*** L o r d   o f   t h e   R i n g s ***
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D i c t i o n a r y
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* M - Q *
Abbreviations

AS       Anglo-Saxon
B          Black Speech
CS        Common Speech
D          Dwarvish
Etym    Etymologies
H          or 'Hob' - Hobbit Dictionary [mixed with CS]
M        Mannish
Nol      Noldorin [ancient Elven]
Num    Númenórean
OE       Old English
Q         Quenyan [High Elven]
Roh     Rohirric
S          Sindarin [Common Elven]
Sil        Silmarillion Appendix - Dictionary
comb.    combining form
plur.       plural
fem        feminine
masc     masculine


Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [Sil]
Words of the language of the Rohirrim are traced to possible roots in the ancient Elven tongue,
      although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are derived from ancient
      English, especially Anglo Saxon

=====

Mablung     S; Heavy hand; see Sil
Maggot, Farmer     anglicized form of H name; it would be difficult to account for this choice of names
      for the family of Hobbits, except Tolkien cautions that his intention is that the name sound Hobbit-
      like [involving a jest] yet be meaningless; Farmer Maggot did grow mushrooms; Tolkien toyed with
      the idea of making the farmer other than a Hobbit at times
Malbeth the Seer     S and anglicized CS; Gracious speech; mal- gold [Sil]; KWET- (and PET-) say, Nol
      peth word [Etym], S beth; a Dúnadan of the Northern Kingdom of the Third Age
mallorn (plur. mellyrn)     S; gold tree; mal- gold [Sil]; orn tree [Sil]; a tree with golden leaves in
      Lothlórien and also in Aman
mallos     S; snow gold; mal- see previous; los snow [Sil]; a golden flower growing in Lebennin
Man in the Moon     anglicized form of CS; a fictional character in tales of the Shire and Gondor
Mardil     Q; known as the Faithful; a Dúnadan, first ruling Steward of Gondor; see Sil for actual
      meaning
Marigold     anglicized form of H name; Hobbits often named their daughters after flowers; this golden
      flower name implies Fallohide genes
Marish, the     anglicized form of H; OE merisc marsh; an area of the Shire
Mark, the    anglicized form of Roh; AS mearc district; implied is AS mearh horse; see grad in Hob; see
      Riddermark
Master of the Hall     anglicized form of H term; Brandybuck Hall; see Brandybucks
mathom     anglicized form of H term kast (older castu), Roh kastu; AS maðum treasure, gift
Mathom-house     anglicized form of H; a museum of armour in the Shire; see previous
Mauhúr     B; -uhúr may be a suffix for Uruk [Uruk-hai], a large type of Orc of Isengard; mat- is said to
      mean 'die'; perhaps 'Death Uruk'; an Orc
Mayor of Michel Delving     anglicized form of H; see Whil Whitfoot
Mearas     Roh; AS mearh horse [English mare]; royal horses of Rohan
Meduseld     Roh; Mead hall, Golden Hall; AS meduseld mead-hall; AS medu mead (a drink); AS seld
      hall, palace; a palace in Rohan with a golden roof
Mellon     S; friend; mel- love ... S mellon friend [Sil]; the suffix is probably -ron - 'one who is' or 'one
      who does' [example: Sauron 'one who is abominble'] - taken from hrón, rhón body; r > l as a
      combining form following initial -l- in S; password spoken by Gandalf at the west entrance to Moria
Mellyrn     plur. of Mallorn
Men     second of the Children of Ilúvatar [Erusen]; mortals
         of the Ancient Houses     three houses of the Edain [sing. Adan - see Sil] came west into
                  Beleriand following their awakening at the first rising of the Sun, and became vassals to the
                  Noldorin chiefs there; the First House: Bëor; the Second House: Haleth; the Third House:
                  Hador
         of the Mountains     see Dead, the ... Grey Host
         of Númenor     the Edain
         of the Sea     the Dúnedain of Númenor
         of the Twilight     those of the Edain that did not depart for Númenor at the beginning of the
                  Second Age; Robert Foster - Complete Guide to Middle Earth - identifies these men as
                  including the Rohirrim, the Northmen, and likely also the Beornings, the Men of Dale and of
                  the Long Lake, the Woodmen, and various groups of Men of the vales of the Anduin
         of the West     the Dúnedain of Númenor
         of Westernesse     the Dúnedain of Númenor
Meneldil     Q; Devotee of the heavens; menel the heavens [Sil; MEN- place (Etym) + EL- star (Etym)];
      -(n)dil devotion [Sil]; also see Sil; a Dúnedain king, perhaps an astronomer
Meneldor     S; Home in the sky; menel see previous; dôr land, home [Sil]; an eagle
Menelvagor     S; Swordsman of the Sky; Q Menelmacar; menel- see previous; vagor is a S variant of Q
      macar [MAK- sword, Nol magol, Q mahta- wield a weapon (Etym), blended with MA3- hand, Q
      mahta- handle (Etym), plus (presumed) KAR- make, do (Etym) or KWAR- clutching hand, Q qár
      (Etym)]; in S m = v by a process called 'lenition'; the constellation Orion; see Sil Menelmacar
Mere of Dead Faces     anglicized form of CS; the Dead Marshes expanded over time to cover the
      Dagorlad battlefield; candle-lit faces of dead Elves and Men could be seen beneath the surface, but
      not reachable
Merethrond     S; Feast hall; mereth feast [Sil; see Sil entry Mereth Aderthad]; rond [cave] domed roof,
      large hall [Sil]; the Great Hall of Feasts at Minas Tirith
Methedras     S; Last peak; MET-, Nol meth end [Etym]; ET- forth, out, Nol ed- (Etym)]; RAS- stick up,
      horn, mountain [Etym]; southern-most summit of the Misty Mountains
Michel Delving     anglicized form of H; OE micel great; delving = burrow [digging]; capital of the Shire
Michel Delving Museum     anglicized form of H; see Mathom-house
Middle Days     anglicized form of CS; the Second and Third Ages; see also Elder Days
Middle-earth     anglicized form of CS; Q Endórë, S Ennor; ÉNED- centre, Q ende middle [Etym]; NDOR-
      Q nóre land; all those lands lying east of the Great Sea [Belegaer], north of Far Harad and
      west of Rhûn
Midgewater Marshes     anglicized form of CS; marshes east of Bree on the Great East Road
Minas Anor     S; Tower of the (Setting) Sun; see Sil; original name of Minas Tirith
Minas Ithil     S; Tower of the (Rising) Moon; see Sil; became known as Minas Morgul
Minas Morgul     S; Tower of Sorcery; see Sil; originally known as Minas Ithil
Minas Tirith     S; Tower of Guard; see Sil [both entries]; also known as ``the City´´
Mindolluin     S; Towering blue-head; see Sil
Min-Rimmon     S and M; Point of Rimmon; minas tower [Sil] [implied], from MINI- stick out, Nol min
      one [Etym]; Rimmon is described as 'of pre-Númenórean' origin; the name could derive from AS hrim
      hoar-frost, in the sense of 'white' and 'ancient'; Tolkien's notes apparently define the term as 'group
      of crags'; in Welsh is the word rhimyn, a 'band' or 'narrow strip'; thus Min-Rimmon = one of a band
      (of rocky crags); if there was a tower there it may be implied in min-; in Gaelic rinn means 'a point,
      promontory'; interestingly, AS hrieman means 'to cry out', as a lookout might do, which may have
      been why the Rohirrim continued to use the name; a beacon hill of Gondor
Mirkwood     anglicized form of CS; Middle English mirke, OE mirce darkness [English: murky]; S Taur
      e-Ndaedelos [taur forest (Sil); e- = of, in; dae shadow (Sil); DYEL- fear, abhor, Nol deloth (see Etym);
      Forest of dark fear]; see also Sil Mirkwood
Mirrormere     anglicized form of CS term for D Kheled-zâram - glass lake; a lake in Azanulbizar
Mirror of Galadriel     anglicized form of CS; a clairvoyant basin of water at Lothlórien
miruvor     Valarin-influenced; ambrosia; also miruvóre; Tolkien says that the name is derived from the
      language of the Valar, and the meaning is not certain; he goes on to compare the word with the
      Greek nektar, to which he ascribes the meaning 'death defeater'; in The War of the Jewels, in a
      section called 'Language of the Valar', p. 399, Tolkien refers this word to an element mirub- wine; in
      Eldarin: mîr jewel, precious thing [Sil]; -u- seems a comb. form, but could hint at ULU- pour, flow
      [Etym]; BOR-, Q voro ever [Etym]; a drink at Rivendell, the name taken from a nectar of the Valar
Misty Mountains     anglicized form of CS; see Sil Hithaeglir; a great chain of mountains that effectively
      act as a continental divide for Middle Earth
Mitheithel River     S; Grey spring; mith grey [Sil]; eithel well, spring [from its source] [Sil; ET- forth,
      out (Etym) + KEL- run, et-kele issue of water, Nol eithel (t and k transposed; Etym)]; see Hoarwell
         Bridge of     anglicized form of CS; see Last Bridge
Mithlond     S; Grey havens; the major port of departure for the Undying Lands; see Sil; see Gallery
Mithrandir     S; Grey Pilgrim; see Gandalf ... the Grey; see Sil
mithril (truesilver)     S; glittering grey; mith- see previous; RIL- glitter [Sil]; unique silvery metal
      found by the Dwarves in the mines of Khazad-dûm [Moria]
Morannon     S; Black gate; mor dark, black [Sil]; annon great door or gate [Sil; AD- gate, Nol annon
      great gate (Etym); the -on ending appears to be an augmentative form, perhaps related to ONO-
      beget (Etym)]; strategic gates of Mordor; also Teeth of Mordor, Towers of the Teeth, Narchost,
      Carchost
Mordor     S & Q; S Black Land or Q Land of Shadows [Sil]; MOR- black, Q mordo shadow [Etym], S
      môr black, morn dark ['Morndor' (morn + ndor), but the -n-n- becomes a syncope; Tolkien mentions
      this construction, but it does not appear to be the common etymology]; dôr land, from ndor [Sil];
      mountain-locked land settled by Sauron in the Second Age, secured by him in the Third, blackened
      by the ash of Orodruin and the evil of the Dark Lord
Morgai     S; Black fence or inner fence; mor- see previous; 'fence' is from an old S form cai, cail - a
      fence of spikes, from a base KEG- snag, barb [not in Etym]; the form is perhaps reflected in Etym in
      the stem KYEL- come to an end [snagged]; given the context, it may be that GÁYAS- fear, Nol gae
      dread [Etym] is implied; line of peaks just inside the Ephel Dúath running from the Morannon south
      beyond the pass at Cirith Ungol
Morgulduin     S; Black magic effluence; mor dark, black [Sil]; gûl sorcery [Sil]; duin river [Sil];
      corrupted stream that flowed from Minas Morgul west to the Anduin through Ithilien
Morgul-king (Morgul lord)     S and CS; morgul see previous; chief of the Nazgûl; see Black Captain
Morgul-knife     S and CS; morgul see previous; knife with which the Morgul-king wounded Frodo, and
      eventually led to his sailing to the Uttermost West
Morgul Pass     S and CS; morgul see previous; pass over the Ephel Dúath into Mordor, high above the
      Crossroads in Ithilien
Morgul-rats     S and CS; morgul see previous; Orcs guarding the Morgul Pass
Morgul-spells     S and CS; morgul see previous; black magic enchantments
Morgul Vale     S and CS for S Imlad Morgul; morgul see previous; lad valley ... imlad a narrow valley
      with steep sides [Sil]; a cut in the western slopes of the Ephel Dúath through which the Morgulduin
      flowed
Mordor     S & Q; S Black Land or Q Land of Shadows [Sil]; MOR- black ... Q mordo shadow [Etym], S
      môr; dôr land [Sil]; mountain-locked land settled by Sauron in the Second Age, secured by him in
      the Third, blackened by the ash of Orodruin and the evil of the Dark Lord
Morgai     S; black fence or inner fence; mor- see previous; 'fence' is from an old S form cai, cail - a
      fence of spikes, from an ancient stem KEG- snag, barb; the form is still reflected in Etym in the stem
      KYEL- come to an end; given the context, it may be that GÁYAS- fear ... Nol gae dread [Etym] is
      implied; line of peaks just inside the Ephel Dúath running from the Morannon south beyond the
      pass at Cirith Ungol
Morgulduin     S; black magic effluence; mor- see previous; gûl sorcery [Sil]; duin river [Sil]; corrupted
      stream that flowed from the pass at Cirith Ungol west to the Anduin through Ithilien
Morgul-king (Morgul lord)     S and CS; morgul see previous; chief of the Nazgûl; see Black Captain
Morgul-knife     S and CS; morgul see previous; knife with which the Morgul-king wounded Frodo, and
      eventually led to his sailing to the Uttermost West
Morgul Pass     S and CS; morgul see previous; pass over the Ephel Dúath into Mordor, high above the
      Crossroads in Ithilien
Morgul-rats     S and CS; morgul see previous; Orcs guarding the Morgul Pass
Morgul-spells     S and CS; morgul see previous; sorcery mentioned at the Council of Elrond
Morgul Vale     S and CS for S Imlad Morgul; morgul see previous; lad valley ... imlad a narrow valley
      with steep sides [Sil]; a cut in the western slopes of the Ephel Dúath through which the Morgulduin
      flowed
Moria     S; Black chasm; mor dark, black [Sil]; YAG- gape, Nol ia, iau gulf [Etym], S abyss [Letters,
      #297]; CS Phûru-nargian, from the mines' earlier meaning Dwarrowdelf; see also Khazad-dûm
         Mines of     anglicized form of CS; extensive tunnels and great halls delved within three great
                  peaks of the Misty Mountains; in the middle of the Third Age the Dwarves, while scouring
                  the mountain roots for mithril, uncovered a Balrog, an ancient fire demon; that is when it
                  received the name Moria
Morthond     S; Black root; mor- see previous; the last element would seem to derive from SUD- base,
      ground, sundo root, although the stem was not developed, so the derivatives are not clear [Etym];
      perhaps a related base would be STAN- fix, which yields in Nol thenid firm [Etym]; associated with
      Mornan - mor = black, nan = valley [see Sil], where rises its headwaters near the Paths of the Dead
      and the hill Erech [thus black] and flows southward to the Bay of Belfalas; see also Blackroot Vale
Mountain of Fire     anglicized form of CS; see Orodruin; see also Gallery
Mount Doom     anglicized form of CS; the Elvish name was Orodruin [see also Gallery]; see Sil Amon
      Amarth, the name given when the mountain erupted violently at the end of the Second Age
Mount Everwhite     anglicized form of CS for Q Oiolossë [see Sil], Eldar name for the peak of Taniquetil,
      site of the palace of Manwë in Aman; see also Ilmarin
Mount Fang     anglicized form of CS; see Orthanc
Mountains of Gondor     anglicized form of CS; the Ered Nimrais [White Mountains]
Mountains of Lune     anglicized form of CS; the Ered Luin [Blue Mountains]; see Lune
Mountains of Shadow     anglicized form of CS; see Ephel Dúath
Mountains of Terror     anglicized form of CS for S Ered Gorgoroth [orod mountain, plural ered (Sil);
      gor horror, dread ... -goroth of the same meaning, with reduplicated gor (hoth host, hoard; Sil)];
      chain of peaks forming the southern rim to the plain of Dorthonian in the First Age; 'terror' because
      the spawn of Ungoliant preyed on living things in the area south to the Girdle of Melian
Mountain Wall     anglicized form of CS; probably the incredibly high fence of peaks forming the Pelóri
      when the Valar removed the Undying Lands from the rest of Arda
Mouth of Sauron (Messenger)     anglicized form of CS; see Lt. of the Tower
Mugwort     anglicized form of H name; an aromatic plant once used medicinally; named after the midge,
      a small fly [OE migge, Old Swedish and Danish mug-], plus OE wort an herb or root, a plant named
      perhaps for its attraction of the midge flies
Mûmak     M; an oliphant - a large elephant; said to be in the 'Southron tongue', but could relate to MU-
      not, no [Etym] and MA3- hand ... MAG- handle [Etym] - perhaps hard to handle; one is tempted to
      assign the term to the OE mue stable or cage and AS maga maw, stomach, also powerful - i.e.
      powerful caged stomach or voracious eater; see Gallery
mûmakil     plural of Mûmak
Mundburg     Roh name for Minas Tirith; AS mund protection; AS burg fort, castle, walled town
         Mounds of     anglicized form of Roh name for the burial mounds of those who perished in the
                  Battle of the Pelennor Fields
Muzgash     B; -gash probably means 'fire'; an Orc
 
 
 

Naith (of Lórien; ``Tongue´´)     S; Wedge or Gore; SNAS-, SNAT- point, gore, Nol naith [Etym], S naith
      projection tapering to a point; angle of land between the Celebrant and the Anduin; see Egladil
Náli     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Náli; perhaps related to nál (-ar) needle, or
      ná-liga (adverb) nigh; a Dwarf of Erebor; see Gallery
Nameless     anglicized form of CS; see Sauron
Nameless Land     anglicized form of CS; see Mordor
Nameless Pass     anglicized form of CS; see Morgul Pass
Nan Curunír     S; Wizard's Vale; nan(d) valley [Sil]; Curunír is a S name for the Wizard Saruman
      [see Sil]; location of Isengard
Nanduhirion     S; Valley of dim streams; nan- see previous; dimness [Sil]; sîr river ... change of
      s to h in the middle of words [Sil]; -ion is a genetive plur ending; see Dimrill Dale
Narchost     S; Fire (tooth) fortress; nár fire [Sil]; os(t) fortress [Sil]; the form is changed to compliment the
      name of the other one of the Towers of the Teeth, Carchost, that became a stronhold of Mordor; see
      Morannon
Nardol     S; Fire head; nar- see previous; dol head [Sil]; one of the beacon hills of Gondor
Nargothrond     S; Cave fortress of the (River) Narog; Narog was shortened to make the name more
      lilting; the caves and surrounding kingdom of the Noldorin prince Finrod in the First Age; see Sil
Narrow Ice     anglicized form of CS; Icy fangs; Q Helcaraxë [khelek- ice (Sil), and carak- jaws, teeth
      (Sil) - see Sil entry]; jagged ice floes that formed a barrier between Middle Earth and Aman in early
      times; when the Noldor rebeled and left Aman, many perished trying to cross the ice; also
      Grinding Ice
Narsil     S; Silver flash; see Anduril
Narvi     D; probably the Viking name Narfi, which appears in the Landnámabók and is included in some
      versions of the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]; perhaps connected with Old Norse nár corpse,
      used in combinations to indicate pale skin; a Dwarf of Khazad-dûm; see Gallery
Narya (the Great)     Q; Ring of fire; also the Red Ring; in Q -ya is used to form adjectives, thus 'fiery';
      still, the ia, -ya afffix is often used in relation to a sense of enclosure; it may relate to WAY- enfold
      [Etym] and / or YAG- gulf [Etym; as an enclosed area]; a ring 'encloses' the finger; the element
      appears in void - as enclosing the Earth [Sil; from WAY-], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm [Sil;
      Q yanwe, from YAT- join (Etym)], and iâth fence - as an enclosure [Sil; source not certain, but
      apparently an ancient mutation from GAT(H)- cave, Doriathrin gad fence (Etym) - as an encircled
      space]; see also Sil; see Rings of Power
Nazgûl      B; Ring Wraiths or web of sorcery; see Sil for possible meaning; Sauron gave nine rings to
      Men, three of them to corrupted men of Númenor; while the Elves had the wisdom to suspect their
      three rings, and Dwarves proved immune to the effects of their seven, men were consumed by their
      own mortality to use them for personal gain; Sauron planned to control all the rings with the One
      Ring, and thus enslaved the nine; their whole being depended on Sauron's sorceries through the
      One Ring; their flesh burned away, and they were invisible except for their crowns and the grave-
      cloth-like cloaks that covered them; in the dark their eyes glowed red like smouldering coals,
      although it is believed they were nearly blind to natural things except the other Rings of Power; at
      times they were repelled by water, but other times they seemed to cross rivers with no hesitation;
      conventional weapons could not harm them; they communicated with a piercing scream that could
      chill even a wolf; they were 'bound' to the One Ring because its power extended their existence; the
      Elves never wore their three because they suspected they would be enthralled, although much of
      their gracious works were wrought by way of the power of The Three; when the One Ring was
      destroyed in the Fires of Doom the Nazgûl ceased to be, and the fair works of the Elves faded
         Black Riders     anglicized form of CS; the nine rode swift black horses at times
         Lord of     anglicized form of CS; also Witch King of Angmar
Necromancer     anglicized form of CS; technically means lover of the dead, is generally used for sorcery
      or conjuring; see Sauron
Neekerbreekers     anglicized form of H or CS; Samwise's name for noisy insects
Neldoreth     S; Beech forest; neldor beech [Sil]; -eth acts as a collective plural, thus: forest; it may be a
      variant of the S plural -ath [see Sil entry Argonath]; see Sil for more comeplete etymolgy
Nen Hithoel     S; Lake misty water; nen water [Sil]; hîth mist [Sil]; AY- pool, lake, Nol oel [Etym];
      widening of Anduin above the Falls of Rauros
Nenya     Q; Ring of water; also Ring of Adamant; in Q -ya is used to form adjectives, thus 'watery'; still,
      the ia, -ya afffix is often used in relation to a sense of enclosure; it may relate to WAY- enfold [Etym]
      and / or YAG- gulf [Etym; as an enclosed area]; a ring 'encloses' the finger; the element appears in
      void - as enclosing the Earth [Sil; from WAY-], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm [Sil; Q yanwe, from
      YAT- join (Etym)], and iâth fence - as an enclosure [Sil; source not certain, but apparently an ancient
      mutation from GAT(H)- cave, Doriathrin gad fence (Etym) - as an encircled space]; see also Sil; see
      Rings of Power
New Age     anglicized form of CS; Gandalf's name for the Fourth Age
New Row     anglicized form of H; New Age name for Bagshot Row in the Shire
Nicotiana     anglicized form of H; literally the New Latin botanical term for tobacco, named for Jean
      Nicot, French diplomat and scholar [circa 1600]; generic name for pipeweed
Night of Naught     anglicized form of CS; common name for Shadowy Seas that hid Aman
Nimbrethil     S; Silver birch; nim white [Sil; by a circuitous route from a base NIK-W- Q niqe snow,
      ninqe white, Nol nim, nimp, nif- (Etym; n > m, -kw- > Q q > Nol p, ph, f)]; brethil birch [Sil; from
      BERÉTH- beech + THIL- (variant of SIL-) shine silver or white (Etym)]; birchwoods in Arvernien
Nimloth     S; White blossom; nim- see previous; loth flower, blossom [Sil]; a female Elf of the First Age,
      and the White Tree of Númenor and its offspring at Minas Tirith in Gondor
Nimrodel     Silvan-influenced S; White grotto (lady); nim- see previous; ROD- cave, Nol rhauð hollow,
      cavernous [Etym], S rod; el- is a form of a feminine ending -iel, with el - elf - implied; lover of
      Amroth, named after a falls by the same name, so called by the Silvan Elves
Nindalf     S; Marshy bottom; CS Wetwang - AS wæt wet, rainy, and AS wang mead, meadow; nen
      water, (S) variant nîn wet [Sil], from NEN- water [Etym]; the variant may be influenced by NEI- tear,
      Nol nîn dripping, tearful [Etym]; DAL- flat, Nol dalf low lying vale; an earlier name was 'Palath
      Nenui': PAL- wide, Nol palath surface [Etym] + NEN- water, Nol nenn watery [-ui is an adjectival
      ending] - 'Watery Sward'; marshes by the Anduin just south of the Dead Marshes
Nine, the     anglicized form of CS; see Nazgûl
         Riders     anglicized form of CS; see Nazgûl
         Rings     anglicized form of CS; the nine rings given to men - Nazgûl
         Servants     anglicized form of CS; see Nazgûl
Nine Companions     anglicized form of CS; those that left Rivendell with Frodo; Companions of the Ring
Nine Walkers     anglicized form of CS; same as Companions of the Ring and Nine Companions
niphredil     S; snowdrop; small flower of Neldoreth and Lórien; see Sil
Noakes, Old     anglicized form of H family name; possibly related to AS nog many; Tolkien says
      common English name - possibly shortened form of ancient English atten oke - at the oak
Nob     anglicized form of H family name; the reference is to knob a rounded hill, ideal for a burrow
Noldor, the     Q; see Sil; see Elves; see Gallery
Noman-lands     anglicized form of CS; also Brown Lands
Norbury (King's Norbury)     anglicized form of CS term for Fornost; nor- shortened form of North;
      -bury same as borough - OE burgh, burw, AS burh (walled) town; see Sil
Nori     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Nóri; perhaps from nœra invigorate, sustain;
      member of Thorin and Company; see Gallery
Norland     anglicized poetic form of CS for Northland; generally denotes the northern skies where plies
      the star of Eärendil's ship with the Silmaril he carried to Valinor
North Downs     anglicized form of CS; hills North of Bree; see Fornost
Northerland     anglicized form of CS or Roh; all lands north of Rohan
Northern Fences     anglicized form of CS; northern reaches of the protected realm of Lórien
Northfarthing     anglicized form of H; farthing = fourthing; a quadrant of the Shire
North Kingdom     anglicized form of CS; see Arnor
Númenor     Q; West land; shortened from Q Númendor; andúnë west [Sil], from NDU- go down, Q
      númen west [MEN- place (Etym)]; NDOR- Q nóre land [Etym]; CS Westernesse - AS næss headland,
      ground; see Sil; see Gallery
Númenóreans     anglicized ending of Númenor, although it might be said to loosly derive from rim host,
      people [Sil]; the Edain that went to Númenor; also their language Adûnaic - presumably from andúnë
      sunset, west [Sil]
         Black     anglicized form of CS; after the Númenóreans became great seamen, they established
                  fortified pockets on the coasts of Middle Earth; those in Umbar in the far South were among
                  those corrupted by Sauron, and among those known as the Black Númenóreans
Nûrnen     S; Sad water; the first element derives from an old Q base NURU, which seems to mean
      'growl', but is extended to nurn lament, nurna- bewail, 'lament' in Gnomish [Nol]; the element also
      appears under NGUR- Q nuru death [Etym]; nen water [Sil]; land-locked body of water in Mordor;
      see Inland Sea
 
 
 

Ohtar     S; warrior; Dúnadan, survivor of the Battle of the Gladden fields at the start of the Third Age;
      see Sil
Óin     D; from the Old Norse prose 'Eddas' [as Óinn]; the names of almost all of the other Dwarves are
      from the 'poetic Edda' Voluspa; 'shy' has been proposed as a meaning [no derivation given], or as
      Ái 'ancestor'; a Dwarf; see Gallery
Oldbuck     anglicized form of H family name - Zaragamba [see Hob]
         Gorhendad     anglicized form of H; in Welsh the name implies 'patriarch' [gor = over, hen = old,
              dad = father (hen-dad = grandfather)]; the name originated in the tongues of the Anduin vales,
              probably related to Dunlendish; the actual H name was Ogmandab; changed the family name to
              Brandybuck
Old Forest, the     anglicized form of H; smallish forest between the Shire and the Barrow Downs with
      ancient trees that were somewhat Ent-like
Old Grange     anglicized form of H; from Latin granum barn, granary; a granary in the Shire
Old Guesthouse     anglicized form of CS; large staging hall at Minas Tirith
Old Road, the     anglicized form of CS; the Great East Road
Old Toby     anglicized form of H Zara-tobi; named for its first grower, Tobias Hornblower; a variety of
      pipeweed; see Hob
Old Winyards     anglicized form of H; OE win wine; a red wine of the Shire
Old World, the     anglicized form of H; essentially the time before Hobbits came to Eriador
Oliphaunt     anglicized form of CS; OE elefaunt, olifant; see Mûmak, mûmakil; see Gallery
Olórin     Q; Enabler, Counselor; ÓLOS- Q olor [to] dream, imagine [Etym]; in Q the -in suffix is used to
      denote a dative plural, acting somewhat causative here; still, there may be an implication of RED- Q
      rerin I sow, but more at RIM- numerous [Etym]; The Silmarillion [Of the Maiar] says of Olórin 'in
      the West': though he loved the Elves, he walked among them unseen, or in form as one of them,
      and they did not know whence came the fair visions or the promptings of wisdom that he put into
      their hearts; it is said he was a counsellor to the Vala Irmo [Lórien], and learned compassion at the
      feet of the Valier Nienna [see Sil for both names]; see Gandalf; see Sil
One Ring, the     anglicized form of CS; after Sauron, the Dark Lord, helped forge the three rings of the
      Elves, the seven rings of the Dwarves and the nine rings of Men, he devised the one Ruling Ring in
      the Second Age with which he intended to enthrall all the peoples of the other rings; the Dwarves
      had a natural immunity to the power of the rings, and the Elves became suspicious of Sauron's
      masquerade and hid their three; the effect was that Sauron only subverted the nine kings of men;
      since he had forged an abundance of his powers into the One Ring, it was essential that he possess
      it to maintain his dominion, and his greatest fear was its eternal destruction; see Eye, the; see the
      Rings of Power
Onodrim     Q-influenced S; WO- together, Q prefix o- 'together' [Etym]; NOT- count, Q onot- count up
      [Etym]; [under WO- it is stated that NOT- count and NUT- tie (bind - Etym) was combined in Exilic
      Nol as nod- (Etym)]; RIM- numerous, -rim [Etym] is a broadly used collective plural; in S either
      Onodrim or Enyd [< Onod] was a correct plural form; of course Enyd closely reflects the English
      'Ent'; apparently the effect is All united; the Ents are reputed to be the first sentient beings to walk
      the new grounds of Middle Earth; the Elf, Legolas, speaks of the Onodrim as 'ancient' even to the
      Elves, who were the first 'Children of Ilúvatar' to awaken; an alternate approach is ONO- [NO-]
      beget [Etym], and RIM- numerous, plur. -rim [Etym] - the Begotten, although the form may be more
      implied than overt; see Ents
Orald     M; AS oreald very old, from or beginning + eald , ald ancient; see Iarwain Ben-adar; see
      Tom Bombadil
Orcrist     S; Goblin cleaver; ÓROK- goblin, Q orko [Etym]; ris(t) cleave [Sil]; sword of the Dwarf
      Thorin Oakenshield
Orcs     S; foul; ÓROK- goblin, Q orko [Etym], although in one place Tolkien states the Quenya
      borrowed from the Nol orch, plur. yrch [Etym]; the stem is related to ERÉK- thorn, Nol ercho to
      prick [Etym]; also related stems would be RAG- crooked and RUK- demon [Etym; through an
      ancient Common Eldarin root *RUKU, referring to anything that causes fear; a 'strengthened' stem
      was *(G)RUK, further elaborated to *(Ñ)GURUK ?> *NGUR 'horror and ÑGUR- death (Etym)]; there
      is no convention as to the origin of these foul creatures; it is presumed that Morgoth started
      breeding them before the ages of the Sun and Moon, but from what? the Balrogs were considered
      to be fallen Maiar, like Sauron; but Orcs were slovenly and undisciplined, terribly mortal [at least in
      battle], not effective learners, and, indeed, seemed suited only to that purpose which they served -
      thralldom to a foul master; in the Third Age they became more man-like in stature, a result of cross-
      breeding [see Uruks]; there is, however, no record of female Orcs; the spelling Orc was actually the
      usage in Roh [AS 'demon', 'evil spirit']; the word occurs in Beowulf, line 112, as orcneas, which
      source also contains the word eotenas giants [see Ettendales]
         of the Eye     anglicized form of CS; see Eye, the
         of Mordor     anglicized form of CS; generally those guarding the mountain approaches to
                  Mordor and the Barad-dûr
         of the Mountains     anglicized form of CS; those of the Misty Mountains, especially those of
                  Moria
         of the White Hand     anglicized form of CS; those subject to Saruman, and many of the man-like
                  Orcs - the Uruk-hai; see Uruks
Orcs: Isengarders     anglicized form of CS; the Uruk-hai [see Uruks] under the control of Saruman
Orodruin      S; (Mount Doom), Mountain of [Red] Fire; orod mountain [Sil]; ruin red flame [Sil; from
      RUN red, S ruin fiery red (not in Etym)]; active volcano in Mordor whose fires were the hottest
      outside Valinor; Sauron forged the One Ring there, and only there could it be severed from the
      power forged into it; at the end of the Second Age the surviving leaders of the Last Alliance, which
      defeated Sauron on the slopes of Orodruin, begged Isildur to consign the One Ring to its fires;
      however, the One Ring had already taken hold of Isidur's vanity, and he carried it away and lost it,
      extending Sauron's dominion another full age; Gollum unwittingly put an end to the One Ring of
      Power when he fell into the Cracks of Doom in a cleft of Orodruin while holding The Ring, thus
      breaking Sauron's hold on any material form in the Earth; see Sil Amon Amarth; see Gallery
Orofarnë     Q; Mountain-dwelling [Letters, #168]; ORO- high ... ÓROT- mountain, Q oron mountain
      [Etym]; PHAR- reach, Q farya- suffice, (past tense farne) [Etym]; apparently Tolkien intended a
      loose interpretation: '(the) Mountains (have) Sufficed' = 'Mountain-dweller'; a rowan tree of Fangorn
      Forest
Oromë the Great     anglicized form of Q; horn blast; one of the most powerful Valar, Oromë spent a
      great deal of time in the 'eastern lands' [Middle Earth], and thus was first to encounter the newly-
      awakened Elves, and taught them the rudiments of language, which led to them calling themselves
      Quendi - the speakers - KWEN(ED)- [Etym]; see Sil; see Gallery
Orophin     Silvan? ?Highly skilled or ?High one of skill; oro- see previous; PHIN- nimbleness, skill
      [Etym]; the earlier name Tolkien gave him was Rhimlath 'quick arrow' [RIP- rush, Nol rhimp (Etym)
      + LATH- string (Etym)]; Silvan Elf, border watcher of Lórien
Orthanc     S; Forked height; or [-o] see previous; STAK- split, Nol thanc forked [Etym]; a tower
      formed of four pillars became known in Rohan as Isengard; in CS Mount Fang; in Roh Cunning
      Mind - AS orðanc - cleverness, skill
Orthanc-stone     anglicized form of S and CS; one of the palantíri, the 'seeing stones'; this one fell into
      the hands of Saruman when he took possession of Orthanc and ensnared him into the schemes of
      Sauron, who possessed a palantír from the fall of Minas Ithil in Gondor
Osgiliath     S; Citadel of the Stars; ancient capital fortress of Gondor that bridged the Anduin;
      abandoned in the middle of the Third Age; see Sil; see Gallery
Ossiriand     S; Seven rivers land; see Sil
Outlands     anglicized form of CS; subjugate lands of coastal Gondor
Overhill     anglicized form of H; village of the Shire
Over-heaven     anglicized form of CS; an intermediate region of the heavens; for example, see Ilmarin;
      known in Q as Tarmenel, the region of the winds of Manwë [tar- high (Sil), and menel the heavens
      (Sil)]
 
 
 

palantír     Q; far seeing; palan Q far [Sil; from PAL- open, Q palla wide open (Etym) + LAD- wide, Q
      landa (Etym)]; tir watch over [Sil]; crystalline globes that could see scenes at a distance, especially
      near another palantír and especially for communicating over long distances; fashioned by the
      Noldor in Aman to allow their kindred to see the Undying Lands while still in Middle Earth; a
      number were given to the Númenóreans as a gift of the Eldar
palantíri     Q; plural of palantír; it is not clear how many of the stones were wrought, but seven were
      sent by the Elves to Númenor, and thus came to Middle Earth with the departure of Elendil; one was
      a 'master' in the sense that it could view all the others at the same time; it went to Osgiliath in Gondor
      and was eventually lost; one went to Minas Ithil in Gondor and eventually fell into the hands of
      Sauron; one to Minas Anor, which city was renamed 'Minas Tirith' ... came to be used by the last
      Steward, Denethor, who immolated himself with the stone in his hands; one stone went to Orthanc
      [Isengard], enthralled Saruman to Sauron's designs, and eventually came into the hands of King
      Elessar [Elf-stone - Aragorn], who was strong enough to resist Sauron and use the stone to aid
      victory in the War of The Ring, and thus remained in Minas Tirith past the time recorded in the tales;
      one went to Annúminas, went later to Fornost, and was lost with one from Amon Sûl in the
      shipwreck of Arvedui [q.v.]; the seventh went with Elendil to Elostirion in the Tower Hills [near the
      Grey Havens], which was treasured by the Elves as it looked only to Aman and could communicate
      with relatives there ... this stone went over-sea with the Keepers of the Ring in the Fourth Age
Parth Galen     S; Green sward; one presumes the source of parth as PATH- level space, sward [Etym];
      in Unfinished Tales, Part Two, Chapter IV, Appendix C, Tolkien states that parth means '(enclosed)
      field (of)'; however, the S form parth cannot directly derive from PATH-, nor any published base
      available; this author proposes a subsidiary stem PARAT-, combining PATH- smooth, N pathw
      sward and GARAT- Nol garth fort (as an enclosed space; this stem is not in Etym and may have
      been abandoned, but the form garth 'stronghold, realm' was retained under GAR- hold (Etym)]; the
      definition 'fenced field' occurs under the stem PEL(ES)- Old Nol pele [Etym; see Pelennor below],
      but this stem was broadened to include a group of dwellings enclosed in a fortification, and perhaps
      Tolkien wanted a more specific term for a relatively small protected open area, whether naturally
      sheltered or by design; see Celebrant, Field of, a small sward protected by the rivers Clebrant and
      Anduin, and by the Elves of Lothlórien; the second element is from kal- (gal-) bright, calen (galen)
      green [Sil]; Parth Galen is a narrow grassy strip which lies snuggled closely between the waters of
      Nen Hithoel on the East and the rugged slopes of Emyn Muil on the west and the heights of Amon
      Hen above the Falls of Rauros
Paths of the Dead     anglicized form of CS; passage under the Ered Nimrais forbidden to the living except
      the heir of Isildur; see Dead, the; see Dunharrow
Pelargir     S; Garth of royal ships [Sil]; pel- encircle [Sil]; ar(a)- noble, royal [Sil]; KIR- Q kirya ship
      [Etym], cir- and -gir in S affixes; a great port of Gondor
Pelennor, the     anglicized form of CS and S; the Fenced land [see Parth Galen above]; pel- see
      previous; the -en affix is adjectival; dôr land ... from ndor [Sil; here the -nor form is used due to the
      -en of Pelen-]; a broad grassland before Minas Tirith enclosed by the great wall of Rammas Echor;
      the decisive clash of the War of the Ring was called the Battle of the Pelennor Fields
perian, Pheriannath     S; halflings; see Hobbits
Phial of Galadriel     anglicized form of CS; a crystal bottle holding the light of Eärendil's Silmaril-star
      caught by the water in the Mirror of Galadriel at Lothlórien
Pickthorn, Tom     anglicized form of CS; OE pikken, AS pic; perhaps used in its obsolete meaning 'to
      trim'; member of a family of Bree
Pillars of the King     anglicized form of CS; see Argonath
Pimple     anglicized form of H; see Sackville-Baggins ... Lotho
Pinnath Gelin     S; Green downs; PEN-, PÉNNED- slope, Nol pend, penn [Etym], S -benn, plur. pinn;
      -ath is a S collective plur. [see Sil Argonath]; kal- (gal-) ... calen (galen) green [Sil]; 'Gelin' is a S
      plur. form of the modifier; perhaps the term penn is used in place of amon where the 'slopes' are
      more gentle; rolling hills in southwest Gondor
pipe-weed (leaf)     anglicized form of H; the anglicized form of CS was westmansweed; a form of tobacco;
      see also galenas, Nicotiana
Ponies     anglicized form of CS; Sharp-ears, Wisenose, Swish-tail, Bumpkin, White-socks, Tom and
      Nuncle Tim
Prancing Pony, The     anglicized form of CS; an inn at Bree
Proudfoot     anglicized form of H name; a family in the Shire
         Old Odo     anglicized form of H name
         Sancho     anglicized form of H name
Puddifoot     anglicized form of H name; OE pudd ditch, Middle English podel puddle; a family in the
      Shire; Tolkien says: A surname in the muddy Marish
Púkel-men     Roh; AS pucel goblin; see Puck in Shakespeare's Midsummer-Night's Dream; Roh name
      for two statues on the road to Dunharrow
 
 
 

Quickbeam     anglicized form of CS; AS beam tree; Hasty tree; a rowan tree; see Bregalad
Quick Post     anglicized form of H; postal system in the Shire
 
 

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