*** L o r d   o f   t h e   R i n g s ***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* G - L *

AS       Anglo-Saxon
B          Black Speech
CS        Common Speech
D          Dwarvish
Etym    Etymologies
H          or 'Hob' - Hobbit Dictionary [mixed with CS]
M        Mannish
Nol      Noldorin [ancient Elven]
Num    Númenórean
OE       Old English
Q         Quenyan [High Elven]
Roh     Rohirric
S          Sindarin [Common Elven]
Sil        Silmarillion Appendix - Dictionary
comb.    combining form
plur.       plural
fem        feminine
masc     masculine

Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [Sil]
Words of the language of the Rohirrim are traced to possible roots in the ancient Elven tongue,
      although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are derived from ancient
      English, especially Anglo Saxon


Galadriel     S; Radiantly garlanded Lady; Lady of the Galadrim, Lórien; see Sil
Galadrim     S; Tree People; alda tree, S galadh [Sil]; rim great number, host [Sil]; Elves of Lórien
Galathilion     S; the White Tree of the Eldar, lesser cousin of the Silver Tree of Valinor - Telperion; see
Galdor     S; Noble light; an Elf that attended the Council of Elrond; see Sil
galenas     S; bright (green) leaf; kal- (gal-) shine, S calen (galen) green [Sil]; LAS¹- leaf [Etym]; CS -
      pipeweed; a plant with an aromatic flower that became the equivalent in Middle Earth of tobacco
Gálmód     Roh; Haughty; could relate to kal- (gal-) shine, glitter [Sil], and MA3- hand, Nol moed skilled
      [Etym]; Latin gallus cock [loud bird; English gall], French gala pomp, AS gal wanton, proud; AS
      mod heart, mind; a man of Rohan, father of Gríma Wormtongue
Gamgee     Gamer; anglicized form of H name Galbasi [from the village of Galabas], shortened to
      Galpsi; from CS galap, galab- game, and bas- village - similar to Cotton [q.v.]; gam- [shortened form
      of  'game'] + -wick or -wich, Middle English from AS wic village; 'Gamwich' [Gammidge] = 'Gamgee'
         Andy     anglicized form of H name
         Elanor     [see elanor] the name derives from S, name of a golden star-shaped flower of Lórien; êl
                  star [Sil]; ANÁR- sun [as representing gold] [Etym]; she was a maid of honor at the marriage
                  of King Elessar and the Elven Princess Arwen, and the flower was a favorite of Arwen
         Gaffer     anglicized form of H name; archaic form of godfather; gammer = godmother
         Hal(fast)     anglicized form of H name; Half firm; AS fæst fixed, obstinate
         Ham(fast)     anglicized form of H name Ran, short for Ranugad; Home body; AS ham village,
                  home; AS fast see previous; see Gaffer
         Sam (Samwise)     anglicized form of H name Ban, short for Banazîr; Half smart; C.S. ba-, ban-
                  'half-, almost', and zir(a) wise; AS sam- prefix denoting a partial or imperfect condition
                  [English semi-]; AS samwis means 'dull'
Gamling     Roh; known as the Old; the name could relate to KHAM- sit [Etym]; AS gamol aged; -ling
      is an AS suffix for personal nouns; a man of Rohan
Gandalf     CS; Trow; a Wizard (Istari); the first element could relate to KHAN- understand [or 'wise']
      [Etym]; similarly, one could relate the second element to DAL- flat, Nol dalf [Etym] in the sense of
      'open'; Tolkien says the name was inspired by the Old Norse gandr (magic-) staff; AS gan means
      'walk' [see below]; the ending implies 'elf', also from Old Norse - ælf [wand-elf], although Tolkien
      emphasised that the Wizard was clearly not an Elf; the name 'Wand-elf' [Gandalfr] was derived from
      a 13th Century Icelandic 'Edda' as the name of a Dwarf; most of the Dwarvish names in Tolkien's
      writing are from this source; see Olórin; see Gallery
         the Grey     Grey Wanderer - mith grey [Sil]; ran- wander [sil]; RAN- Nol rhandir pilgrim [Etym];
                  see Mithrandir below and Sil]
         Grayhame     anglicized form of CS; Latin incanus quite grey [-haired], cani grey hairs; AS heah,
                  heam top; similarly AS hama covering, garment
         Stormcrow     anglicized form of CS
         the White (White Rider)     anglicized form of CS; Gandalf riding Shadowfax
         Mithrandir (Grey Pilgrim)      see above and Sil
Gárulf     Roh; Brutish spear; AS gar spear, piercing; AS ulf = wulf wolf, devil; a man of Rohan
Gate of the Dead     anglicized form of CS; north entrance to the Paths of the Dead
Gate of Kings     anglicized form; see Argonath
Gate-stream, the     anglicized form of S term Sirannon; stream flowing westward from Moria into
Ghân-buri-Ghân     M; the term could relate to KHAN- understand, be skilled [Etym], and TUR- power
      [Etym]; ?AS gan proceed, conquer ... gen again; ?AS bearu woods; an obscure term; perhaps in part
      'Wild goose' [gander] from Greek kheen; Gaelic and Old Irish gann means 'scarce'; a chief of the
ghâsh     B; stated to mean fire; a B term for Balrog
Gildor (Inglorion)     S; Gildor see Sil; ID- heart, desire, Nol inn, ind [Etym]; LÁWAR-, Nol GLÁWAR-
      golden [light], Nol glor-, lor- in names [Etym]; perhaps implied is NGOL- wise, lore, magic [Etym];
      -ion forms a masc. name suffix from YO, YON- son, Q & Nol -ion [Etym]; Inglorion = Mind of gold
      (-en wisdom?); an Elf at Rivendell
Gil-galad     S; Star of Radiance; a royal title; see Sil; he was born Ereinion [see Sil]
Gilrain     S or M? gil star (sparkle) [Sil]; the second element is normally attributed to RAN- wander
      [Etym] because, while the stream flowed swiftly over part of its course, it wandered a bit in the
      lowlands; Scot ghyll, Old Norse gil- ravine; Gaulish renos [> German 'Rhein'] river; a river in Gondor
            Also as Gilraen - mother of Aragorn; the name is said to mean one adorned with a tressure set
            with small gems in its network; in S gil- means 'silver glint' as well as 'star' and likely indicates
            'small gems' in this construction; -raen is a S word adapted from the Q adjective raina, 'nettled,
            enlaced', derived from a stem RAY- net, knit [not in Etym], in this case 'tressure' [a netted
            adornment - more as an emblem of Heraldry (French tresser)]
Gilthoniel     S; Star Kindler; title of Varda, Queen of the Valar; gil star [Sil]; TAN- fashion, Q tano
      craftsman, Nol than, thon [Etym]; However Tolkien may have changed his mind; a misplaced base
      found in his notes - THAN - is said to mean 'kindle, set light to' [no derivatives offered]; -iel is a
      feminine ending, often denoting nobility, from SEL-D-, related to YO, YON- - daughter, Nol iell,
      -iel [Etym]; see Gallery
Gimli     D; perhaps derived from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Gimlé [name of a feast-hall or
      the mound upon which it stood]; perhaps a form of geyma to heed, mind, watch; a Dwarf; see Gallery
Gladden Fields     anglicized form of CS; Flag bottom; OE glædene, gladdon - sword, thus 'sword grass'
      = iris; S: Loeg Ningloron, from LOG- wet, swampy, S , loen- [plur loeg - a stem not in Etym], nen
      water [Sil], and GLAW(-R)- gold Nol glaur gold [Etym], S glor [Sil]; translated as 'Pools of Golden
      Water Flowers', taken from the name of (River) Ninglor 'Golden Water', from the profusion of
      blossoms of the yellow Iris, which perhaps accounts for the agental ending -ron; marshy battlefield
      in the central Anduin vales north of Gondor where the One Ring was lost by Isildur
Gladden River     anglicized form of CS; see previous; converges with the Anduin at the Gladden Fields
Glamdring     S; Foe hammer; GLAM- confused noise, Nol glamm shouting [interpreted as 'barbaric
      horde'] [Etym]; Old Norse glam, glamm also mean 'noise, clamor'; DRING- beat, strike [Etym]; sword
      of Gandalf
Gléowine     Roh; Balladeer; the first element could relate to GLIR- Nol sing ... glœr long lay [Etym]; OE
      gleo minstrelsy [English glee club]; OE, AS wine friend; minstrel of Rohan
Glittering Caves of Aglarond     anglicized form of CS; see Aglarond
Glóin     D; perhaps derived from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Glói, probably a form of glóa to
      shine, glitter; a Dwarf; see Gallery
Glorfindel     S; Golden hair; see Sil
Goatleaf     anglicized form of M; archaic name for honeysuckle; family name in Bree
         Harry     anglicized form of M
Golasgil     S or M? gol- could be a shortened form of S golodh wise [Sil], from ÑGOL- wise, ÑGOLOD-
      the wise [Etym]; go- can be an adverbial prefix in S meaning '(group) together' - group of leaves
      [LAS¹- leaf (Etym) - see Legolas], but gil star [Sil] does not seem to follow coherently; an early form
      of the name was 'Asgil-Golamir'; as- sun [Sil arien], which was extended to mean 'warmth' or 'light';
      ?Wise burning star; the name is as likely M and is reminiscent of Welsh golosgi scorch, singe [such
      as charcoal]; lord of Anfalas of Gondor
Goldberry     anglicized form of CS; wife of Tom Bombadill; her lineage is unclear
Golden Hall     anglicized form of Roh term Meduseld
Golden Perch, the     anglicized form of H; perch is a 'seat', or perhaps the fish; an inn of the Shire
Golden Wood     anglicized form of S Lothlórien
Goldwine     Roh; Golden one; the first element could relate to ÑGOL- wise [Etym]; OE wine friend; a
      king of Roh
Gollum     Onomatopoeic form due to the disgusting sound he made repeatedly; reputed to have
      originally been a Hobbit, his true name was Trahald, a northern variation of CS or M meaning
         Sméagol     anglicized form of Trahald; OE smygel burrow; Smaug derives similarly
Gondolin     S; Hidden rock; see Sil
Gondor     S; Stone land; see Sil
         Gates of     see Argonath
Goodbodies     anglicized form of H name; family name in the Shire
Gorbag     B; perhaps Dirty work; an Uruk or Orc
Gorgoroth     S; [Plain of] deadly fear; gor horror, dread, -goroth of the same meaning, with duplicated
      gor [Sil]; -oth is an augmentative suffix from hoth horde [Sil], although it may be that ROS²- plain
      [Etym] is implied - if that base was still in use at the time; the high plain before the Morannon
gorgûn     M; Festering dung; name given to Orcs by Ghân-buri-Ghân; see Orcs; there is a possible
      relation to GOR- violence, and by extension NGOROTH- horror [Etym], and KHUGAN- Q huan
      hound [Etym]; AS gor filth, dung; AS gund pus
Gothmog     S; Oppressive terror; Lord of Balrogs; see Sil
Gram     Roh; Champion; perhaps related to 3AR- hold, Q haran king [Etym]; AS gram cruel, fierce;
      however, in his Letters Tolkien also credits the Old Norse gramr angry, gram(s) king, warrior; king
      of Rohan
Great Darkness     anglicized form of CS; Fangorn's characterization of the years of the first Dark
      Lord - Morgoth; given his responsibility for trees, the Ent might be referring also to the pollution
      that killed green growing things
Great Enemy     anglicized form of CS; reference to Melkor / Morgoth in the First Age
Great Gate (of Minas Tirith)     anglicized form of CS; main entrance to first level at Minas Tirith
Great Horn     anglicized form of CS; one of the emblems of the House of Stewards of Gondor; believed
      to have come down from a bull of the Vala Oromë
Great Jewel     anglicized form of CS; recaptured Silmaril in the First Age; eventually raised to become a
Great Lands     anglicized form of CS; Middle Earth
Great Ships     anglicized form of CS; ships of the Númenóreans in the Second Age; see Gallery
Great Signal     anglicized form of CS; signal sent by Sauron that began the final battles of the War of
      the Ring
Great Smials     anglicized form of H; see Better Smials
Great Wood     anglicized form of CS; see Mirkwood
Green Dragon, The     anglicized form of H; an inn in the Shire
Greenfields     anglicized form of H; location of a battle in the Shire
Green Hill Country     anglicized form of H; forested area of the Shire
Green Hills (in Gondor)     anglicized form of CS; in S Pinnath Gelin; hills north of Anfalas
            (in the Shire)     anglicized form of H; hills in Tookland
Greenway     anglicized form of CS; road that intersected the Great East Road at Bree
Greenwood the Great     anglicized form of CS; earlier name of Mirkwood
Grey Company     anglicized form of CS; they rode the Paths of the Dead
Greyflood (River)     anglicized form of S Gwathló; gwath shadow [as grey] [Sil]; the last element of
      Gwathló derives from LOG-, S , a stem not given in Etym, meaning 'swampy'; large river in
      southern Eriador
Grey Havens     anglicized form of CS; port on western coasts of Middle Earth, most commonly
      mentioned in regard to departures for the perilous journey through Evernight; see Mithlond; see
Grey Host     anglicized form of CS; the Dead Men of Dunharrow; see Dead, The
Grey Wood     anglicized form of CS; small forested area north of Minas Tirith in a bend of the Great
      West Road
Gríma     Roh; Insinuate; the name could relate to KHIM- stick [Etym], cleave; AS grima mask, ghost;
      he was a sycophant for Saruman; also Wormtongue
Grimbeorn     M; man of the Beornings; AS grim(m) fierce; Tolkien says it is used as an ancestral name;
      AS beorn noble, warrior, or perhaps beorne / bearn descendant ['bairn']; see Beornings, the
Grimbold     Roh; House of Grimm; AS grim fierce; AS bold [botl] house; also see previous; warrior
      and Marshal of Rohan
Grimslade     Roh; Glenn Grimm; AS grim fierce, savage; also see previous; AS slæd a little dell or
      valley; place in Rohan
Grip     H? a wolf-dog belonging to Farmer Maggot, a Hobbit; the name likely refers to his most notable
Grishnákh     B; some say Bloody hands; Orc captain
Grond     S; a great club; see Sil; see also Hammer of the Underworld
Grubbs     anglicized form of H; Middle English grubben to dig; family name in the Shire
Guarded City, the (Minas Tirith)     anglicized form of CS
Guardians, the     anglicized form of CS? hidden protectors of the Shire, presumably refers to the
      Dúnedain, or Rangers
Guthláf     Roh; Infrangible; the first element could relate to KOT- > KOTH- strive, Nol coth war [Etym];
      the second element could relate to LEB-, LEM- remain, Nol lhev-, lhif- [Etym]; AS guð combat; AS
      laf remain, survive
Gúthwinë     Roh; Battle-tested; guth [guð] see previous; AS wine friend; sword of Éomer
Gwaihir     S; Wind-master; WA-, WAWA-, WAIWA- blow, Nol gwaew wind [Etym], S gwai-; KHER-
      rule, Nol hîr master; an eagle

Hador     S; Hurler [of spears]; a man of the First Age and a Dúnadan of Gondor
Halbarad     S; Tall and noble; KHAL²- uplift, Nol hall noble, high [Etym]; barad tower [Sil], but
      perhaps more at BARÁD- lofty, sublime [Etym]; the two meanings compliment each other and may
      indicate a nod to honor the Queen of the Valar, Varda; she was also known as Elbereth, which
      contains the base barad/bareth - as does the name Varda; the name is fashioned to resemble
      halbert, a weapon with a pike and axe; a Ranger of the north
Haldir     S; Nobleman; an Adan of the First Age and an Elf of Lórien who escorted the Company of the
      Ring briefly; see Sil
Halfling     anglicized form of CS banakil [see Hob], but coined by the Dúnedain, and therefore S
      perian, plur. periannath [from PER- divide in middle, halve, Nol perin (Etym), S -ian (forming a
      gerund) perian halving > Halfling]; -ath is a S collective plural [see Sil Argonath]; the S plural form
      periain would mean an indeterminate group of Hobbits, as opposed to Periannath - (all) Hobbit-
      folk; see Hobbits
Halifirien     Roh; Holy mountain; OE hali, from AS halig holy; Anglo-Saxon firgen [firyen] mountain;
      one of the beacon hills of Gondor
Hall of Fire     anglicized form of CS; a great hall at Rivendell where a flame was kept burning at all times
Hall of the Kings     anglicized form of CS; a great hall in the White Tower at Minas Tirith; also the
      Tower Hall
Hallows, the     anglicized form of CS; burial plot of the kings and stewards of Gondor at Minas Tirith;
      see Gallery
Háma     Roh; toff? the name could relate to KHAP- enfold, hammad clothing [Etym]; AS hama
      covering, garment; perhaps more at armor; the name Hama appears in Beowulf; two men of Rohan
Hammer of the Underworld     anglicized form of CS; a battering ram used in the War of the Ring named
      after the great club Grond of Melkor in the First Age
Harad     S; South; see Sil Haradrim
Haradrim, the     S; South People; see Sil Haradrim
Hardbottle     anglicized form of H; the name seems to indicate the fact that these Hobbits burrowed into
      stone rather than dirt hillsides, thus a 'stoneware jug' is a 'hard bottle'; AS botl variant of bold large
      hall or castle - 'building'; village in the Shire
Harding     anglicized form of H and Roh; OE and AS heard bold; a Hobbit and a man of Rohan
Harfoots     anglicized form of H for 'Hair-feet'
Harlond, the     S; South Port; KHYAR- Q hyarmen south [Etym], S har- [Sil]; londë land-locked
      haven, S lond [Sil]; two ports, one just south of Minas Tirith in the Anduin ["The Harlond"], and
      one in  the Gulf of Lhûn; see Gallery
Harrowdale     Roh; Secluded valley;  for harrow see Dunharrow; a valley in Rohan
Hasufel     Roh; Grey coat; AS hasu grey [English haze]; OE fel fierce, although, in this case, perhaps more
      at AS fell skin, hyde; horse of Rohan
Haunted Mountain     anglicized form of Roh; see Dwimorberg
Haunted Pass     anglicized form of CS; see Cirith Gorgor
Hay Gate     anglicized form of H; presumably from haw, derived from AS haga - hedge, generally
      indicating hawthorn; entrance to Buckland in the Shire on the Great East Road; see Haysend
Haysend     anglicized form of H; a village in the Shire at the end [hay's end] of the High Hay; see Hay
Hayward, Hob     anglicized form of H name; hay see Hay Gate; ward = guard
Healer, the     see Aragorn
Healers, the     anglicized form of CS; from the battle for Minas Tirith
Heathertoes     anglicized form of CS; AS ð waste(land); family name at Bree
         Mat      anglicized form of CS name at Bree
Helm     anglicized form of S, also of Roh; anglicized form of nickname for Adan of the First Age; also
      ninth king of Roh: OE helma - head, one in position of control; also known as Hammerhand
Helmingas     anglicized form of Roh; helm see previous; literally 'sons of Helm'; -lingas denoting 'a
      people' or language [anglicized]; the name appears as Helminga in Beowulf; Roh name given to men
      of Westfold
Helm's Deep     anglicized form of Roh; see Helm; mountainous basin before a major fortress of Rohan:
      the Hornburg
Helm's Dike     anglicized form of Roh; see Helm; fortification before the Hornburg
Helm's Gate     anglicized form of Roh; see Helm; entrance to Helm's Deep
Henneth Annûn      S; Window of the sunset; KHEN-D-E- eye, Nol hên [Etym]; the -eth suffix is
      apparently a genitive ending in S [see Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth - Debate of Finrod and
      Andreth*]; it could also imply ET- out [Etym]; andúnë sunset, west, S annûn [Sil]; sanctuary of the
      Rangers of Ithilien hidden behind a waterfall
          * Morgoth's Ring, Part Four, p. 301
Herblore of the Shire     anglicized form of H; book written by Merry
Herefara     anglicized form of Roh; Army traveler, Comrade; AS here army; AS faran travel; man of
Herubrand     Roh; Flaming sword; AS heoru sword; AS brand flame, sword; man of Rohan
Herugrim     Roh; Fierce sword; heru- see previous; AS grimm savage; sword of Théoden
Hidden Land     anglicized form of CS; Lórien
High Court     anglicized form of CS; court in upper levels of Minas Tirith
High Hay (Hedge), the     anglicized form of H; see Hay Gate
High Pass     anglicized form of CS; pass over the Misty Mountains east of Rivendell
Hill, the (at Bag End)     anglicized form of H; home of Bilbo and later Frodo
Hill of Guard     anglicized form of CS; site of Minas Tirith
Hill (Bombadil's home)     anglicized form of CS; western end of the Barrow-downs
Hirgon     S? ?Stone-master; KHER- rule, Nol hîr master [Etym]; gond stone [Sil], although as likely in
      this latter age would be KAN- dare, Nol caun, -gon bold [Etym]; AS hyr[-a] mercenary; AS gon, gan
      gain, conquer; -gon may be a shortening for Gondor - Master of Gondor - as he was an ambassador
      for Denethor and thus a man of rank; a man of Gondor
Hirluin     S; Fair armiger; also known as The Fair; KHER- rule, Nol hîr master, chief [Etym] [because
      he was Lord of Pinnath Gelin]; Sil offers luin blue, but the intent is likely more at LUG²- blue, where
      in the ancient Doriathrin luin means pale i.e. fair [Etym]; nobleman of Gondor
Hither Shore     anglicized form of CS; the 'near' shore, i.e.: Middle-earth; see Gallery
hithlain     S; mist threadhîth mist [Sil]; SLIN- fine, Nol thlein thin, or similarly SLIG- Q lia fine thread
      [S not attested, but -lain is likely a plur. form, perhaps more associated with LAN- weave; Etym];
      soft fiber used to make a strong light rope in Lórien
Hoarwell (River)     anglicized form of H; AS horwyll muddy stream; see Mitheithel
Hobbiton     anglicized form of H; OE tun town
Hobbitry-in-arms     anglicized form of H; emergency mobilization in the Shire
Hobbits     anglicized form of H kuduk hole dweller; OE, AS hol hole; AS byldan to build, from bold
      dwelling; AS bylda, bytla builder; hol-bytla 'hole-dweller' [hol-byt-(la) = Hobbit], for archaic CS
      banakil, although more common in Roh as kûd-dûkan hole dweller; see Halfling
Hobbits: Holbytla(n)     see previous
         perian     S; see Halfling
         Pheriannath    S; see Halfling (Periannath)
Hobbit, The     previous published work to The Lord of the Rings
Hold, the     anglicized form of CS; AS heald keeping, guard; see Dunharrow
Holdwine     anglicized form of Roh for Meriadoc; AS hold friendly, pleasant; OE wine friend; see
      Brandybuck ... Merry
Hollin     anglicized form of S Eregion; Middle English holin, AS holen holly; see Sil Eregion
Holman     anglicized form of two H names; OE hol hole; Hole Man
Horn     Roh; perhaps a trumpeter, or variant of AS iernan [orn] move rapidly, pursue; a warrior of
Hornblower     anglicized form of H name Tóbias, but also Rasputa, Raspûta; an occupational name
         Tobold (Old Toby)     anglicized form of H name Tobi, Tóbias; Zara-tobi 'Old Toby' [see Hob]
Hornburg, the     anglicized form of CS; horn refers to the fact that a horn sounded in its tower
      reverberated throughout Helm's Deep; burg is a form of AS beorg mountain, defense, refuge; a
      fortress of Rohan
Horn-call of Buckland     anglicized form of H; a form of alarm in a part of the Shire
Hornrock, the     anglicized form of CS; site of the Hornburg
Houses of Healing     anglicized form of CS; infirmary at Minas Tirith
Huorns     S; Tree-vigour; KHOR- urge on, Nol hûr fiery spirit [Etym]; ÓR-NI- Q orne tree [Etym], S orn
      [Sil]; the plural form appears to be anglicised; in his early writings Tolkien called these creatures
      Galbedirs [KAL- shine (Etym), S gal(-en) green + KWET- (and PET-) say (Etym), S beth + DER-
      adult male, Nol dîr (Etym; used agentally) - 'green speaking beings' or 'speaking trees']; the name
      recalls huron from Old French and German hure 'bristle-head'; odd wild tree-like creatures
Húrin     S; Strong heart; name of an Adan of the First Age and four Dúnedain; see Sil
Húrin (the Tall)     a Dúnadan; Warden of the Keys of Minas Tirith; see previous

Iarwain Ben-adar     S; Ageless and Fatherless [believed by some to be one of the lesser Valar]; iaur
      old [Sil], from YA- [of time] ago, Q yára ancient, Nol iaur ancient [Etym]; the shortened form - iar -
      may be a poetic form adding to the alliteration, or may simply follow the Q [normally YAR- blood,
      Nol iâr (Etym)]; the form is mirrored in the stem EY- everlasting, Q aira eternal, ia ever [Etym], but
      the stem was abandoned; GWEN- Q wenya fresh, wen youth [Etym] does not work in the S plur.
      form; one scholar has posited that -wain may be a superlative suffix - 'most ancient' - as Tolkien
      gives the meaning as oldest, and that appears to be the answer; ben- would seem to derive from a
      confusion of original stems; in a discussion of pre-Elven forms* Tolkien lists a Telerin base PEN 'to
      be without', but that form appears in Etym as 'slope' [S ben]; PED was stated by Tolkien in the
      former discussion to mean 'slope'; undoubtedly the intention of ben- here is 'without'; ATA- father,
      Nol adar [Etym] - which in this case may imply the stem DAR- remain, endure [Etym]; in his Letters
      Tolkien calls this character 'primeval' and 'Eldest in Time'; see Forn; see Orald; see Tom Bombadil
          * The War of the Jewels, Part Four, Quendi and Eldar, *KWEN, Telerin, p. 375
Ilmarin     Q; Mansions of the high airs; ilm- [Sil], from GIL- shine white or pale [star], Q Ilma starlight
      [Etym]; in his earlier writings Tolkien substituted silma [shine with silver light - Sil] for ilma,
      indicating how intimately intertwined these elements were in his thinking; in the old lexicons gilm
      means 'moonlight' and the Q word for 'moon' was Silmo; as a combining prefix in names ilm- may
      just imply 'very high'; bar dwelling ... Q már [Sil]; -rin is a Q genitive plural ending; RIN- Q rinde
      circle [Etym] may be implied; Taniquetil, mountain of Aman and dwelling of the chief of the Valar,
Imlad Morgul (Morgul Vale)     S; Vale of the black arts; lad plain, valley ... imlad a narrow valley with
      steep sides [Sil]; the form im- + lad is possibly a S variant from AM²- up, slope, Q prefix am-, Nol am
      up [Etym] - used as an intensive prefix: 'sloped valley' or 'ghyll' [see Imloth Melui]; however, in late
      published notes Tolkien writes of the Common Eldarin adverbial element imbi 'between', Q imbe [see
      Sil Taur-im-Duinath 'The Forest between Rivers']; this latter is said to have passed into Telerin as a
      noun applied to a narrow gap between high walls; in S this conflicted with the reflexive pronoun im
      'I myself (the same)' [see the Moria Gate Inscription in LotR, Book II, Chapter 4], but the element
      used to mean 'narrow gap' is said to have been retained in the S only in the name 'Imladris' (next)
      and the word imrad 'a narrow path in the mountains or forest'; apparently Tolkien broadened that
      restriction to include 'Imlad' in this name and 'Imloth' (below) [also see Imrath Gondraich 'Stonewain
      Valley'; Unfinished Tales, Index]; mor dark [Sil]; gûl sorcery [Sil]; valley and stream in the Ephel
Imladris     S; Rivendell, 'Canyon of the Cleft'; imlad see previous; RIS- cut, Nol rhis a ravine [Etym], S
      ris [Sil] - used here as a double-intensive: 'very narrow very deep valley'; home of Elrond, the Half-
      elven; see Sil; see Gallery
Imloth Melui     S; Sweet flower Valley; im- see Imlad Morgul; loth flower, blossom [Sil]; mel- love (as
      friend), dear [Sil]; melui is an adjective form; a valley in Gondor known for its roses
Imrahil, Prince     Num; Dúnadan of Gondor, one of the Captains of the West
Incánus     ?Southron or archaic Q; a rare name of the wizard Gandalf; ID- heart, Q indo heart, in- [Etym];
      related might also be ING- first, Q ing- [Etym]; the discussion* relates the second element to káno
      commander [Sil], from a Common Eldarin base KAN(2) cry, call aloud, Q káno commander [not in
      Etym]; it would seem logical to assign the meaning bold minded to the name; however, incanus in
      Latin means grey, or grey-haired, which Tolkien credits as his inspiration; the ending of the  name
      may hint at AYAN- holy, Q Ainu angelic spirit [Etym], as Gandalf was presumed to be one of the
      lesser Ainur, or Maia; see Gandalf
          * Unfinished Tales, Part Four, Chapter II, JRR Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien, Ballantine Books, 1988
Ingold     S? ?Wise-hearted; ID- heart, desire, Nol inn, ind inner thought, heart [Etym]; ÑGOL- wise ...
      ÑGOLOD- one of the wise folk, Nol *ngolda, Doriathrin ngol [Etym], S golodh, gûl [Sil]; either the
      name is fashioned on the ancient Noldorin - as some noble names of Gondor were said to be, or the S
      is shortened for effect; Ingeld is the name of a king in Beowulf; man of Gondor
Inland Sea     anglicized form of CS; the index seems to assign this term to Nûrnen, a small inland sea in
      the southern area of Mordor; however, the text seems to refer to the Sea of Rhûn ['east' - rómen east,
      S rhûn, -rûn (Sil)]
Ioreth     S? woman of Gondor, a healer; -eth is a little used fem. ending; if  ior- is the S form of iaur old
      [see Iarwain Ben-adar] that would mean she was named 'Old woman', which indicates that that was
      not her original name; she is said to have come from Arnach [or Lossarnach], a pre-Númenórean
      district, so perhaps the name is M; there is an old Welsh male name Ioreth [< Iorweth < Iorwerth;
      English Yorath], a combining form of iôr lord + gwerth worth, perhaps adapted here to a female
      name in an ancient Mannish tongue of Gondor; ior- appears in the root YUR- Nol iôr course, run
      [Etym], perhaps with an idea of 'rushing to aid'
Iorlas     S? ?Running leaf; ior- see previous; YUR- Nol iôr course, run [Etym]; see previous; LAS¹-
      leaf [Etym]; man of Gondor
Irensaga     probably Roh; Saw tooth; iren variant of 'iron'; AS sagu saw, saw-toothed; the jagged peak
      over Dunharrow
Iron Crown     anglicized form of CS; crown of Morgoth [First Age] containing the Silmarilli
Isen (River)     Roh; Iron (-cold); adapted to M from S angren of iron, from anga iron, S ang [Sil] - cold
      (as) iron; AS isen, isern iron; river  forming western border of Rohan
         Fords of     anglicized form of CS; the fords were south of Isengard just before the river turned
                  sharply westward on its lengthy journey to the sea Belegaer; it gave way to the Greenway,
                  the Old South Road northward to the Shire
Isengard     Roh; Iron court; isen- see previous; AS geard enclosure, dwelling; the rock was as 'hard as
      iron'; tower-fortress built and abandoned by Gondor, became the headquarters of Saruman; see Sil
Isengrim     anglicized form of names of two Hobbits; Roh isen = iron, which is close to the Hobbit
      speech; OE grim fierce; a high-sounding Hobbit name
Isenmouthe     Roh; Jaws of Iron; isen see previous; AS muða mouth [entrance]; a pass in Mordor
      fortified by iron posts; Isenmouthe is the Roh form of the S Carach Angren
Isildur     S; Moon mate, probably a reference to the White Tree of Númenor; Dúnadan of the Second
      Age; see Sil
Isildur's bane     Isildur see Sil; his 'bane' was Sauron's One Ring, which Isildur kept rather than assign
      to the flames of Orodruin, and caused it to be lost at his death in the ambush at the Gladden Fields
ithildin     S; starmoon [literally Moon-portal]; sil- ... S Ithil Moon, silver light [Sil]; DEN- hole, Nol dîn
      opening; the door jamb was made from Mithril silver to form door posts, and only appeared visible
      in starlight or moonlight after speaking the correct words
Ithilien     S; Moon land, or 'Land of Silvery Moonlight'; ithilsee previous; -ien is a place-name suffix
      perhaps connected with YAN- sanctuary [Etym]; almost certainly LIND- fair, beautiful [Etym] is
      implied, connected with LIN²- singing [Etym; see Sil entry Lindon]; a strip of land in Gondor
      between Mordor and the Anduin; the name was given in the early days of Gondor when it was
      described as a 'beautiful land'; late in the Third Age it fell under the shadow of Mordor and became
Ithilstone     S and anglicized form of CS; ithil see previous; one of the palantíri
Ivy Bush, The     anglicized form of H; a tavern in the Shire

Key of Orthanc     anglicized form of CS; actually two keys to the tower at Isengard
Keys of Barad-dûr     anglicized form of CS; keys to the Dark Tower
Khand     eastern M; the name could relate to KHAYA- distant [Etym], or KHUGAN- bay [like a dog], Q
      and Nol huan hound [Etym]; the name may be inspired by the Khant, or Ostyak people of the Ural
      Mountain Area of western Siberia - in the sense of 'remote'; in The Lord of the Rings Khand is the
      land of the Variags [or 'Varangian', q.v.], which name is taken from a Scandinavian tribe that actually
      settled the Kiev region of the Ukraine just west of the Khant habitat; extreme southeast region
      beyond Mordor, generally considered an ally of Sauron
Khazad-dûm     D for S Moria - black chasm; see Sil
Kheled-zâram     D for CS Mirrormere - glass lake
Kibil-nâla     D for CS Silverlode
King of the Dead     anglicized form of CS; chief of a mountain tribe of Gondor
King of Gondor     anglicized form of CS; see Aragorn
         of the Mountains     anglicized form of CS; same as King of the Dead
kingsfoil     anglicized form of CS; Latin folium, Middle English foil leaf; a healing plant; see athelas
Kings Under the Mountain     anglicized form of CS; Dwarves of Erebor

Lagduf     B; perhaps Blade-smasher; an Orc
Lake Evendim      anglicized form of CS; apparently Nenuial Lake of Twilight - see Sil
Lamedon     ancient M; could possibly relate to LAM- Q láma echo [Etym], and gond stone [Sil; the final
      -d was sometimes dropped in place names]; perhaps derived from Old French lampe light: 'Bright
      land'; possibly Welsh in origin: llam [lham] leap(-ing) + -don land, place - perhaps meaning 'hilly', or
      'leaping waters' or similar; an area of Gondor, one of the names of this region appearing to sound
      Elvish-like but presumed to be of ancient pre-Númenórean origin
Lampwrights' Street     anglicized form of CS term for S Rath Celerdain; broad street at Minas Tirith
Land of Shadow     anglicized form of CS term for Mordor
Landroval     S; Great range; LAD- Q landa wide, Nol lhand [Etym], S (l)and; RAM- wing, Q ráma, Nol
      rhofal (*ramale) pinion, great wing [Etym; Q m > S v by lenition]; an eagle
Langstrand     anglicized form of CS term for S Anfalas - long shore; OE lang long; OE strand shore
Lassemista     Q; Grey leaf; LAS¹- leaf, Q lasse [Etym]; -mista would seem to come from MIS- stray, Q
      mista- stray about, err [Etym]; however, in his Letters Tolkien translates the term as leaf-grey;
      apparently the etymology is found by combining MIZD- Q miste fine rain (*mizde) [Etym] with
      KHIS-, KHITH- mist, fog, Q híse [Etym; the term is often used to imply grey; the stem MITH- white
      fog (Etym), often used for grey, is 'Nol' (S) only]; rowan tree in Fangorn Forest cut down by Orcs
Last Alliance     anglicized form of CS; alliance against Sauron between Men And Elves at the end of
      the Second Age
Last Bridge, the     anglicized form of CS; bridge on the Great East Road at the River Hoarwell
Last Homely House     anglicized form of CS; house of Elrond at Rivendell
Last Mountain     anglicized form of CS term for S name Methedras; southern-most peak of the Misty
Last Shore     anglicized form of CS; the 'last shore' was in the Uttermost West - Valinor, or Aman
Láthspell     Roh; Ill tidings; it could relate to LAS²- listen, Nol lhathro eavesdrop [Etym], and SKAL¹-
      screen, hide [Etym] - an eavesdropper; AS lað hateful, insulting, evil; AS spell speech, news; name
      given to Gandalf by Gríma
Laurelindórnan      Q name for S Lothlórien; Land of the valley of singing gold; laurë gold [Sil]; lin
      sing [Sil]; dôr land [Sil]; nan(d) valley [Sil]
``Lay of Nimrodel''     anglicized form of CS; song about the early days of Lórien
Leaflock     anglicized form of CS; an Ent; see Finglas
Lebennin     S; Five rivers; LEP-, LEPET finger ... LEPEN five [Etym]; nen water, river [Sil]; an area of
lebethron     perhaps M adapted to S? AS leb, lef leaf; ?AS eðr, ædre vein, pulse; since staves from the
      tree were described as bent like a shepherd's crook, in S the name could derive from LEP-, LEPET
      finger, and STAR- stiff, Nol tharn [Etym], with an Ilkorin [S] derivative STARAN- thrôn stiff, hard
      [Etym]; this analysis is supported by an early name for the wood in Tolkien's writing: lebethras;
      -thras is a Nol derivative of STAR- stiff [Etym]; a tree of Gondor with black wood used for ornate
Legolas     S? Green leaves; the name is said to be S, although his father's name - Thranduil - appears to
      be Silvan; Tolkien says the name is formed from laeg [S from LÁYAK- fresh, green (Etym)] + go-lass
      'a collection of leaves' [from WO- together, (in names) go- (Etym) + LAS¹- leaf (Etym)]; the element
      legol occurs under LEK- loose, Ilkorin [S] legol running free [Etym], and may be implied here; an
      early base of 'fresh' was LAYA flourish, with a derivative laisi vigour [not in Etym], and the
      implications of Legolas could be 'wild and free' [legolais]; an Elf, part of the Company of the Ring
lembas     S; waybread; see Sil
Léof[a]     Roh; Beloved; AS leof beloved one; title of a generous king of Rohan, Brytta; AS brytta
      giver, lord
Lieutenant of the Tower     anglicized form of CS or B; also identified as the Mouth of Sauron; a black
      Númenórean sorcerer who lengthened his life to thousands of years and served Sauron; see Sil
      entry Nazgûl
Lightfoot      anglicized form of Roh; a horse of Rohan
Limlight (River)     Roh; Clear branch; AS lim branch; AS leoht light, clear; at times Tolkien rendered
      this name in S form: limlich; lim- 'remains obscure' says Tolkien - i.e.: perhaps M adapted to S [note
      LINKWI- Q linqe wet, Nol lhimp (Etym)]; SLIG- Q lia fine thread (presumed *liga) [Etym], ?S lich -
      'slender rivulet'; lowlands river forming the northern border of Rohan
Lindir     S; Singer; lin-² sing [Sil]; DER- adult male, Nol dîr [used agentally; Etym]; an Elf
Linhir     S or M? in S the name would be River lake: lin¹ pool, mere [Sil], and sîr river ... s > h in the
      middle of words [Sil]; in M the name would most likely derive from Welsh llyn lake + hir long - 'Long
      Lake'; on one map there is a 'balooning' of the River Gilrain just above the town, and the name was
      often referred to as the 'Fords of Linhir'; probably one of those words that sound Elvish but are of
      'pre-Númenórean' origin; in either tongue the meaning is approximately the same; a town of Gondor
Lithe (Midsummer)     anglicized form of H; AS liða summer months; also AS lið cider, native wine,
      implying that a robust festival was likely held at this time; the period [3-4 days] of  'Midsummer'
Lithlad     S; Ash plain; lith ash [Sil]; lad plain, valley [Sil]; a scorched tableland in Mordor; see Gallery
Lockholes, the     anglicized form of H; a prison in the Shire
Lonely Mountain     anglicized form of CS for S Erebor
Longbottom     anglicized form of H; a village in the Shire, became source of pipeweed
Longbottom Leaf     anglicized form of H; pipeweed
Longholes     anglicized form of H name
Long Lake, the     anglicized form of CS; lake below the Lonely Mountain, site of Esgaroth
Lóni     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Lóni; an obscure name, perhaps loði fur cloak; a
      Dwarf; see Gallery
Lord of Barad-dûr     anglicized form of CS and S; see Sauron
         of the Dark Tower     anglicized form of CS; see Sauron
         of Lamedon     see Lamedon; see Angbor
         of Lossarnach     see Lossarnach; see Forlong
         of the Mark     anglicized form of CS; see Théoden
         of the Ring(s)     anglicized form of CS; see Sauron
Lórien     Q; Dream place; see Sil [two entries]
Lossarnach     S and M; Flowery Arnach; LOT(H) flower, Q losse blossom [Etym], S loth, los; Arnach
      is stated to be 'pre-Númenórean', and might relate to AS ærnan ride, gallop; in detailed descriptions
      about Arnach, both J.R.R. Tolkien and his son Christopher spoke of the beautiful orchards of the
      low-land areas, and speculated that the 'flowery' description in Elvish might be attributed to fruit
      blossoms; in this vein is the Gaelic àirne a sloe, Middle Irish arni sloes, Welsh eirin plums [eirian =
      fair, beautiful], even to the Sanskrit aranka forest; -ach  is a diminutive (plur) suffix in Welsh [but
      sometimes denotes contempt] - 'small fruit (blossoms)'; in S los(s) can designate either 'snow' or
Lost Isle     anglicized form of CS term for Tol Eressëa, lying eastward of Valinor; 'lost' because the
      lands of the Uttermost West were removed behind the veil of the Shadowy Seas
Lothlórien     S; Flowery dream place or Garden dream place; loth flower [Sil]; see Sil Lórien
      [two entries]
Loudwater (Bruinen) River     anglicized form of CS for Bruinen
Lugbúrz     B for Mordor's Dark Tower; see also Barad-dûr
Lugdush     B; an Uruk-hai Orc; lug = tower
Lune     S; Blue; LUG²- blue, Q lúne, Nol lhûn [Etym], S luin [adjective], and [presumed] lûn, perhaps
      modified with an unknown suffix -ee
          Mountains of     anglicized form of S Ered Luin; orod mountain, plural ered [Sil]
          Gulf of     anglicized form and Lhûn; see Gallery
Lúthien Tinúviel     S; Comely daughter of twilight; an Elven princess; see Sil; see Gallery

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