc [Etym], since the hill is said in The Return of the King to be
      overlain by the terror of the Sleepless Dead; it could also relate to ERÉK- thorn [Etym; in its 'Biblical'
      sense]; in his Letters, Tolkien implicates the Elvish root ER 'alone', although he says it is not the
      source of the name; the name could be a form of OE wær faith, pledge; reinforcing this last is the Old
      Norse name 'Erik' - honor of the king, also Early Irish árach 'bail, contract', since it was here the Men
      of Dunharrow pledged their aid to Isildur; interestingly, in Gaelic the word éirich means rise [hill];
      another of the names of this area that had an Elvish sound, but were ancient ['pre-Númenórean']
      Mannish; a hill in Lamedon
         Hill of     site of the Stone of Erech
         Stone of     upon which the King of the Mountains swore allegiance to Isildur; see also Black
Ered Lithui     S; Ash mountains; orod mountain, S plur. ered [Sil]; lith ash [Sil]; -ui is a S adjectival
      ending - 'ashen'; mountainous barrier north of Mordor; also the Ashen Mountains
Ered Nimrais     S; White (Horn) mountains; ered see previous; nim white [Sil]; ras horn, S plur. rais
      [Sil]; see Sil; snow-capped chain separating southern Gondor from Rohan; also White Mountains
Eregion     see Sil; also Hollin
Erelas     ancient M; ?Green vigil; possibly derived loosely from 3AR- hold [Etym], and LAS²- listen
      [Etym] - 'council hill', although no history of the site is given; OE ærlice early? another of the names
      of this area that had an Elvish sound, but were ancient Mannish ['pre-Númenórean']; the answer may
      be found in the Welsh; Erw-las 'green field', but more likely eryl [E ril] 'look-out', and las [laas]
      adjectival suffix of glas 'green'; one of the beacon hills of Gondor
Eressëa     see Sil
Erestor     S; ?Noble one; perhaps more at half-Elven; ERE- be alone [Etym]; TA-, TA3- noble, Nol Tor-
      as prefix, -dor as suffix [Etym; also ORO- high, S -or 'high birth' (Etym)]; the name is problematical;
      first, eres- is a Q form from ERE-; perhaps the key lies elsewhere; êl, elen star, and by extension 'Elf'
      [Sil]; RIS- cut, Nol rhest, Ilkorin [early S] rest cleave [Etym]: el- [Elf] + rest ['cleave'] + -or ['noble] =
      ?'Noble half-Elven' [the -l- of êl becomes silent]; a counsellor of Elrond at Rivendell
Eriador     see Sil
Erkenbrand     Roh; Sword of worth; the first part of the name could relate to ERÉK- thorn, Nol ercho to
      prick [as he was a great warrior] [Etym]; the second element could relate to BARÁD- lofty, Nol
      brand noble [Etym]; Greek arkhe chief, rule; AS eorc(a)n- precious; AS brand sword or torch; a man
      of Rohan
Erui     S? ancient M? Arrow (- shaft); possibly related to er- lone [Sil], and DUI- water, river [Etym],
      since the stream is the only one that flows from Lossarnach, and also has no tributaries; perhaps
      from AS ærnan, iernan to run, flow; most likely another of those 'pre-Númenórean' names of Gondor
      that had an 'Elvish' sound; Welsh 'Arwy' [Arui], a river in county Powys which name means 'arrow';
      a river of Gondor
[Erusen     Q; Children of Eru; Eru see Sil; the stem supplied for 'children' in the Sil is híni, the base for
      which is KHIN child, S hên, plur. hîn (not in Etym; {the older Qenya Lexicon gives a root INI
      'small'}); the appearance in The Road Goes Ever On of the word Erusen (p. 66) has led to further
      speculation of a root SEN 'children'; however, this -sen suffix is used as a 'partitive locative plur.' in
      Tolkien's work The Monsters and the Critics (not avialable to this author at present); if the same
      usage applies here, the implication would seem to mean that the 'children' are a part of, and originate
      from, Eru - not an unreasonable assumption, since the Valar had no role in the creation of these
      beings; the term is inclusive of both Elves and Men]
Esgalduin     S; River under veil; see Sil
Esgaroth     S; Reed bed town [Lake town]; ESEK- Ilkorin [early S] esgar reed-bed [Etym]; OS- round, N
      ost, oth town, fortress [Etym]; -hoth, -oth can be used in S as an inclusive plural [Sil], but here the
      usage appears to indicate 'town'; town on the Long Lake
Ethir, the     S; River-mouth [of Anduin]; ET- forth, out, Nol ethir mouth of a river [Etym; sîr river ... s >
      h in the middle of words (Sil)]; see Anduin
Ettendales     anglicized form of CS; AS eoten - giant, monster; Troll-fells north of Rivendell; the word
      occurs in Beowulf, line 112, as eotenas giants, which also contains the word orcneas [see Orcs];
      Tolkien made it clear that he did not wish to draw parallels between the Trolls [AS eoten] and the
      Ents [OE ent], although they derive from the same base; also Ettenmoors
Ettenmoors     anglicized form of CS; Troll-fells north of Rivendell; the Middle English word fell denotes
      a rocky barren hill or a high moor, probably from Icelandic fell of the same meaning; also Ettendales
Evenstar     anglicized form of Undómiel; see Arwen
Evereve     anglicized form of CS; an ancient name of Valinor
Evereven     anglicized form of CS; an ancient name of Valinor
Evermind     anglicized form of Roh Simbelmynë
Evernight     anglicized form of CS; also the Shadowy Seas, which hid the Undying Lands in the
      Uttermost West
Eye, the     anglicized form of CS reference to Sauron, especially when he finally occupied Mordor and
      the Barad Dûr; also the Searching Eye; as the Vala Manwë used the eyes of the high-flying Eagles
      to watch Middle Earth, so Sauron used the Searching Eye to watch affairs, and especially to search
      for the One Ring; speculation centers on the idea that Sauron lost his ability to take a fair corporeal
      form after his defeat by the Last Alliance near the end of the Second Age, and the Searching Eye
      was the most effective form he could assume
         Evil     anglicized form of CS; a symbol used by Sauron for his minions
         Great     anglicized form of CS; set in the Barad-dûr and rimmed with red fire
         Lidless     anglicized form of CS; the eye never slept, but ever searched all it could perceive
         Red     anglicized form of CS; see prevous
Eye of Barad-dûr     anglicized form of CS; see prevous

Fairbairns     anglicized form of H family name in the Fourth Age; they were 'fair like Elves'; Scottish
      bairn child; 'Fairchild'
Fair Folk     anglicized form of CS; generally the Vanyarin Elves [BAN- beautiful (Etym)]; see Elves
"Fall of Gil-galad, the"     anglicized form of CS; Elven song translated into CS by Bilbo Baggins
Fallohide     anglicized form of H name; the name means 'fair-skinned'
         Marcho     anglicized form of H name; AS mearh (meares) horse, but perhaps more at Welsh march
              horse, with an -o male ending in H; Marcho and Blanco were two legendary founders of the
              Shire; many believe that the legend is founded on the old Anglo Saxon myth of the brothers
              Hengist and Horsa, leaders of the first AS settlers in Britain; Hengist means 'Stallion'
         Blanco     anglicized form of H name; Old French blanc white, pale; AS blanca (white?) horse; see
             Marcho above
Fang     anglicised form of CS; a mastiff
Fangorn     Q; Treebeard; SPÁNAG- beard, Nol fang [Etym]; ORO- high ... ÓR-NI- tree, Nol orn [Etym];
      name of an Ent, also a forest; see Treebeard
Fanuidhol     S; Cloudy head; SPAN- Q fána cloud [Etym]; -ui is a S adjectival ending: cloudy; NDOL-
      ... Nol dôl head [Etym]; in S as combining form [lenited following a vowel?]: -dhol; one of the three
      peaks over Moria; see Bundushathûr
Faramir     Nol? ?Treasure hunter; two noble Dúnedain of Gondor; faroth hunt [Sil], from SPAR- hunt,
      Nol faras hunting [Etym]; MIR- Nol mîr jewel, treasure [Etym]; by one account it is stated that the
      name was taken in the ancient 'High Noldorin' tongue; somehow the translation seems inadequate;
      the father of the second Faramir considered him a bit of a 'dandy', but he turned out to be a good
      warrior, and was named Prince of Ithilien in the Fourth Age; perhaps he was named for the first
      Faramir, a Prince of Gondor
Far Downs     anglicized form of H name; boundary of the Shire
Farthings, the     anglicized form of H name; OE ferthing ['fourthing'] quarter; the quadrants of the Shire;
      there is a Hobbit 'jest', since in colloquial English a farthing is a coin of negligible worth
Fastred     anglicized form of Roh; Adjutant; AS fæstræd firm, steadfast; -ræd counsel, wisdom; a warrior
      of Rohan
Fatty Lumpkin     anglicized form of CS; name of Tom Bombadil's pony
Fëanor     S form of Q Fëanáro; Spirit of Fire; fëa spirit [Sil]; nár fire, Nol naur, -nor [Sil]; a Noldorin
      King that lived in the age of stars; ironically died Year 1 of the Sun [fire] after bringing about the
      Exile of the Noldor from Valinor [see Elves]; see Sil
Felaróf     Roh; Charger; the name could relate to PHAL-, PHÁLAS- foam [spirited, like a breaking
     wave], Nol falf foam, breaker [Etym], and ROK- Nol roch horse [Etym]; the name is derived from the
     same word in AS - very strong; mount of King Eorl of The Mark of Rohan
Fell Riders     anglicized form of CS; OE fel cruel, perfidious, perhaps related to Gaelic feall treachery,
      Old Norse vél cunning artifice; see Black Riders, Nazgûl
Fellowship of the Ring     anglicized form of CS; see Company of the Ring; see the One Ring
Fell Winter, the     anglicized form of CS; OE fel cruel; severe winter in Eriador in the middle of the
     Third Age
Fengel     Roh; Lord; the name could relate to SPAN- white, Nol fein white [Etym], and gil star [Sil], or
      even GAL- KAL shine [Etym]; AS fengel prince, king [poetic]; an unpopular king of Rohan
Fen Hollen (the Closed Door)     S; ?Door of the Noble Dead; PHEN- threshold, Nol  fenn [Etym]; it is
      not clear about hollen, a matter of considerable speculation and disagreement; a recently published
      Addendum to Etym may hold an overlooked possibility - that 'closed' is an interpretive term; Etym
      lists KHAL²- uplift, Nol hall exalted, noble; the Addendum adds the Nol term holen [or holin] after
      the English word 'lift'; although a 'lifted threshold' would be closed, it is more logical to posit that
      Tolkien intended that the door was closed to all but nobility, as the text states, 'It was kept ever shut
      save ... only [to] the Lord of the City' [and those who tended the tombs]; the path beyond the door
      [Rath Dínen] led to the sepulchers of 'dead kings and their Stewards'; in S the -l- is doubled before a
      vowel, and -en is an adjectival ending [literally 'Exalted Door' or 'Door of the Exalted']; still, it should
      be noted that the -len suffix could also relate to LED- go, travel, Q lende, Nol -led, lenn [Etym],
      implying 'the way of the nobles'; a door to the cloistered mausoleums below the Citadel of
      Minas Tirith; see Gallery
Fenmarch     anglicized form of Roh; AS fenn low wetland; AS mearc line of boundary, district; marshy
      region of Rohan
Ferny     anglicized form of M; Alderwood; Gaelic feàrna, Early Irish fern, fernog alder tree; the wood of
      some varieties is used for furniture; a family name of Bree
         Bill     anglicized form of M
Fimbrethil (Wandlimb)     S; Tolkien states that Wandlimb is CS and not a translation of Fimbrethil;
      in Appendix F of The Return of the King, Tolkien translates this name as 'slender-beech'; 'slender'
      may derive from SPIN- trees, braid of hair [or limb of tree?] Q finde , Nol findel, fin- [Etym; S fim-
      before b?]; perhaps Tolkien had in mind the Old Norse vöndr wand, often related to OE windan
      twist; brethil probably actually means 'silver birch' [Sil], from BERÉTH- beechtree [Etym], and sil-,
      thil shine (with white or silver light) [Sil]; the -mbr- combination may imply the stem MBIRIL-
      shining jewel; an Entwife
Finduilas     S; a yellow flower in the green grass of spring; see Sil
Finglas (Leaflock)     S; SPIN- Q finde braid of hair [Etym]; in the older Gnomish [Nol] Lexicon, fingl
      meant 'tress', long lock of hair; LAS¹- leaf [Etym]; an Ent
Finrod     S for Q Findaráto; (Royal) Rubescent Champion; see Sil
Fire (Fiery)-Mountain     anglicized form of CS; volcanic mountain in Mordor, place of the Cracks of
      Doom; see Orodruin; see Gallery
Firefoot     anglicized form of Roh; name of a horse
Firienfeld      Roh; Mountain field; Anglo-Saxon firgen [firyen] mountain; OE feld field; a mountain
      upland in Rohan
Firienwood     Roh; Mountain wood; firien- see previous; forest on the border of Gondor and Rohan, in
      which the beacon hill Halifirien was situate
Firstborn, the     anglicized form of CS; see Elves
Fladrif (Skinbark)     S; a difficult term; Etym offers PAL- wide, Nol palath surface [Etym]; the older Q
      Lexicon offers PALA, a general sense of 'flatness', from which is derived palis 'sward, lawn', bladwen
      'a plain', and fladwen 'meadow', with flad 'sward' [OE sweard 'skin' or 'rind']; RI- edge, hem, border,
      Nol rhîf [Etym]; perhaps flad = skin and rif = bark; an Ent
Flammifer     H or CS; Far flame or Fiery; OE from Latin flamma flame; OE fer - far; alternately, Latin
      flammifer means flame-bearing [flamma + fero], or simply 'fiery'; the star of Eärendil's ship bearing a
      Silmaril as it sails across the heavens
flet     anglicized form of S talan; OE flet floor; TAL- foot, Q talan floor [Etym]; the platform built in the
      mallorn trees of Lórien
Floating Log, the     anglicized form of H; an inn in the Eastfarthing of the Shire
Flói     D; ?Phlegmetic; the Dwarvish names of Tolkien are taken from Old Norse; flói means 'marshy
      moor, bay'; perhaps the name is a form of flá, fló to flay, to skin; a dwarf; see Gallery
Flourdumpling     anglicized form of H nickname; see Will Whitfoot
Folca     Roh; may be related to POL-, POLOD- physically strong [Etym], as Folca died battling a boar;
      the Roh likely derives from AS folgere successor, folgoð office, rule; OE folc people, nation;
      'Sovereign'; king of Rohan
Folde     Roh; ?Home; OE folde region, country, As feld open land, battlefield; Tolkien says it does not
      relate to OE folden, from Danish folde - enclosure, although on maps it does appear to be a pocket in
      the Ered Nimrais; perhaps more at AS feald abode, region; home of the royal family in Rohan
Ford of Bruinen (Rivendell)     anglicized form of CS; the ford over the River Bruinen at Rivendell; see
      Bruinen River
Ford of Carrock     M; car- could relate to KAR- make, construct [Etym], as Beorn had carved the 'rock';
      OE carr stone, rock; Middle English carrake a wide-beamed ship; Carrock was a large rock in the
      Anduin, north of the Old Forest Road
Forest River     anglicized form of CS; a river with headwaters similar to Anduin, but flowing eastward
      to Long Lake
Forgoil     ancient M? Strawhead; OE for, fore first, front [head < (be-)fore, Old Norse fyrr 'before' and
      perhaps Gaelic far- 'over', for- 'super']; OE geolu yellow [English 'gold', Old Norse gull 'gold', gulr
      'yellow' and perhaps Welsh gwellt, gwallt 'straw']; no authoritative source for this name has been
      offered, but the OE offers the closest approximation of the intended meaning; name given to the
      Rohirrim by the Dunlendings describing their fair complexion
Forlong     M; ?Big throat; AS lang tall? known as 'the Fat'; perhaps Welsh fawr, mutated form of mawr
      big + llwnc, llong throat; Lord of Lossarnach in Gondor
Forn     D; Ageless; Old Norse forn ancient; Tom Bombadil
Fornost     S; North fort; also Fornost Erain 'North Fortress of Kings'; CS: Norbury; formen ... S forn
      north [Sil]; os(t) fortress [Sil]; ar(a)- royal, S aran king, plur erain [Sil]; capital of northern kingdom
      of Arnor
Forsaken Inn, the     anglicized form of CS; eastern-most inn on the Great East Road
Frár     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Frár, probably frár 'swift, lightfooted', related to
      the Old Norse ffraw lively, ffrwd torrent [of streams]; a Dwarf; see Gallery
Fréa     Roh; Lord; the name could relate to RIG- Q rie crown [Etym]; Old Norse freyr, AS frea lord; a
      king of Rohan
Fréalaf     Roh; ?Heritage; or ?Royal survivor; fréa- see previous; AS laf legacy, survivor; a king of
Fréawine     Roh; Benevolent; fréa- see previous; OE wine friend; a king of Rohan
Free Fair     anglicized form of H; festival held every seven years in  the Shire
[Frodo     see Sil]
Frogmorton     anglicized form of H; mor = moor - frog-moor town; village in the Shire
Fundin     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: perhaps from finna find, fundinn 'found' - in its
      sense of perceptive; a Dwarf; see Gallery

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