*** L o r d   o f   t h e   R i n g s ***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* R - Z *

AS       Anglo-Saxon
B          Black Speech
CS        Common Speech
D          Dwarvish
Etym    Etymologies
H          or 'Hob' - Hobbit Dictionary [mixed with CS]
M        Mannish
Nol      Noldorin [ancient Elven]
Num    Númenórean
OE       Old English
Q         Quenyan [High Elven]
Roh     Rohirric
S          Sindarin [Common Elven]
Sil        Silmarillion Appendix - Dictionary
comb.    combining form
plur.       plural
fem        feminine
masc     masculine

Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [Sil]
Words of the language of the Rohirrim are traced to possible roots in the ancient Elven tongue,
      although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are derived from ancient
      English, especially Anglo Saxon


Radagast the Brown     M; anglicized form of CS; AS rad wise, discerning ... ræde prepared [for -],
      skilled; AS gast angel, spirit; five Wizards were known to have come to Middle Earth, but only three
      are commented upon: Saruman the White, Gandalf the Grey and Radagast the Brown; Radagast
      seems to have been a naturalist [Q name Aiwendil: AIWE- (small) bird, Q aiwe (Etym) + NIL-, NDIL-
      friend, in names -nil, -dil (Etym) = 'friend of birds'], and may have thus abrogated his mission in the
      War of the Ring; he may have been a shape-shifter; [Tolkien makes the statement that the name was
      not interpretable, presumably to the people of the Anduin vales, much as Latin would be
      uninterpretable to most people today]
            The name appears in Slavonic history [Radigast, Radogost], but, while the figure is associated
            with wild animals, he appears to have had a war-like nature rather than being a naturalist
Radbug     B; perhaps rad- is a variant of -rat in Shagrat; by one interpretation, perhaps Shout
      obscenities; an Orc
Rammas (Echor)     S; (great) Encircling wall; ram wall [Sil]; the -as element is probably augmentative -
      'Great Wall' [see Celos]; the original stem is RAMBA- wall, Nol rhamb [Etym], S ram, with -mm-
      when followed by a vowel; echor encircling [Sil; from ET- forth, out (Etym) + KOR- round, Nol cór
      (Etym), S chor, gor]; sometimes called simply 'the Rammas'; the great wall that bordered the
      Pelennor Fields
Rangers     anglicized form of CS; Dúnedain warriors that patrolled remote areas; they were grim in
      appearance and led austere lives; most of their valuable risks went unregarded by those they
         of Ithilien     anglicized form of CS; those that patrolled the reaches of Mordor east of the Anduin
         of the North     anglicized form of CS; those that patrolled Eriador, especially the borders of the
Rath Celerdain     S; Lampwrights' Street; RAT- walk, Nol rath street [Etym; usually a steep street];
      KALAR- [from KAL- shine + (perhaps) LAR- rich, abundant (not in the published Etym)], Nol celeir
      brilliant [Etym]; TAN- make [Etym; S dan smith; the -i- forms a S plur.]; broad street at Minas Tirith
      [see next entry]
Rath Dínen     S; Silent Street; rath- see previous; the name indicated a long street, especially one with
      an incline, as rath generally implied 'climb' [see Amroth]; dîn silent [Sil]; the source of dîn is not
      given; it may relate to TIN- sparkle, which is extended in Nol to tinw small star, and tinnu dusk,
      twilight [Etym], as a 'quiet' time of day; -en is an adjectival ending in S; street at Minas Tirith that led
      from the Citadel down to the Tombs of the Kings; see Gallery
Rauros     S, perhaps M & S; Roaring mist; RAW- *rau lion [Etym], related to RAB- wild, untamed,
      Nol rhaw [Etym]; ros foam, fine rain [Sil]; AS rar, rarung roaring; the name appears to be a bit of a
      Tolkien 'jest'; falls on the Anduin east of Rohan
Red Arrow     anglicized form of CS; a royal emblem of Gondor sent to Rohan to call for help; red
      perhaps to denote blood, whether due to a blood oath or simply a dire need
Red Book (of Westmarch)     anglicized form of CS; much copied book by Bilbo, Frodo and Samwise of
      their adventures
Redhorn, the     anglicized form of CS; one of the major peaks of the Misty Mountains; in D Barazinbar;
      S Caradhras
Redhorn Gate     anglicized form of CS; also known as the Redhorn Pass and the eastern end as Dimrill
Remmirath     S; the Netted Stars; the first element would seem to derive from REP- bend ... rempa
      hooked [Etym]; more likely it derives from RAY net, knit, from which derives Q raima and S rem(m)
      net [not in Etym]; mîr jewel [poetically as 'stars'] [Sil]; -ath is a collective plural, see Sil Argonath; a
      constellation identified as The Pleiades
Renewer, the     anglicized form of CS; see Aragorn
Rhosgobel     Nol; Hedged brown mews; Tolkien actually translates the term 'Brownhay', where 'hay' is
      OE hæg hedge, enclosure; RUSKA- Nol rhosc brown [Etym]; PEL(ES)- fenced field, Nol gobel
      village (as an enclosure) [Etym]; the gobel form may prefix the stem KHOP- haven, which in the
      older lexicons developed the form gobos 'haven' and gob 'hollow'; however, in S it may be simply an
      expansive prefix from WO- together, S go- [Etym; see, for example, Legolas] - 'all enclosed', thus
      mews; retreat of Radagast in the southern reaches of Mirkwood
Rhûn     S; east [-ern]; rómen east, S rhûn [Sil; from RO- rise + MEN- place = sunrise = East]; inland sea
      east of Middle Earth and the lands beyond
Rhymes of Lore     anglicized form of CS; lays poetically detailing historical sagas
Riddermark, the     anglicized form of Roh Lôgrad [-, loho horse; grad district]; the Mark; AS ridere
      rider, knight, also AS ridehere mounted force; AS mearc district, borders; implied is AS mearh
      horse; see Rohan
Riddle-game     anglicized form of CS; a sort of intellectual contest to settle issues otherwise difficult of
Ringló Vale     anglicized form of CS and S; Valley of the cold flood; ring cold [Sil]; the last element
      derives from LOG-, S fenland, a stem not given in Etym, meaning 'swampy'; a river valley in
      Lamedon, Gondor
[Rings of Power     see Appendix A]
Ringwraiths     anglicized form of CS; wraith = shadow, phantom; see Nazgûl
Rivendell     anglicized form of CS term Karningul [see Hob]; Middle English riven to tear apart, rend;
      Middle English delle, from OE dæl valley; Steep cleft; home of Elrond the Half-elven on the western
      slopes of the Misty Mountains; see Gallery
Rohan     adapted form of S: roch horse, Rohan (from Rochand 'land of horses') [Sil]; LAD- wide, Nol
      lhand, lhann region, land [Etym; often shortened as a suffix in names]; ceded by Gondor to the
      cavalry of the Éothéod in the middle of the Third Age due to their service at the Battle of the Field of
      Celebrant; Rohan was a wide grassland bordered by the Ered Nimrais, the Misty Mountains and
      Fangorn Forest; it opened into the broad lowlands of the Anduin in the east; see Riddermark; see
              East Wall of     anglicized form of CS; steep cliff-fall on the eastern reaches of Rohan
              Gap of     anglicized form of CS; narrowing on western border of Rohan, site of the Fords of Isen
              Wold of     anglicized form of CS; AS weald possession, forest; area east of Fangorn Forest
Roheryn     S; Horse of the lady; roch horse [Sil]; heru lord, híril lady [Sil]; in S the -ryn ending would
      normally be a plur. for -ron; here it seems to denote a possessive form, but may be a variant of the S
      feminine form -en, which is adjectival: 'lady-horse' = horse of the lady; horse of Aragorn, so named
      as he received the horse from the Lady Arwen
Rohirrim     S; Horse masters; roh- see previous; heru lord, S hîr [Sil]; rim host, people [Sil]; the
      people of Rohan, in their own tongue 'Eorlingas' - sons of Eorl, especially their fierce warriors and
              Riders of Rohan     anglicized form of CS; cavalry units
              Horse-lords (-men)     anglicized form of S Rohirrim
              Riders of the Mark, or Rohan     anglicized form of CS; see Riddermark, the
Rules, the     anglicized form of H; the laws of the Shire
Rumble, Widow     anglicized form of H; ?OE romblen rumor, gossip; or perhaps realted to AS rumlic
      kind; member of a family of the Shire
Rúmil     Q; Student of secrets? an Elf of Valinor; there is no record that Rúmil ever returned east to
      Middle Earth; he also had disciples, such as Pengolod The Wise who had lived in Gondolin in the
      First Age; see Sil
Rushey     anglicized form of H; rush- see next; -ey 'small island'; high ground in the Marish in the
Rushlight     anglicized form of CS; OE rusche straw, reed; AS leóht not heavy, or OE liht light,
      probably denoting a pale color; family name at Bree

Sackville-Baggins     anglicized form of H; obnoxious branch of H family that died out after two
      generations; note sack and bag; see Baggins
         Lobelia     anglicized form of H name; Hobbits mostly named their daughters after flowers; lobelia
                  is described as having showy lipped flowers; her actual H name was Hamanullas
         Lotho     anglicized form of H; son of Lobelia and Otho; appointed himself the 'Chief' of the Shire
         Otho     anglicized form of H; kept character with the rest of the clan
Sammath Naur     Q-influenced S; Chambers of Fire; STAB- Q sambe chamber, Nol tham [Etym; S
      sammath would seem to be the exception to the rule; normally base st- becomes Q s-, Nol th- ||STAN-
      fix, Q sanda, Nol then (Etym); STAR- stiff, Q sara, Nol thâr (Etym) ... etc.|| the same holds true with
      the name Sauron, from THUS- foul, Q saura, Nol thû (Etym) - but S retains the Q phonology sau-];
      -ath is a S collective plural, see Sil Argonath; in S the -m- becomes -mm- before a vowel; nár fire, S
      naur [Sil]; fissures, including the Crack of Doom, in the volcanic mountain of Orodruin; see Gallery
Sandheaver     anglicized form of H; family name at Bree and in the Shire; presumably they burrowed into
      softer ground; there is a similar [archaic] expression in the southern U.S.: sandhillers, rustic folk who
      live in lowland pine regions of the piedmont
Sandyman the Miller     anglicized form of H family name; they operated a mill in the Shire
         Ted     anglicized form of H; allied himself with Lotho Sackville-Baggins
Sarn Ford     anglicized form of S Sarn Athrad ford of stones [see Sil]; ford across the Brandywine south
      of the Shire
Sarn Gebir     S; Rocky knobs or Stone spikes; sarn small stone [Sil]; KEPER- knob, Nol ceber, plur.
      cebir [Etym] S gebir [Etym is unclear in the original handscript for this stem, which may account for
      the word 'spikes' (Unfinished Tales); the start of the rapids are described as 'stake-like spikes of
      rock']; rapids on the Anduin above the Argonath
Saruman     M; Man of craft; AS searu cleverness, cunning; chief of the Wizards, known as The White
Sauron     Q; The Abhorred; see Sammath Naur above; see Sil; see Appendix B
Scary     anglicized form of H; Quarry; from Middle English skere a steep rocky emminence; AS scieran
      hew, cut; the word comes down from the Latin and Greek, as in 'scar' or 'escarpment'; the village of
      Scary was the site of stone quarries
Scatha the Worm     M; Fiend; AS sceaða assassin, devil; a dragon, slain in the middle of the Third Age
Seat of Seeing      anglicized form of CS; see Amon Hen
Second Age     anglicized form of CS; the period of approximately 3440 years from the overthrow of
      Morgoth to the defeat of Sauron by the Last Alliance; during this period the Rings of Power were
      forged, Númenor was created and populated and Mordor was developed as Sauron's base of power
Secret Fire     anglicized form of CS; a mystical power or quality that sustained life in creation, presumably
      emanating from the Creator; the pivot of the battle between good and evil
Seeing Stones     anglicized form of CS; see palantíri
Seven (Rings)     anglicized form of CS; of the Rings of Power, seven were forged for the Dwarves
Seven Stones     anglicized form of CS; see palantíri
Shadow, the     anglicized form of CS; essentially the product of evil in the world, specifically Morgoth
      and his spawn, including Sauron
Shadowfax     anglicized form of CS; Silver grey; AS sceaduw shade, duskiness; AS feax hair; Gandalf's
Shadow Host     anglicized form of CS; see Dead, The
Shadowmere     anglicized form of CS; a reflecting pond in Eldamar
Shagrat     B; shag- may be a dialectal variant of shakh lord, denoting his rank of captain; perhaps Cruel
      commander; Orc, captain of the tower at Cirith Ungol
Sharkey     anglicized form of H; the text says the name possibly derives from Orcish sharkû old man; it
      could be related to AS scearp shrewd, bitter, or Gaelic searg wither, Old High German swërcan, Old
      Saxon swercan become gloomy; stripped of his powers as a Wizard, Saruman descends into
      gangsterism among the Halflings; see Saruman
Sharkey's End     anglicized form of H; Bagshot Row as renamed by Sharkey's gang
sharkû     B; see Sharkey
Shathûr     D; shortening of Bundushathûr
Shelob     anglicized form of CS; She-spider; AS lobbe spider; a case might be made that the name is
      related to Elvish; a combining form of S- ... se she [Etym], and THEL- sister [Etym]; the last element
      could be a variant of LUM- gloom [Etym], along with DO3, - 1óme night, gloom [Etym]; Sister of
      gloom; the  great spiders of Middle Earth spun their webs so thickly that they shaded out most of
      the light; Shelob rendered the Morgul Pass at Cirith Ungol nearly impassable and sated herself on
Shire, the     anglicized form of H Sûza [-t]; AS scire province; region of Eriador where the Hobbits lived
Shire-moot     anglicized form of H; shire see previous; OE moten - assemble for conversation
Shire-muster     anglicized form of H; general mobilisation of the Shire
Shire-reckoning     anglicized form of H; calendar reckoning in the Shire
Shirriffs     anglicized form of H; Middle English shirreve, from OE scirgerefa - scire [see Shire] and
      (ge)refa reeve; also known as The Watch; Shire police - a somewhat casual office
Shriekers     anglicized form of B; an Orcish name for the Nazgûl
Sickle     anglicized form of H; the constellation Ursa Major [Big Dipper]; also in Q Valacirca [see Sil]
Silent Street     anglicized form of CS; see Rath Dínen; see Gallery
Silent Watchers     anglicized form of CS; psychically activated statues at the gates of Cirith Ungol
Silmaril     S; Brilliant silver (light); see Sil
Silver Crown     anglicized form of CS; the winged silver crown of Gondor
Silverlode     anglicized form of CS; S: Celebrant; lode from OE lad course
Silvertine     anglicized form of CS; S: Celebdil; D: Zirak-Zigil; Middle English tind a slender pointed
      prong; in his Letters Tolkien mentioned a trip to Switzerland's Silberhorn as reflecting his view of
      the Silvertine [same meaning]; one of the three peaks of Moria
Simbelmynë     Roh; Evermind; AS simbel always; AS myne remembrance, mynd mind; small perennial
      flower that grew on the grave mounds of the kings of Rohan
Sirannon     S; the Gate-stream; sîr river [Sil]; annon (great) gate [Sil]; stream flowing from west gate of
Skinbark     anglicized form of CS; an Ent; see Fladrif
Slinker      anglicized form of H; Samwise's nickname for Gollum; see Gollum
Smallburrow, Robin     anglicized form of H; a Hobbit of the Shire
Smaug     M; Worm or burrower; 'Smaug' is the anglicized form from a CS/Roh root trah- to purse, make
      stealthy, which yields the name of Smaug in CS as Trahan, in Dale as Trâgu; it has been pointed out
      how much the words trahan and trâgu mirror the English 'dragon'; the source in AS is smug creep
      [related to an ancient Germanic verb smugan - to squeeze through a hole], from which OE sméag to
      dig, penetrate; from this source, for example, derives such words of Middle Earth as Sméagol [see
      below] and smials [see below]; a dragon that seized the Dwarfish treasures and hoarded them in
Sméagol     anglicized form of H name Trahald 'apt to creep into a hole'; ancient Hobbit that possessed
      the One Ring for centuries; see Smaug; see Better Smials; see Gollum
Smials     anglicized form of H trân; burrow-dwellings constructed by Hobbits; see Better Smials; see
      Smaug above; see Great Smials
Snaga     B; given as 'slave'; name of two Orcs
Snowbourn River     Roh; White water; snow = white; OE borne, burne bubble (as a spring); a river of
Snowmane     Roh; White crested; a Meara of Rohan; a mount of King Théoden; see also Mearas
Southern Star     anglicized form of CS; a form of tobacco; see pipe-weed
Southfarthing     anglicized form of H; farthing = fourthing; a quadrant of the Shire
South Lane     anglicized form of H; a road of the Shire
Southlinch     anglicized form of CS; a form of tobacco grown at Bree; ?AS hlinc hill, ridge; see
South Road     anglicized form of CS; a road of Gondor from Minas Tirith to the port of Pelargir
Southrons     anglicized form of H; see Haradrim
Springle-ring     anglicized form of H; from OE & AS springan jump, leap; a Hobbit dance
Staddle     anglicized form of CS; AS staðol prop, frame, sometimes 'sapling'; a village of Bree, perhaps a
      granary or where hay was stored
Stair Falls     anglicized form of CS; series of waterfalls on the Sirannon
Starkhorn     anglicized form of CS; AS stearc severe, rough; a spiked peak in the Ered Nimrais
Star of Elendil     anglicized form of CS; a diamond ensign of royalty for the Dúnedain of the north,
      commemorative of the first king following the fall of Númenor
Star of the North Kingdom     anglicized form of CS; see Star of Elendil
Stewards       anglicized form of CS; when the line of royal succession failed in Gondor, the Stewards
      ruled in their place; see also Denethor, Faramir; see Sil entry Mardil
Steward's Door     anglicized form of CS; see Closed Door, Fen Hollen; see Gallery
Sting     anglicized form of H; an ancient sword that could detect Orcs, found by Bilbo, used by Frodo
      and Samwise
Stinker     anglicized form of H; nickname give to Gollum by Samwise; see Gollum
Stock     anglicized form of H [bas ?]; AS stoc place, hamlet; in the Gaelic and German it suggests a
      'stump' or loggers' camp; perhaps 'stocks', a form of punishment, or short for 'stockade'; a village in
      the Shire
Stone-city     anglicized form of CS for Minas Tirith; see also Gondor 'stone land'
Stone-folk     anglicized form of CS; term used by the wild men of Ghân-buri-Ghân
Stonewain Valley     anglicized form of CS; AS wægn waggon; forgotten passage at the eastern end of
      the Ered Nimrais
Stoning-land     name in Roh of Gondor
Stoors    anglicized form of H; stout; one of the three main divisions of Hobbits; see Hobbitry
Straight Stair     anglicized form of CS; steep narrow stair on the ascent to Cirith Ungol
Strawheads     anglicized form of ancient M; see Forgoil
Strider     anglicized form of CS; see Telcontar; see Aragorn
Strider (pony)     anglicized form of CS; pony that Frodo took from Minas Tirith back to the Shire
Stybba     Roh; AS stybb stump, stub; pony of Rohan given to Merry
Sundering Seas     anglicized form of CS; Belegaer in general, the Shadowy Seas specifically; see also
      Evernight, Lost Isle, Night of Naught
Sunlands     anglicized form of H; a term vaguely applied to all lands far south of the Shire
Sunlending     Roh; in the tongue of Rohan the name for Anórien; AS lend land; see Anórien
Sunless Year     anglicized form of CS; a term used in an anglicized form of an Elven song about the
      sowing of the stars in the earliest ages of the world; the translation year is a bit of a misnomer,
      probably for the rhyme, as there was no such astronomical division in that twilight period
Swertings     anglicized form of H; AS sweart swarthy, dark; the name appears in Beowulf; Shire name
      for the Haradrim

Targon     S; ?Royal stone; tar- high, royal [Sil]; gond stone [Sil]; this analysis is in doubt; the last
      element might derive from káno commander [-gon in names; Sil; unlikely]; the first element could
      relate to TÁRAG- tough [Etym] or even TARÁK- horn [Etym; in a similar sense to 'wine steward',
      with (r)on, an agental suffix: ?'steward of the horn (flagon)']; a man of Gondor, keeper of stores and
      a cook
tarks     B; Orkish corruption of Q Tarkil - 'Man of Gondor' [tar- high, noble (Sil) + khil- follow (Sil);
      'followers' - a figurative term for Men and specifically the Edain, since Men 'awakened' following the
      awakening of the Elves]; there may be a relation to CS through Gaelic tàir, tarcuis 'contempt'; an
      Orkish pejorative for the Edain
Tarlang's Neck     S and M; either High Neck or Barren Ridge; tar- high [Sil]; LANK- throat, Nol
      lhanc [Etym]; Tar + lang =  'High neck' - 'neck' repeated due to both S and M use combined ... also
      because over time the term tarlang became a proper name; Unfinished Tales, Index, edited by
      Christopher Tolkien, entry 'Amon Lanc' identifies the translation as Naked Hill; this lanc in 'Amon
      Lanc' indicates a duplicated form: LANK- throat, and LAG- Q lango broad sword, Nol lhang [Etym];
      a missing stem for 'naked' or 'barren' is suggested, or an unknown derivative of SKEL- Q helma skin,
      *skelna naked, N hell [Etym], *hlank naked [proposed]; Tarlang's Neck was a finger of the Ered
      Nimrais forming the western border of Lamedon in Gondor; see discussion in Supplemental Section
Tarmenel     Q; High airs; tar- high, royal [Sil]; menel the heavens [Sil; MEN- place (Etym) + EL- star
      (Etym)]; area of the winds of Manwë [i.e.: above the clouds]
Tasarinan     Q; Valley of willows; S Nan-tathren; tathar willow, Q tasarë [Sil]; in the older lexicons
      the element tathra- [and its presumed Q counterpart tasar] meant 'to number, count'; they may or
      may not relate to the origin of tathar here - perhaps in the sense of 'great height' or 'great quantity';
      -i forms a plur. in Q; nan(d) valley [Sil]; see Sil Nan-tathren
Tauremorna (Tauremornalomë)     Q; Black forest (Dark-shade forest); taur forest [Sil]; MOR- black,
      Q morna gloomy [Etym]; lómë dusk [Sil]; one Ent name for Fangorn Forest
Teeth of Mordor     anglicized form of CS; see Morannon
Telchar     Doriathrin? TÉLEK- stalk, leg [arm], Nol telch [Etym]; or perhaps TEL-, TELU- hood,
      covering [Etym; 'helmet']; KAR- make, do [Etym]; name of Dwarvish armourer of the First Age
Telcontar     Q; Strider; TÉLEK- stalk, Q telko leg [Etym]; ONO- beget, Q ontaro begetter [Etym];
      'High Elven' name of the Ranger-King Aragorn-Elessar
Telperion     Q; White (tree) of Tirion; see Sil
Thangorodrim     S; Opression peaks; see Sil
Tharbad     S; Crossroad; thar- across ... thara-pata 'crossway' [Sil]; -pata (S -bad) probably derives
      from the stem BAT- tread, 'Exilic' Nol *battá well trod [the 'exilic' dialect was later abandoned or
      absorbed into S]; the same form occurs in a Tolkien essay, Quendi and Eldar*, in the S term aphad
      follow, from *ap-pata walk behind on a track; Tharbad was a prosperous settlement where the great
      North South Road, which connected the Northern and Southern Kingdoms of the Edain in the first
      half of the Third Age, crossed the River Mitheithel; the latter flooded and destroyed Tharbad
          * War of the Jewels, Part Four, p. 387
Tharkûn     D; given as 'Staff-man'; D name for Gandalf ['Wand-elf', from Old Norse gandr (magic-)
      staff]; see Gandalf
Thengel     Roh; Prince; AS ðengel prince, king; a king of Rohan
Théoden      Roh; King; AS ðeoden ruler, king, from ðeod nation, people + ðegn noble, hero; king of
      Rohan at the time of the War of the Ring
         Lord of the Mark     anglicized form; see Mark, the
Théodred     Roh; People's guide; AS ðeod see previous; AS rædan to rule, guide, counsel; a
      prince of Rohan
Thingol     S; Grey-mantle; see Sil
Thistlewool     M; patronymics at Bree are generally botanical; thistlewool may be archaic, 'wool'
      referring to the down of the thistle; there is a 'cotton thistle' [Onopordon acanthium] in the British
      Isles; in Welsh the word gwlaniach is used for both 'wool' and 'thistle down'; in AS þisteltwige
      denotes a small bird; family name at Bree
Thorin Oakenshield     D and anglicized form of CS; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Þorinn
      [Thorinn], perhaps from þoran courage, bold + Old Norse Eikinskjaldi Oak Shield; Dwarf-king that
      went with Bilbo to defeat Smaug; see Gallery
Thorondor     S; Lord of Eagles; thoron eagle [Sil]; TA-, TA3- high, noble ... often found in names, as
      Tor-, -dor [Etym]; an eagle of the First Age
Thráin     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Þráinn, perhaps from þrái obstinancy, þrár
      stubborn; name of two Dwarves; see Gallery
Thranduil     S? Slender and dark (shadow?); the name might be influenced by the Silvan dialect; TER-,
      TERES- pierce, Q teren (terene) slender [Etym], *thara tall and slender [see Sil Denethor]; in Silvan
      -il could be a conjunctive suffix [and], related to IL- all [Etym]; NDUL- dark, dusky [Etym; either
      'dark-complected', or 'shadow' due to the forest shade]; the last elements could also relate to TUY-
      Spring, sprout, Q tuile spring-time - 'Slender sprout'; an ancient Sindarin Elf that survived from the
      First Age into the Fourth Age, a veteran of the wars with Sauron; ruled the Silvan Elves of
Three (Rings), the     anglicized form of CS; the rings of the Elves; see Appendix B
Three-Farthing Stone     anglicized form of H; a marker where three district boundaries of the Shire met;
      see Farthings, the
Three Houses of Men     anglicized form of CS; see Men ... of the Ancient Houses
Third Age     anglicized form of CS; the period from the defeat of Sauron by the Last Alliance [Elendil
      and Gil-galad] through the final battle with Sauron - the War of the Ring
Thrihyrne     Roh; Three peaks; AS ðrie three; AS hyrne horn, sharp angle; three tall peaks over the
Thrór     D; from the Old Norse poetic 'Edda' [Voluspa]: Þrór, perhaps the same as þrár stubborn [see
      Thráin]; a king of the Dwarves; see Gallery
Tighfield     anglicized form of H; OE teag rope, AS tyge rope (pull); a village in the Shire where was a
      'rope-walk', where rope strands are combined in manufacture
Tindrock     anglicized form of CS; AS & OE tind spike [English tine]; see Tol Brandir
Tirion     Q; (Great) watch tower; see Sil
Tol Brandir     S; Island (of the) high spike; tol isle (rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river)
      [Sil]; BARÁD- lofty, Nol branda, brand [Etym]; normally the last element would refer to TIR- watch,
      guard, Nol -dir [Etym]; here the term appears to be a throw-back to the old lexicons, where there
      were two roots TIRI, closely related, one meaning 'watch' and one meaning 'stick up' or 'spike'; they
      melded together in names such as Tirion '[high] watch tower', as are found in The Lord of the Rings;
      here the reference is to an island formed by a spiked rock in the Nen Hithoel; the Anduin narrows
      around the pillar of Tol Brandir as it races into the Falls of Rauros
Tombs, the     anglicized form of CS; area of graves of notables outside the Citadel at Minas Tirith; see
Tongue, the     anglicized form of CS; southern tip of Lórien; see Egladil; see Naith of Lórien
Took     anglicized form of H Tûk, tuca daring [or so say the Tooks!]; a family in the Shire, usually the
      seat of the Thain
         Adelard     anglicized form of H name; AS æðele noble, fine + eard estate - a fanciful Hobbit name;
              attended Bilbo's farewell party
         Bandobras (Bullroarer)     anglicized form of H name; perhaps AS bæne, OE ban bone + AS bræc
              breaking, tobrecan break up - 'bone crusher', a fanciful Hobbit name; defeated Orcs in the Battle
              of Greenfields
         the Old     anglicized form of H nickname of Gerontius [from the Greek geronti through the French
              géronto; English 'gerontology']; H base form: zâra old; oldest Hobbit of record, save Bilbo
         Paladin     anglicized form of H name; French for 'champion'; formed an armed resistance against
              the Chief's Men
         Peregrine (Pippin)     anglicized form of H name Razanur traveler; Latin peregrinor to travel in
              foreign lands; member of the Fellowship of the Ring; see Hob for the jest involved in this name
Tookland     anglicized form of H; area of the Shire where Tooks were prominent
Torech Ungol (Shelob's Lair)     S; Strait (of the) spider; the most obvious source for 'Torech' is the
      stem TARÁK- horn (of animals), Nol tarag horn, also used of a steep mountain path; however, it is
      not certain that this base could produce the mutation in S to tor-; still, the association to a difficult
      alpine path is interesting, and may be due to a confusion of separate elements in the original hand-
      written Etym; in a recently published Addenda to the much older Etym manuscript, for example, the
      Nol ech was corrected from 'spear' to 'spine' [from EK-, EKTE- spear]; this could prove instructive; if
      the first word of the name is derived from TA-, TA3- high, lofty ... found in names as Tor-, -dor
      [Etym], then ech 'spine' could refer to its more archaic meaning, taken from Latin spina 'thorn', but
      also meaning 'difficulties'; thus a 'high difficult ridge-path' could be termed a 'strait'; the passage
      through the high cleft of Cirith Ungol was a tunnel, in which Shelob had set her snares - and the
      'difficulty' was her thorny stinger; ungol ['spider']: UÑG- gloom, Q ungo dark shadow, Ilkorin ungol
     darkness [Etym; the Nol Ungoliant (see Sil) said to be taken from Q] + perhaps DUL- conceal, Nol
      doll - concealing gloom [as an intensifier; Etym]; the great spiders of Middle Earth spun their webs
      so thickly that they shaded out most of the light
Tower Hills     anglicized form of CS; S: Emyn Beriad [see Sil]; group of hills in western Eriador near the
      Grey Havens where one of the palantíri was kept; towers stood at the top of some of the hills
Tower of Anor     anglicized form of CS and S; early name of Minas Tirith; see Sil Minas Anor
Tower of Ecthelion (the White Tower)     anglicized form of CS and S; ancient tower citadel of Minas
      Tirith, named after the Steward Ecthelion I [see Sil] who rebuilt it 300 years before the events of the
      War of the Ring
Tower of Guard     anglicized form of CS; see Minas Tirith
Tower of the Moon     anglicized form of CS; see Minas Ithil
Tower of Sorcery     anglicized form of CS; see Minas Morgul
Tower of the Sun     anglicized form of CS; see Minas Anor
Towers of the Teeth     anglicized form of CS; see Morannon
Town Hole     anglicized form of H [perhaps gluvas: gluva inhabited hole + bas village; see Hob];
      mayor's quarters in Michel Delving in the Shire
``Translations from the Elvish''     anglicized form of CS or H; three volumes of lore by Bilbo
Tree of the High Elves     anglicized form of CS; Elven emblem; see Sil Galathilion
Tree, the     anglicized form of CS; the White Tree of Gondor and its offsprings; see Nimloth
Treebeard     anglicized form of CS; see Fangorn
Treegarth of Orthanc     anglicized form of CS and S; also Watchwood; Middle English gerth encircle;
      guard of Ents and Huorns over Saruman at Isengard; also see Orthanc
Trolls     anglicized form of CS; word of Scandinavian origin [Old Norse tröll, ðröll] meaning either
      giants or dwarves living in caves with some supernatural powers; the B name is Olog-hai, and the S
      is torog; olog may well be related to the Elvish ÁLAK- rushing, Nol alag impetuous [Etym],
      since the Trolls had little thought process and acted more on instinct ... also because initial O is not
      common in B; just as likely it is a B corruption of ÚLUG- hideous [Etym]; -hai 'folk' see Uruks below;
      S torog might derive from TÁRAG- tough, stiff [Etym], since the Trolls were lumbering and
      awkward; however similar hurdles arise as with Torech [above]; more likely torog derives from TUR-
      power, mastery, Nol tor, thor [Etym] + RUK- demon, Nol and S -rog [Etym; in Tolkien's notes he
      states that -rog can indicate any frightening being]; Powerful Monsters; in the name Ettendales
      Tolkien uses the anglicised [AS] eoten 'giant, monster' for troll, which he is careful to distinguish
      from AS ent, although they derive from the same source
Tuckborough     anglicized form of H; village in the Shire
Tumladen     S; Level vale; tum valley [Sil]; LAT- lie open, Nol lhaden cleared [Etym]; a valley in
      Beleriand in the First Age, and a valley in Gondor; see also Sil
Túrin     S; heart of victory; Adan of the Third House in the First Age and two Dúnedain of Gondor;
      see Sil
Twofoot, Daddy     anglicized form of H family name; AS twifete two-footed; the reference is probably to
      height, not an obvious anatomical feature; Twofoot lived in Bagshot Row

Udûn     S; Dark fire, Hell; UR- be hot, Nol ûr fire [Etym]; DUN- dark [Etym]; the mysterious fire of the
      Balrogs and a valley in Mordor where arms were forged
Ufthak     B; if at all related to Elvish, perhaps u(m)- negative stem + TEK- firm [Etym] - Unreliable; an
      Orc of the Morgul Pass who seems to have become a meal for Shelob
Uglúk     B; -ûk is interpreted as 'all' or perhaps augmentative; perhaps the first element is corrupted
      from Elvish ÚLUG- hideous [Etym] - Utterly horrible; Uruk-hai of Isengard
Umbar     M; Tolkien identifies this name as foreign, of uncertain meaning; in Q the word means 'fate'
      [MBARAT- Q umbar fate, doom (Etym)], but in a M tongue it may mean 'travel around' or 'home
      away from home' [AS umb- = ymb- - ymbærnan to travel around]; the name might also be inspired by
      the Latin umbra shade, shadow - in the sense of a 'dusky' people; an apparently naturally defensed
      coastal area of Harad
Underharrow     Roh; a village in Rohan
Underhill     anglicized form of H; a neighborhood in Hobbiton and a family name; also Frodo's assumed
      name at Bree, suggested by Gandalf in reference to Frodo's address, 'the Hill'; see Sil Frodo
Ungoliant     Q; Gloomweaver; see Sil
Upbourn     Roh; also Upburnan; Upland springs; AS up up stream, up country; OE borne, burne
      bubble (as a spring); village of Rohan on the River Snowbourn
Uruks     B; also Uruk-hai; the word may find origin in AS earg, ierg-, yrc- slothful, vile; Tolkien says
      the Black Speech word uruk was likely adapted from the ancient Elvish [see stems RUK- demon ...
      ÓROK- goblin; Etym]; -hai is more problematical; some assign the suffix to LI- many, which
      becomes the collective plural 'people' [-lie] in Q, -lim and -rim in Nol and S [Etym]; this author is
      inclined to relate it to GÁYAS- fear, Old Nol gaia dread, Nol gae [Etym; a related stem GAYA dread -
      not in Etym - produces Q áya, ancient Telerin gaia]; a larger strain of Orcs that appeared late in the
      Third Age, probably from breeding with larger men, that were not weakend by sunlight or afraid of
Uttermost West     anglicized form of CS; an ancient mythological term, used here to denote the Undying
      Lands of Aman, including Valinor and Tol Eressëa, home of the Valar and other immortals; ... removed
      farther and farther from Middle Earth and walled off by the Shadowy Seas and the dauntingly high
      Pelóri mountain chain; as the Sun sets at the end of the day in the far West, so does one's essence of
      life seek its rest when its course has been run

Valandil     Q; Friend of the Gods; val- power, Valar gods [Sil] [see next]; -(n)dil devotion, friend [Sil];
      -ndil is used to denote a love for or devotion to something, while -ndur denotes a 'professional'
      commitment; Dúnadan, third king of Arnor
Valar, the     Q; Powers; singular Vala; BAL- Q Vala Power, God, plur Valar [Etym]; related would be
      BEL- strong [Etym], GALA- thrive, Q alma- blessed; perhaps WAY- enfold, envelope, Q w- vaia,
      w- vaiya [Etym], also PAL- wide (open), Q palla wide, expansive [Etym], similarly PHAL-,
      PHÁLAS- foam ['spirited'; Etym], and MEL- love, Q málo; the 'powers' that had guardianship of the
      creation of Middle Earth
Valimar     Q; Vala- see previous; -i- is probably a demonstrative element; 'the city'; bar dwelling, Q
      már home [Sil]; also Valmar; the actual 'city' of the gods in Valinor [next]
Valinor     Q; Vala- see previous; NDOR- dwell, Q nóre land [Etym; in practice, this Q form was often
      influenced by ONO- and NO- beget, Q nóre land, race (Etym), with the effect that when used it
      referred to the people as well as the area named]; all the lands of Aman, or sometimes just those
      behind the bulwark of the Pelóri Mountains
Valinorean     anglicized form of previous; the tongue of the Valar; also Valarin
Valley of the Wraiths     anglicized form of CS; deep cleft that plunged from Minas Morgul towards the
      Anduin on the western slopes of the Ephel Dúath, the bed of the river Morgulduin, and the path to
      the Morgul Pass and the fortress of Cirith Ungol
Varda      Q; The Exalted; see Sil; see Elbereth
Variags     M? men of the far southwest lands of Khand beyond Mordor; perhaps related to BARÁS-
      hot, burning [Etym]; the name is sometimes ascribed to a Scandanavian force - the Varyags - that
      established the city-state of Kiev in the Russian / Ukrainian region; it could simply relate to a
      Swedish - Germanic root var that implies 'pus' or 'wart', or derive from the Latin varius spotty
Vilya     Q; (Ring of the) Air; WIL- fly, *wilwa air [Etym]; in Q -ya is used to form adjectives, thus 'airy';
      still, the ia, -ya afffix is often used in relation to a sense of enclosure; it may relate to WAY- enfold
      [Etym] and / or YAG- gulf [Etym; as an enclosed area]; a ring 'encloses' the finger; the element
      appears in void - as enclosing the Earth [Sil; from WAY-], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm [Sil;
      Q yanwe, from YAT- join (Etym)], and iâth fence - as an enclosure [Sil; source not certain, but
      apparently an ancient mutation from GAT(H)- cave, Doriathrin gad fence (Etym) - as an encircled
      space]; see Rings of Power; see Appendix A
Vorondil     Q; Faithful friend; BOR- endure, Q voro ever ... BORÓN- extension of the [previous]:
      faithful, Q voron- [Etym]; -(n)dil devotion, friend [Sil]; a Dúnadan, and Steward of Gondor

Walda     Roh; Dominion; AS weald power, mastery; a king of Rohan
Wandering Companies, the     anglicized form of CS; nomadic groups of Elves
Wandering Days     anglicized form of H; protracted period in the middle of the Third Age when the
      Hobbits migrated west into Eriador
Wandlimb     anglicized form of CS; see Fimbrethil
War of the Rings     anglicized form of CS; also War of the Ring; the events of the saga of The Lord of
      the Rings
Warden (of the Houses of Healing)     anglicized form of CS; see Houses of Healing
Wargs     anglicized form of CS; Wolves; AS wearg outlaw, wicked; the AS word for 'wolf' is wulf, but
      the two are related; wearg derives from the Old Norse vargr 'wolf, miscreant', which seems close to
      the Sanskrit vrka wolf; allies with Orcs in Rohan
Watcher in the Water     anglicized form of CS; creature in a lake at the west gate of Moria, origin
Water, the     anglicized form of H, probably Nîn [CS]; a stream in the Shire
Water-valley     anglicized form of H; valley of the Water [see previous]
Watchwood, the     anglicized form of CS; the seige of Isengard by the Ents
waybread     anglicized form of CS; see Sil lembas
Waymeet     anglicized form of H; also Waymoot; OE moten - assemble for conversation; a council; village
      of the Shire at a major crossroads
Weathertop     anglicized form of CS; see Amon Sûl
Wellinghall     anglicized form of CS; AS wylle well, spring; dwelling of Ents in Fangorn Forest formed
      by evergreen trees, source of the stream Entwash
Westemnet     anglicized form of Roh; AS emnet plain; district of Rohan
Western Seas     anglicized form of CS; see Sil Belegaer
Westernesse     anglicized form of CS name for Númenor; AS næss cliff, headland, although Tolkien
      cites -ess, a Frankish ending indicating 'romantic lands'; see also Númenor; see Gallery, and Gallery
Westfarthing     anglicized form of H; farthing = fourthing; a quadrant of the Shire; see Farthings, the
Westfold     anglicized for of Roh; AS folde region; the westernmost district of Rohan
Westfold Vale     anglicized form of Roh; valley below Helm's Deep, bed of the Deeping Stream
westmansweed     see pipe-weed
Westmarch     anglicized form of H; 'borderland'; a district added to the Shire after the War of the Ring
West Marches     anglicized form of Roh; AS mearc boundary; district of Rohan
West Road     anglicized form of CS; great road from Minas Tirith north and then west into Rohan
Westron, the     anglicised form of CS Adûni, S Annûnaid; see Common Speech
Wetwang (Nindalf)     anglicized form of CS; AS wang mead; see Nindalf
White Company     anglicized form of CS; guard of Faramir of Ithilien in the Fourth Age
White Council     anglicized form of CS; the first of the Councils of the Wise [q.v.]
White Crown     anglicized form of CS; emblem of the sovereignty of Gondor
White Downs     anglicized form of H; downs in the Westfarthing of the Shire
White Hand     anglicized form of CS; emblem assumed by Saruman
White Mountains     anglicized form of CS; see Ered Nimrais
White Rider, the     anglicized form of CS; see Gandalf
Whiteskins     anglicized form of B; name of the Rohirrim among the Orcs of Isengard
White Tower     anglicized form of CS; see Tower of Ecthelion
White Towers     anglicized form of CS; see Tower Hills
Whitfoot, Will     anglicized form of H family name; AS hwitfot white-footed; the reference appears to be
      either to a white mark on a horse's hoof, or discoloration of human toenails, perhaps by fungus or
Whitwell     anglicized form of H; a village in the Shire
Wídfara     Roh; Wide-faring, Ranger; AS wid vast, broad, long; AS fara traveling (companion); a man
      of Rohan
Wilderland     anglicized form of CS for S Rhovanion [see Sil]; AS wildear, wilddeor, wilder = wild deer
      or 'wild beast'; large wilderness region east of the Misty Mountains opposite Eriador
Wild Men     anglicized form of CS; the Woses, a primitive group of men living in Druadan Forest
Wild Wood     anglicized form of CS; primitive forest at Cuiviénen [see Sil]
Willow, Old Man     anglicized form of H; evil ancient tree in the Shire near the Withywindle, perhaps a
      Huorn that became separated from other sentient trees and grew embittered
Windfola     Roh; AS fola foal, colt; Eowyn's horse in Rohan
Winding Stair     anglicized form of CS; part of the steep path to the Morgul Pass and Cirith Ungol
Window of the Eye     anglicized form of CS; opening high on the Barad-dûr where the ever-searching eye
      of Sauron scoured the environs covetous yet fearful about the One Ring
Window of the Sunset     anglicized form of CS; see Henneth Annûn
Winged Messenger     anglicized form of CS; one of the Nazgûl who lost his mount to the bow of
      Legolas; see Nazgûl
Wingfoot     anglicized form of CS; nickname given to 'Strider' by Éomer
Wise, the     anglicized form of CS; the Wizards and the Noblest of the Eldar, who were not so wise at
      first as they let Saruman deceive them; see White Council
Witch-lord of Angmar (King of Angmar)     anglicized form of CS; the Lord of the Nazgûl in the middle
      of the Third Age; see Nazgûl
Withywindle River     anglicized form of H; Tolkien writes that the word is a bit of a fancy, withy being
      Middle English for 'willow'; the name seems to imply 'whither wander'; the AS is weðerwynde =
      wiðewinde bindweed; winding lowland stream of the Shire that snaked through the Old Forest
Wizards     anglicized form of CS; S Istari [see Sil]; believed to be Maiar from the Uttermost West
Wizard's Vale     anglicized form of CS; pocket in the southern reaches of the Misty Mountains where
      stood Isengard; see Nan Curunír
Wolf     anglicized form of H; one of Farmer Maggot's mastiffs
Wolf (of Angband)     anglicized form of CS; the name of a great archetypal wolf of the First Age
Wolf-riders     anglicized form of CS; this improbable combination occured in the First Age, at the battle
      at Erebor and as servants of Saruman during the War of the Ring
Woodhall     anglicized form of H; village in the Shire
Woodland Realm     anglicized form of CS; realm of Sylvan Elves of Thranduil in northern Mirkwood
Woodmen     anglicized form of CS; somewhat primitive men living in the central western region of
Woody End     anglicized form of H; forest in the Shire
World's End     anglicized form of CS; the far horizon, ever beyond reach, where Eärendil was granted
      immortality and thus began his endless voyages
Wormtongue     anglicized form of CS; 'snake-tongue'; see Gríma
Woses     anglicized form of CS; the word does not seem to occur alone in the AS, but as part of
      wuduwasa [wudu = wood] wood wose, a forest satyr [implying a shape-shifter?]; Tolkien says wasa
      meant of old a hermit-like person; the term may have its origin in Vosegus, a Celtic tutelary god of
      forests in the Vosges Mountain region of Gallia Belgica; modern English name Woodhouse; Roh:
      róg, plur. rógin; see Wildmen
Wraiths     anglicized form of CS; the word means shadow or spectre; no authority given for the origin
      of the word; perhaps derived from the Indo-European root *wreit- to turn, twist [English wreath] in
      the sense that smoke 'curls' as it rises, and a spectre can appear translucent as smoke; some trace it
      through the Scottish to Old Norse vörðr warden, in the sense of a guardian angel; see Ringwraiths;
      see Nazgûl

Younger Days     anglicized form of CS; the days of Men; the Fourth Age; see Elder Days
Yrch     Sylvan; Orcs; ÓROK- goblin, Nol plur. yrch ... Danian urc, plur. yrc; Sylvan Elves spoke
      Sindarin when needed at the time of the War of the Ring, but their own form of speech was related
      to a much older form [Danian]; here it seems to mirror 'Noldorin'; yrch was the word spoken at
      Lothlórien when the Fellowship of the Ring arrived; see Orcs

Zirak     D; short for Zirak-zigal [below]
Zirak-zigil     D; one of the three peaks that towered over the mines of Moria; see Silvertine;
      see Celebdil

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