*** The  S I L M A R I L L I O N   Index***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* A - B *

appx =     Appendix [Silmarillion - Elvish roots]
D =          Dwarvish
Dor =      Doriathrin
Etym =    The Etymologies
Ilk =        Ilkorin [see Dark Elves]
M =        Men, Mannish
N =         Númenórean, Adûnaic
Nol =      Noldorin
ON =      Old Noldorin
plur =     plural
Q =         Quenyan [High Elven]
S =          Sindarin
LOTR = Lord of the Rings Dictionary



Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [appx]
Words of the languages of the Rohirrim, Hobbits and Common Speech are traced to possible roots in the
      ancient Elven tongue, although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are
      derived from ancient English, especially Anglo Saxon


Adanedhel     S; see adan [appx], also Atani [below], Men that aligned with the Noldor upon migrating
      to Beleriand in the First Age; see also EL- 'star' and by extension 'Elf' [Etym] along with ELED-
     'depart', Q Elda, Nol eledh 'departed' Elf ... In Dor and Danian transposed to edhel 'the Forsaken',
      since they never departed for Valinor [Etym; the Dor term edhel is in question due to changes that
      Tolkien made; ELED- may have become ÉLED- 'star-folk'; a stem seemingly rejected is EDEL-
      'precede', Nol eðel 'eldest', a term that would define the Elves after the arrival of Men]; name of Túrin;
      'Man [of the] Elves' or 'Elf-Man' [whatever the derivation of edhel]
Adûnakhor     N; a king of Númenor
Adurant     S; see AT(AT)- again, Ilk [S] adu, ado double [Etym]; see also RAT- walk, Ilk rant course of
      river [Etym]; 'Double Stream'; a divided river in Ossiriand
Aeglos     S; see AYAK- sharp, pointed, N oeg sharp [Etym], S aeg-; see also GOLÓS- 'snow' [Etym], S
      los [appx], used also for 'white'; name of a spear; 'Snow-point'
Aegnor     S-ised Q and ON [Aikanáro]; aeg- see previous, in its sense of 'piercing'; in one note Tolkien
      identifies a Q element aika 'fell, dire' [< GAYA 'awe, dread'; see GÁYAS- 'fear' (Etym)], which he says
      has no S counterpart, but it would be aeg if it did exist; still, 'piercing' seems sufficient to draw forth
      the idea of 'terrible'; see also NAR¹- flame [Etym], Q nár, S naur, -nor as a name suffix [appx]; 'Fell
      Fire'; son of Finarfin
Aelin-uial     S; see AY- ?'pool', Nol oel, plur oelin pools [see also LIN¹- 'pool'] [Etym], S ael-; [the stem
      AY- is expanded to ÁYAR- 'sea' in Etym; the intent of combining two elements both meaning 'pool' is
      not stated, but would seem to be cumulative]; see also YU- two, Nol ui- twi-, as uial twilight [YU- +
      KAL- shine = uial] [Etym] ; 'Meres of Twilight'
Aerandir     S; see AY- ... AYAR- sea, Nol oear, oer [Etym], S aer; see also RAN- wander, Nol rhandir
      wanderer [Etym], S randir, which ends with DER- adult (male), Nol dîr [Etym], used here as an
      agental suffix; 'Sea-wanderer'; a mariner
Aerin     M? dialectal S? see GAY- Q aira red, copper-coloured, Nol gaer [Etym; in later S aer meant
      'holy' (borrowed from Q), but such an analysis in this context seems unlikely]; see also RIG- crown,
      Nol rhîn crowned [Etym]; in early writings Tolkien called her Airin Faiglindra 'Long-tressed Airin'
      [faigli long tresses + a derivative of LI-, lind twine? (older lexicons)]; air- > aer- would seem to be a
      dialectal S variation of the Q aira (above); note Anglo-Saxon æren 'brazen'; 'Copper-top' or
      figuratively 'Auburn-hair'; an Adan woman
Aftercomers     Men
Agarwaen     S [?Dor]; a problematical term, described in the text as a riddle name 'Blood-stained'; the
      earlier Nol form was Iarwaeth > Iarwath [YAR- blood, Nol iâr (Etym) + WA3- stain, Nol gwath
      (blended with WATH- shade) - Etym]; in Dor the adjectival suffix -en would presumably yield waen
      'stained'; agar- 'blood' is enigmatic; in Etym the stem YAR-, Q yár,  Nol iâr is used for 'blood'; in the
      term Doriath [q.v.] we find a potential for the stem GAT(H)- to yield the word iâth 'fence', so there
      may be some unattested mutation of i > g and g > i, although it would seem to give rise to confusion;
      the stem KARÁN- red, Nol caran [Etym] has been suggested also as a source; 'Blood-stained'; name
      assumed by Túrin at Nargothrond
Aglarond     S; see aglar brilliance [appx]; see also rond arched roof [appx], from ROD- cave, Nol rhond
      [Etym], S rond [the term implies a large arched vault]; 'Glittering Cavern', at Helm's Deep
Aglon     S; see AK- narrow, Nol agr, ag- [Etym]; see also LOD- narrow path, pass, Nol lhonn, -lon(d)
      [Etym], S lond, lonn [appx]; 'The Narrow Pass'
Ainulindalë     Q; see AYAN- Q Ainu, holy one [Etym; see next]; see also LIN²- sing, Q lindele music
      [Etym; in Q the -ë suffix denotes a genitive case - 'music of']; 'The Music of the Ainur'; a song of the
Ainur     Q; (singular Ainu); see aina holy [appx] and previous entry; the term is a Q adaptation of the
      Valarin ayanuz 'holy order'; the Valar and Maiar together; 'The Holy Ones'
Akallabêth     N; 'The Downfallen', same as Quenya Atalantë
Alcarinquë     Q; see AKLA-R- Q alka ray of light, alkar or alkare radiance, brilliance, alkarinqa
      glorious [Etym; S aglar (appx); the stem is based on KAL- shine, extended form KALÁR (Etym), with
      transposition of the consonants k and l]; Q adjectival suffix (dative case) -inqua, said to be related to
      two roots not in Etym - KWA and KWE (see KWAT- 'full' "{Etym}); perhaps RIN- circle [Etym] is
      implied; 'The Glorious'; name of the planet Jupiter; circle would denote the planet's 'rings'
Alcarondas     N; 'Castle of the Sea'; see Supplemental section (in progress)
Aldaron     Q; see GALAD- tree, Q alda [Etym]; the Elves loved to make plays on words, so it is notable
      that the name implies the stem DÓRON- oak [Etym]; also 3AR- Q haran ... aran king [Etym] could
      be implied; -ron is an agental suffix - 'one who is' or 'one who does' - perhaps related to an older Q
      form hrondo [a physical body]; it is actually taken as a genitive plur suffix used as an intensifier;
      'Lord of Trees', a name of the Vala Oromë; also see Tauron
Aldudénië    ?Vanyarin; alda- see previous; the second element is from YU- two  - alda + yu = aldu-
      'two trees'; see also NEI-, Q nie 'tear'; the medial d is unaccountable in Q, and may be a Vanyarin
      variant, perhaps as a transition [reduplicated d] to the en- affix, used to denote repeated action: i.e.:
      'repeated tears' = 'lament'; 'Lament for the Two Trees'; a tale of the destruction of the Two Trees of
Almaren     Q; see GALA- thrive, Q alma good fortune, almare blessedness [Etym]; see also MBAR-
      home, Q mar [Etym]; 'Blessed Home'; first abode of the Valar, an island in a great lake
Alqualondë     Q; see ÁLAK- rushing, Q alqa swan (strong-winged), also LAK²- 'swift' [Etym; Q alqua
      'swan', S alph (appx)]; the term 'swan' may imply AKLA-R-, Q alka ray of light, brilliance [Etym; see
      Alcarinquë], due to their brilliant white color; also see LOD- strait, Q londe road (in sea), entrance
      to harbour [Etym; from an early base element LON 'haven']; -ë forms a genitive case in Q; 'Haven of
      the Swans' [swan-boats of the Teleri], a city in Aman [next]
Aman     Q; see GALA- thrive, Q alma blessing [Etym]; see man- good, blessed [appx], from MAN- holy
      (spirit) [Etym; said in one place to be taken from a Valarin word (not given) meaning 'at peace']; in Q
      the a- prefix can be augmentative [mbar = dwelling (appx), a-mbar = earth]; the stem man- becomes
      blended with MBAD- prison, doom [Etym], but has a positive influence resulting more in 'sanctuary'
      [prison] and 'authors' of the destiny of the world [doom]; 'free from evil' or the 'Blessed (Realm)'; the
      land in which the Valar dwelt, removed from the precincts of mortal affairs
Amandil     Q; aman- see previous; also -(n)dil [appx], from NIL-, NDIL- friend [Etym]; -(n)dil is used to
      denote a love for or devotion to something, while -(n)dur denotes a 'professional' commitment;
      'Lover of Aman'; a lord of Andúnië in Númenor, father of Elendil
Amarië     [Amárië] Vanyarin-Q; the alternate spelling could indicate mára 'good', from a stem MAG-
      [Etym]; also see MBAR- home, Q a-mbar, mar- [Etym; for the a- prefix see Aman]; the - suffix is
      often associated with verbs in Q, meaning '(it) is', English -ness; the name could then mean either
      'Purity', or, perhaps using 'home' as a verb, a meaning similar to 'home-er' or 'stay at home': 'Home-
      body', since this Vanyarin maiden eschewed her Nol betrothed and remained in Valinor at the time
      of the 'Exile'
Amlach     M? see AM²- up, Q & Nol prefix am- up; see LAK²- swift [Etym], lhach 'leaping flame' [appx];
      the name is more likely M, derived from the Welsh [am- (prefix) on both sides + llach lash, criticize -
      'argue both sides']; a man of Beleriand who argued against alliance with the Noldorin Elves but had a
      change of heart and became a vassal of Maedhros
Amon Amarth     S; see amon hill [appx], from AM²- up [Etym; -on is possibly an augmentative suffix in
      S - see Calenardhon]; see also MBARAT- ?'fate', Nol ammarth doom [Etym], S amarth [appx];
      'Mount Doom'; a name of Orodruin
Amon Ereb     S; amon see previous; see also ERE- be alone, Nol ereb isolated [Etym; -eb is an
      adjectival suffix in S, derived from a base meaning 'full']; 'The Lonely Hill'
Amon Ethir     Dor? amon see previous; see also ET- forth, Nol et-; also see THE- face, also 'glance', Nol
      thîr [Etym]; some attribute this last element to TIR- watch [Etym], which seems logical, although it
      does not appear to yield -thir; in later S ethir would be 'river mouth' [see LOTR entry Anduin]; 'The
      Hill of Spies' or in another text 'Spy-hill'
Amon Gwareth     S; see amon hill [appx], also see Amon Amarth above; the name is translated 'Hill of
      Watch(ing)' in one place, also 'Hill of Guard'; it was once rendered by Tolkien as Amon Thoros - Hill
      of Eagles; gwareth is a holdover from the old lexicons as a 'Gnomish' [Nol] stem gwar- watch,
      gwareth watching [apparently abandoned but retained in this name]; strongly implicated is
      KHARÁS- precipice, a sheer mountain-wall [Etym], since not only did the hill have sheer walls, but
      the Elves polished them to make it impossible for an enemy to climb; however, the derivatives of
      KHARÁS- are mostly mirrored in RAS- stick up [Etym]; the hill of Gondolin
Amon Obel     Dor; amon see previous; see PEL(ES)- fenced (field), Nol pel, under which the Q opele,
      Nol gobel walled village [Etym], Dor obel, is probably derived by adding WO- together, Q prefix o-,
      Nol gwa-, go- [Etym] - walled together [like English compound 'camp']; Dor would seem to follow the
      Q, but p > b [the prefix o- was probably dropped in later S due to phonetic conflict]; 'Forest Fast'; a
      fortified hill for Men in the Forest of Brethil
Amon Rûdh     Dor; amon see previous; Rûdh is problematical; since the hill is described as 'flat', Rûdh
      might derive from RUN- flat of hand [Etym], although the phonetic mutations make it unlikely; it
      could also derive from ROY²- ruddy, red [Etym], as the crest was covered with the red blossom of
      seregon [q.v.], although the form ruð is not offered; 'bald' may be figuratively indicated by a 'fleshy-
      red' appearance; a stem not in Etym is RUN red (glowing), S ruin 'fiery red' [appx], but it is not
      possible to attest that it would have produced the form rûdh in Dor; an early name by Tolkien was
      Amon Carab 'Hill of the Hat'; Carab may be related to KAS- head, Q kár top [Etym]; 'The Bald Hill'
      south of Brethil
Amon Sûl    S;  amon see previous; see sûl wind [appx], from THU- blow, Nol thûl breath [Etym]; 'Hill
      of the Wind', or 'Weathertop' in the Common Speech of The Lord of the Rings
Amon Uilos     S; see amon hill [appx], also Amon Amarth [previous]; also see OY- ever, Nol ui- eternal
      [Etym]; see also los snow (-white) [appx; see Aeglos]; S name of Q Oiolossë ['Everwhite'], also
Amras     S-ised Q and ON [Ambarussa; AM²- up, Q prefix amba- top (Etym) + RUN red, glowing,
      Common Eldarin russa russet, copper-coloured (not in Etym) - 'Auburn Top'; in Etym the closest
      stem would be RUSKA- Old Nol ruska brown [Etym], from a common root (U)RUS, of which the S
      was ross; in S the name is therefore a bit uninterpretable; am- would still denote 'up' or 'top', but -ras
      in S would derive from RAS- stick up [Etym], S -ras 'horn', 'peak', thus yielding 'top-peak'; twin of
      Amrod; it was suspected at their birth in Eldamar that their russet-haired mother Nerdanel implied
      MBARAT- Q ambar 'fate', 'doom' [Etym] for both the twins Amras and Amrod, but the father Fëanor
      would not have it; see Amrod [next]
Amrod     S-ised Q and ON [Ambaráto; AM²- up, Q prefix amba- top (Etym) + ar(a)- noble, royal,
      (perhaps blended with RAUTA- metal - Etym?) to form aráto 'champion' (appx) - 'Top Champion'];
      in S the name is a bit changed in interpretation; amba- would still denote 'up' or 'top', and RAUTA-
      yields the S suffix in names -rod, and means 'metal', especially copper - 'Russet Top'; twin of Amras;
      see further discussion under Amras [previous]
Anach     S; see NA¹- towards, Nol na with, by, prefix an- [Etym; often used to indicate a genitive case];
      more likely is AK- narrow, Nol ag- [Etym; the g could become a syncope before n]; the second
      element is probably from NAK- bite, blended with ÁNAK- bite, jaws [Etym; ának should become
      nac(h) in S/Dor]; 'Narrow Jaws', or 'Grinding Straits', between 'the peaks of the Crissaegrim' and 'the
      dark walls of the Gorgoroth'; the pass was cleared by Orcs for strategic advantage, and the
      murderous armies of Morgoth pouring south through Anach could be described as like a gnashing
      of teeth
Anadûnê     N; 'Westernesse' - name of Númenor in the Adûnaic (Númenórean) tongue
Anar     Q; see ANÁR- Q Anar sun [Etym], related to NAR¹- flame, fire, Q nár [Etym]; the prefixed 'A' is
      probably a distinguishing device in Q called a sundóma [see discussion under Astaldo below], used
      here seemingly as an intensifying prefix; A + nar = Anar '(The-one) Fire' = 'Sun'
Anárion     Q; anár see previous; -ion masculine name suffix [YO, YON- son, Q & Nol suffix in names
      -ion (Etym)]; 'Heir of the Flame', 'Scion of the Light'; son of Elendil
Anarríma     Q; anar see previous; see also RI- Q ríma edge [Etym]; 'Fiery Verge'; a constellation,
      perhaps a circle of bright stars
Ancalagon     S; see ÁNAK- jaw [and NAK- bite], Nol anc bite [Etym]; see also ÁLAK- rushing, wild
      wind, Nol alag impetuous [Etym], related to LAK²- swift [Etym]; -on is possibly an augmentative
      suffix in S - see Calenardhon; 'great rage of jaws' or 'Biting Storm'; a winged dragon
Andor     Q (shortening of Andórë); see ANA¹- to, Q anna gift [Etym], *an-; also see NDOR- dwell, Q
      nóre land [Etym]; two factors identify the term as Q: the name was given by the Valar, and the -nd-
      combination only survives in Q in Middle-earth; in Q nóre 'land' became blended with NO- beget, Q
      nóre 'race' [Etym]; thus -ndor was allowed to delineate 'land' from 'people', and presumably the
      genitive ending -ë could be dropped in such cases; for example, Valinor = the land and people of the
      Valar, Valandor = the land of Valinor; Q Endor = Middle-earth = S Ennor; 'The Land of Gift'
Andram     S; see ÁNAD-, ANDA- long, Nol and [Etym]; see also RAMBA- wall, Nol rham [Etym], S ram
      [appx]; called 'The Andram'; 'The Long Wall'; escarpment dividing Beleriand
Androth     Dor; and- see previous; also ROD- cave, Nol rhauð, Dor roth [Etym]; the plur may be only
      implied, from hoth horde [appx], since the plur of roth is given as rodhin in Dor [the Mithrim used a
      dialect of Dor sometimes referred to by Tolkien as 'North Sindarin']; 'Long Caves'
Anduin     S; and- see previous; see also duin (long) river [appx]; 'The Long River', also the 'Great River'
Andúnië     Q; see andúnë [variant: Andúnië] sunset, west [appx; ANA¹- to (Etym), with NA¹- Q an-
      towards (Etym) + NDU- go down (of Sun), andune sunset (Etym), blended with NDEW- follow, Q
      neuna follow (*ndeuna; Etym; 'evening') + (Q gerund form) = 'towards setting (Sun)' or 'West'];
      city in the west of Númenor
Anfauglir     S; see NA¹- to, Nol an- with, by [Etym; this element can also serve as a genitive 'sign']; see
      also PHAU- gape, Nol faug thirsty, parched [Etym]; apparently the final element is from LIR²- range,
      Nol lhîr row [Etym], S lîr, apparently used here as an augmentative plural [also see Bauglir], and
      perhaps implying a row of teeth - or 'jaw'; 'Jaws of Thirst'; a great wolf
Anfauglith     S; here it would seem the an prefix is an(d) 'long' [appx], used as an intensifying element
      ('long thirst' {see Anfauglir above}); see also lith ash [appx], from LIT- sand [Etym]; 'the Gasping
      Dust; later name of the plain of Ard-galen; see Dor-nu-Fauglith
Angainor     Q or S? see ANGA- iron, Q angaina of iron [Etym]; the term could be Q because the Valar
      may have formed the name, and because it ends in -r, a plur in Q; the early lexicons attempt to forge
      another anga element meaning 'torment', which might be retained here for aesthetic reasons, but the
      entry anga 'iron' in appx argues that that alternative was abandoned [Tolkien's commentary on this
      older rendering states popularly connected with ang 'iron' but really 'tormentor']; if the term is S,
      then -gain might derive from a stem not in Etym: KEG 'snag', S cai, gai(?n)* (used as 'fetter'), and
      -nor would have to be 'fire' < NAR¹- 'flame' [perhaps implying 'forged'] = ang + gain + nor = ?'Forged
      Iron Fetter'; ORO- high [Etym] may be implied in the ending, denoting the exalted status of its
      prisoner; it is noteworthy that the term implies the stem AYAN- holy [Etym] (-aino-), the source of
      the word Ainur, of which Melkor [Morgoth] is one; a great chain that bound Melkor following his
      first destructive rebellion
          * Unfinished Tales, Part Three, Chapter One, note #16
Angband     S [Q: Angamando]; see anga iron, S ang [appx]; see also MBAD- prison, hell, Q mando, Nol
      band [Etym]; 'Iron Prison, Hell of Iron'; Morgoth's deep-delved fortress in the North
Anghabar     S; ang- see previous; -habar is also used in Nornhabar 'Dwarrowdelf' or 'Dwarf-dig'; the
      term cannot be attested, but perhaps it relates to KAB- hollow, Nol camb, cham-; or perhaps from
      SKAR- wound, rend, Nol har- [Etym]; -bar could be taken to be from MBAR- dwelling (and
      sometimes 'earth') [Etym]; 'Iron-delvings'; a mine in the mountains near Gondolin
Anglachel     S; ang- see previous; lach from LAK²- swift [Etym - see lhach leaping flame (appx)]; see
      also êl, elen star [appx]; sword made from 'Meteoric Iron'; also Gurthang
Angrenost     S; see anga iron, S ang [appx], Nol angren of iron [Etym]; see also OS- round, Nol ost
      fortress [Etym]; 'fortress of iron', 'Iron Fortress'; see Isengard
Angrim     M? ang- see previous; see rim host [appx] - 'Steely'; Welsh may be more productive: an-
      [intensifying prefix] + grym strength - 'Stalwart'; an Adan
Angrist     S; see anga iron, S ang [appx]; also see ris cleave [appx], from KIRIS- cut, Nol crist cleaver,
      sword [Etym], S grist; 'Iron-cleaver'; knife that cut a Silmaril from the iron crown of Morgoth
Angrod     S-ised Telerin [Angaráto - given in Valinor; see ANGA- iron (Telerin anga) (Etym) + ar(a)-
      royal (appx), extended to arat-, perhaps blended with RAUTA- metal (Etym) to form aráto 'champion'
      - 'Royal Iron Champion']; by adapting the name to S it could become a bit nonsensical, except the
      Sindar adapted the suffix -rod to also indicate armorial bearing: ang iron [appx] + RAUTA- metal, Nol
      -rod in names [Etym] - 'Knight of Iron'; also known in Telerin as Angamaitë 'Iron-handed' {MA3-
      'hand' (Etym)}, since from an early age he had hands of great strength, thus an 'iron' grip; son of
Anguirel     S; see anga iron, S ang [appx]; the second element appears to derive from UR- be hot, Nol
      ûr fire [Etym], S uir [presumed as participial modifier - 'burning']; the stem is said to have been
      changed to mean 'large', but here implies 'fire'; also see êl, elen star [appx]; 'burning-star iron',
      'Meteoric Iron'; sword wrought of the same metal as Anglachel
Annael     S (?dialectal); the form is unusual, likely due to being in the Northern Sindarin dialect of
      Mithrim; the probable analysis is an(d) 'long' [appx] from ÁNAD- [Etym] + NAY- lament, Nol nae
      [Etym] + EL- star [Etym], and by extension 'Elf' = 'Woeful Elf'; less likely would be a form of ANA¹-
      to, Nol anno to give [Etym] + -el: 'Giving Elf'; this Elf, sole survivor of the Nirnaeth from Mithrim,
      adopted and nurtured the young Adan, Tuor
Annatar     Q; anna gift [appx]; see also TA-, TA3- noble, Q tár king, -tar lord [non-gendered; of
      abstract things; Etym]; 'Lord of Gifts'; a deceptive name of Sauron in the Second Age
Annon-in-Gelydh     S; see annon great door or gate [appx], from AD- entrance, Q ando gate, Q andon,
      Nol annon (great) gate [Etym; the letters -on, sometimes used as a genitive plur element, seems to
      be used here as an augmentative suffix in both Q and S - see commentary at Calenardhon]; in-
      forms a possessive article; also see NGOL- wise ... NGOLOD- one of the wise folk, Q Noldor, Nol
      golodh, plur geleidh [Etym], Dor plur form gelydh; '(Great) Gate of the Noldor'
Annúminas     S; see ANA¹- to, with NA¹- Nol an- towards [Etym] + NDU- go down (of Sun), Nol dûn,
      annûn 'West' [Etym]; also see minas tower [appx; MINI- stand alone, Nol min (Etym) + NAS- point,
      spike (Etym)]; 'Tower of the West'
Anor     See Minas Anor
Apanónar     Common Eldarin, a word of lore not used in daily speech; the preposition apa- 'after' is
      confused; in Q epe means 'after' [epessë 'after-name' (Unfinished Tales, Index)], but in other notes
      Tolkien wrote as if he might change the element´s meaning to 'before' [Morgoth's Ring, Index,
      Appendix: apacenyë 'names of foresight' (/KEN 'see' {not in Etym})]; the term Apanónar 'the After-
      born' favors the meaning after; the S form is Abonnen, plur Eboennin; [prepositions, such as apa-,
      epe- 'after', need not necessarily have a source in base stems, but often do point to one; the closest
      base here is /PAK 'close, shut', Q paht- (not in Etym), which implies an 'end', and therefore what
      remains 'follows after' - perhaps *APA3- (with re-duplicated base vowel, or sundóma)]; also see NO-
      and ONO- beget [Etym], Common Eldarin past participial verb form *nóna 'begotten' [presumed]; as
      in Q, the -r ending forms a plural; 'the after-begotten', 'The Afterborn' - Men, who 'awoke' after the
Aradan     S; see ar(a)- noble, royal [appx]; see also adan Man, mortal [appx]; S name for Malach
Aragorn     S; ara- see previous; also see GOR- haste, Nol gorn impetuous, wrath [Etym] - 'Royal
      Valour'; as a Ranger he might have hid the true meaning, since ostensibly the name could be
      pronounced as though it was from ERÉK- thorn, Nol ereg holly tree [Etym], and ORO- high ...
      ÓR-NI- high tree [Etym], orn 'tree' [appx] - i.e.: 'tall thorny tree' - appropriate for a rustic 'hunter';
      alternately it can read ar(a)- royal [appx] and KOR- round, Nol corn circle [Etym], as with him the
      throne of the Dúnedain would come full 'circle'; also known as Strider, Heir of Isildur, King Elessar
Araman     Q; see AR²- Q ara outside [Etym]; see Aman [above]; a wasteland of Aman
Aranel     S; see ar(a)- royal, S aran king [appx]; see also EL- star, and by extension Eled- Starfolk - 'Elf';
      'Elf King', 'Noble Elf'; Thingol´s Heir
Aranrúth     S; aran- see previous; see rûth anger [appx]; the source of rûth could be RUS- flash, glitter
      of metal [Etym; the stem does not occur in Nol (S)]; perhaps the term relates to RUN red, Common
      Eldarin russa 'fiery red' [not in Etym]; related stems would be ROS¹- rain, foam [Etym], which is
      extended to mean 'spirited', and RO- rise (up) [Etym]; 'King's Ire'; Thingol's sword
Aranwë     Nol; see ar(a)- noble, aran king [appx; apparently the form occurs in both Q and S {Return of
      the King, Appendix A, I, (ii)}]; also see WEG- vigour, Q vie manhood, taking Q and Nol form -we
      [Etym; the suffix is used agentally to form an abstract noun element, especially in names]; ?'King`s
      champion'; or ?'Noble (One)'
Aratan     Q; see ar(a)- noble, royal [appx]; see adan Men, 'Elf-friends' [appx], Q atan [see Atani below];
      'Noble Man'; son of Isildur
Aratar     Q; see ar(a)- high, noble, royal [appx]; see also tar- high [appx]; 'most high'; the -r denotes a
      plural in Q; 'The Exalted'; the eight most powerful of the Valar
Arathorn     S; ara- see previous; in the book The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, in a letter to Richard Jeffery
      in 1972, Tolkien relates the final element to thoron eagle [Sil], describing it as an abbreviated form of
      thorono; 'Noble Eagle'; father of Aragorn
Arda     Q; see 3AR- have, hold, Nol ardh realm, Q arda realm, region [Etym; the entry relates Arda to a
      Nol stem GAR-, but that entry was mostly deleted, leaving only gar- as a derivative; there is also a
      reference to a Nol stem GARAD, but it does not appear in published sources; GARAT does appear
      in more recently published notes, which produces Nol garth fortress, gartho- to defend, keep; appx
      states that 3AR- has an extended stem ARAT-]; a name for Earth, realm of the King of the Valar,
Ard-galen     S; ard- see previous; KAL- shine, Nol calen bright-coloured = green [Etym], S galen; 'the
      Green Region'; -en is an adjectival suffix in S; also called Anfauglith and Dor-nu-Fauglith after its
      desolation; means the same as Calenardhon (Rohan)
Aredhel     S; see ar(a)- noble, royal [appx]; see also edhel elf [appx; the term is a play on words by the
      Sindar of Beleriand; ELED- depart, leave, Q Elda departed Elf (plur Eldar - Etym); by prefixing ET-
      out (Etym) and reversing ELED they derive Eðel, Edhel = 'Left Out', an Elf that did not travel to
      Valinor]; 'Noble Elf', a Lady of Gondolin; also known in 'Nol' as Ar-Feiniel, 'the White Lady of the
      Noldor' [Feiniel from SPAN- white, Nol fein (Etym), and SEL-D- daughter, Nol feminine suffix -iel
Ar-Feiniel     See Aredhel [previous]
Ar-Gimilzôr     N; a King of Númenor
Argonath     S; ar- royal [see previous]; see also gond stone [appx]; -ath is normally a S collective
      plural, but here indicates 'both' [see AT(AT)- again - Etym]; 'King-stones'; two huge carved pillars on
      the Anduin
          [In The Road Goes Ever On Tolkien points out that the -ath ending is not a normal Sindarin plural
          form, but that when it is used it is an all-inclusive grouping; in this instance the -ath form refers to
          the root (above) and simply means 'both' - as it does in the Sil entry Sarn Athrad; for example, the
          S for 'hobbit' is perian; the S plural form periain would mean an indeterminate group of Hobbits,
          as opposed to Periannath - (all) hobbit-folk; the exception Argonath would otherwise be
          interpreted to indicate 'all' of the stones]
Arien     Q; see AR¹- day (-light), Q are [Etym]; see YO, YON- son, Q feminine yen daughter [-ion =
      masculine name suffix, -ien = feminine name suffix; Etym]; the name contians RIG- Q rie crown
      [Etym], denoting her high and noble status; originally the Sun was called Âs, and this spirit was
      named Azië; over time the z was apparently mutated into r, and she was called Ar(i) ['Days'], and
      finally Arien; a Maia of the Sun
Armenelos     Q; see ar(a)- noble, royal [appx]; see also menel the heavens [appx; MEN- place (Etym) +
      EL- star (Etym) = 'star place' = 'heaven']; also see OS- round, about, Q osto city, fortress [Etym], os(t)
      'fortress' [appx]; 'Heavenly City of Kings'; royal city in Númenor
Arminas     S; ar- see previous; see also MINI- stand alone, Nol min one, distinct minas tower [Etym];
      the use of 'tower' here is coincidental, since the -as suffix can be used in S to form a verbal noun, in
      this case probably 'standing'; in one version of the story of his visit to Nargothrond, Arminas is said
      to imply 'kinship of kings'; the term seems to mean literally 'royal stand-out', but likely was intended
      to indicate 'King´s Man' or 'Royal Champion'; Elf of the people of Angrod; also see Gelmir²
Arnor     S; see ar(a)- noble, royal, S aran king [appx]; also see dôr land, S -nor [appx]; 'Land of the
      King' or 'Royal Land'
Aros     Dor; see YAR- blood, Nol iâr, Ilk ôr blood, arn red ... Aros name of river with reddish water
      [Etym]; from this it must be deduced the Dor form from YAR- is ar-; also see ros foam [appx]; in this
      instance, however, the last element may well be blended with RUS- flash, Nol rhoss, in names -ros
      [Etym], Dor ross; 'Sparkling Blood-red'; the river was described as swift but shallow, but in Tolkien's
      early writings a great battle took place at the fords [next], and much blood was spilled in the river; a
      river of Doriath
Arossiach     Dor; aros- see previous; -i could indicate a possessive; see also AK- narrow [Etym] - i.e.
      'narrows of Aros', although perhaps more at YAK- neck [Etym], Dor -iach [presumed]; 'The Fords of
      Aros'; for a different form of 'ford' see Sarn Athrad
Ar-Pharazôn     N; 'The Golden', a king of Númenor; Q Tar-Calion
Ar-Sakalthôr     N; a king of Númenor
Arthad     M? the name would seem to derive from Welsh: arth bear, arthaidd bear-like [had = seed];
      ?'Son of the Bear'; an Adan of the First House of Bëor
Arvernien    S (?dialectal); see ar(a)- high, noble [appx]; see also PHER-, PHÉREN- beech, Q ferne,
      Telerin ferne, ON pheren [Etym], ?S verne [presumed; ph > v is not a normal S mutation, but the term
      could well be dialectal S, in this case Falathren]; -ien is likely a dialectal variant of -land 'region',
      from LAD- 'wide' [the -l- usually becomes a syncope, becoming -an(d) in S]; in daily usage it may
      possibly have been associated with YAN- sanctuary [Etym]; this forested tableland is described as
      'high country'; most likely 'High Realm of the Beeches'; southern woodlands of Beleriand west of the
      Mouths of Sirion; in one place Arvernien is referred to as 'the coasts of the Falas', in which case the
      first element would derive from AR²- outside, beside [Etym]: 'Beside the Beech-region'
Ar-Zimraphel     N; see Míriel²
Ascar     S; see SKAR- rend, Nol asgar, ascar violent, rushing, impetuous [Etym; the initial a- is
      apparently an augmentative element in S, called a 'reduplicated base vowel']; 'Tearing'; a tributary of
      Gelion; later Rathlóriel
Astaldo     Q; 'The Valiant'; given the meaning 'valiant', the word should be easily decoded, but is
      problematical; in The War of the Jewels, Part Three, Chapter III [Maeglin], Tolkien mentions a
      sundóma [SUD- base, sundo root-word (Etym) + OM- Q óma voice, vowel (Etym)] - a Q 'determinant
      vowel' used to strengthen the stem - in this case A-, i.e.: a-stal; the proper Q stem seems to be
      missing [see STÁLAG- stalwart (Telerin and Nol, not in Q; Etym), STAL- steep (Ilk only, neither in
      Nol or Q; Etym), and /STEL remain, firm (Q and S; not in Etym, but in the chapter Maeglin, above)];
      stems related to this cosmic name might be ESE-, ESET- Q esta first [Etym] and GALAD- tree, Q alda
      [Etym; as 'firmly grounded']; a- + stal = 'valiant' [?] with -do as a Q agental ending ['one who is',
      perhaps used to indicate an expansive cosmic sense, especially in combination with the sundóma -
      see Hildor, also meldo 'friend' from MEL- love]; see also POL-, POLOD- physically strong, Q polda
      strong [Etym]; the older lexicons offer Polodweg = Tulcus (polod 'power, might'), with the Q form
      Poldórëa; the Vala Tulkas
Atalantë     Q; see AT(AT)- back, Q ata- again [Etym]; see also DAT-, DANT- fall down, Q lanta a fall
      [Etym]; 'The Downfallen', i.e. 'fall back into the sea'; in his Letters Tolkien redirects this analysis; he
      claims a = 'complete' [under common base talat 'topple over, slip down' {Sauron Defeated, Part Two,
      p. 249}], found in Etym as TALÁT- lean, fall down; the final elements are a bit confused, however;
      under TALÁT-, -lanta is attributed to a stem LANTA- 'to fall down', Q lanta-, which was not
      included in the published Etym, but has appeared in recent addendum; the reason is likely because
      Q lanta is derived from the stem DANT- in the original publication [see above; initial d is softened
      to l in Q]; the intent is 'utter destruction'; Q name for Númenor after its 'fall'
Atanamir     Q; see adan [appx; see Atani below]; also mîr jewel [appx]; -a- is a genitive marker; 'Jewel
      of the Edain'; a king of Númenor; also Tar-Atanamir
Atanatári     Q; see adan Men, 'Elf-friends' [appx]; see also atar father [appx]; -a- could also be taken as
      a genitive marker and -i forms a Q plur suffix; 'Fathers of Men'; see Atani [next]
Atani     Q; see AT(AT)- again (second), Q at(a)- [Etym; Gaelic, Old Irish ath-, Celtic ati- 're-, again']; the
      root can be confused with ATA- father, Q atar, plur atari [Etym]; the last element of Atani likely
      derives from TAN- make, fashion [Etym], of which the Q form is tan(-o) and the Nol form is than, and
      the Dor form would be dan; the -i forms a Q plur suffix; the S is Adan, plur Edain = Men: 'The
      Second [fashioned] People'; the name is said in one place to have been inspired by an early term
      Men used for themselves, possibly from Anglo-Saxon aetan to eat, (ge-)etan eat together
      [?figuratively 'Tribe']
Aulë     Q; Q adaptation of Valinorean A3ulez [meaning not known]; see GAWA- or GOWO- devise, Q
      aule invention, Nol Gaul [Etym]; as with the names of all the Valar, many concepts may be implied;
      see OY- ever, oiale everlasting [Etym]; also see IL- all, Q ilya, with ILU- universe, Q ilu, ilúve [Etym;
      the name Aulë occurs in reverse in the divine name Ilúvatar]; the stem ÓLOS- dream, Q olor [Etym]
      may implicate the Biblical doctrine that 'things which are seen are not made of things which do
      appear' [Etym]; it is said of Aulë that he understood the 'fabric of the earth'; a Vala, smith, fabricator
      of the visible world, master and teacher of crafts
Avallónë     Q; see AWA- away, out, Q ava outside [Etym]; see also LONO- Q lóna island [Etym] - i.e.
      'island outside' Valinor [implied by -val-]; this is a bit misleading due to the evolution of the name
      from earlier writings where the name indicated the whole island [Tol Eressëa], to The Silmarillion
      where it denotes the harbour and the city; the name essentially retains the original form, but the final
      element implies LOD- strait, Q londe harbour, haven [Etym], with the -de becoming a syncope and
      the Q final genitive suffix -ë being appended - 'Haven Outside [of Valinor]'
Avari     Q; see AB-, ABAR- refuse, Q Avar, plur Avari [Etym]; 'The Unwilling, the Refusers'; Elves who
      chose not to travel west
Avathar     'ancient Q'; AWA- away, Q ava outside [Etym]; the second element is described as an
      'ancient Q' form; possibly a Q form related to WATH- shade, Old Nol watha [Etym], Q vathar
      'shadows' [presumed - no Q forms given; -r forms a plur in Q]; the older lexicons give a stem element
      *MBAÞ-related to [Nol] *mat-, math 'dusk', -bath 'night'; here it appears that m or b > v by lenition
      to blend with ava- [+ (m)atha + -r = 'shadows outside (Valinor); in separate notes Tolkien states that,
      at least in S, shade means 'dim light', not shadows cast by light; that rule would seem to apply here,
      where Ungoliant wove thick webs that blocked out the light of the Two Trees (there was no Sun at
      this time)]; another name was Arvalin [AR²- outside, Q prefix ar- (Etym) + valin = outside Valinor];
      'The Shadows'; bleak lands of Aman
Azaghâl     D; Dwarf of the First Age

Balan     M, although the name could relate to BAL- ON bala power [Etym]; early name of Bëor the Old;
      no source has been proposed for either of these names; Balan may relate to the Celtic sources of the
      Arthurian legend; some scholars attribute the names of the knights Balan and Balin to the Celtic
      god Belenus ['Sparkling'] so popular in Gaul and Britain [Indo-European root bhel-¹ to shine]; this
      association survives in the Old English bæl fire, Irish Beltaine [a festival of light]; in Breton and
      ancient Gaulish the word [balan, balain] meant 'broom', or 'brush'; the original name of Bëor
Balar     S/M; the name is attributed to BAL- power,  Q Vala, plur Valar, Power, God, ON balar [Etym];
      however, like the name Belfalas [below], the bel- element is said to have been related to early
      'Mannish' languages; one possibility Tolkien had in mind for Mannish origin might be the Latin
      pelagus the open sea, from Greek pellatos, related to pellos dark-coloured and pelo be in motion;
      similarly Old English and Germanic bellan to roar; the most likely M source, however, is probably
      Gaulish *vlato-s, root vala, vla, be strong [the Indo-European root is bhel-² swell, bel strong, large],
      which gives rise to the Germanic walda 'dominion', English wield; it would seem that the Mannish
      element Bel- and the Elvish element Bal- early became inextricably entertwined in relation to the sea,
      and the origin is somewhat lost; in the legends of Beleriand the name's origins are almost solely
      attributed to the same as Valar, since the Undying Lands were near to the coasts of Middle Earth in
      ancient times; the Maia Ossë [also called Balar 'Powerful', from S bálare (Dor verb form?)], who
      served the Valar and the sea, guided the Eldar to the 'land of the gods'; a large bay at the mouth of
      the river Sirion, also an island removed from there; see Beleriand
Balrog     S; bal- see previous; also see RUK- demon, Nol rhaug [Etym], and see rauko demon, S raug,
      rog [appx]; 'Demon of Might', a fire monster
Barad-dûr     S; see barad tower [appx], from BARAT- Nol barad tower [Etym] and BARÁD- lofty
      [Etym], related to BAR- raise, save [Etym], and perhaps RAT- walk, Nol râd [Etym] ... RATH
      climb [not in Etym]; see dûr dark [appx], from DO3, - night, Nol & S dûr dark [Etym]; 'The Dark
Barad Eithel     S; barad see previous; see eithel well, spring [appx], from ET- forth, out [Etym] + KEL-
      run (especially of water) = et-kele, and by metathesis *ektele > eithel [Etym]; 'Tower of the Well'
Barad Nimras     S; barad see previous; see also nim white [appx], from NIK-W- snow, Q ninqe, Nol
      nim(p)- white [Etym]; also see ras horn [appx]; 'White Horn Tower'
Baragund     Nol; see BARÁS- hot, Nol bara fiery, eager [Etym]; also see KUNDU- prince, Nol cunn,
      -gund in names [Etym]; 'Fiery Prince'; perhaps the Elvish rendering is an adaptation of an earlier M
      name, such as Gaulish bratu-, *bera, judge [which may also refer to Bëor, ancestor and patriarch of
      the 'clan'], and Gaulish cuno- high, but which often became blended with , Breton koun 'hound';
      ['Judge' is more logical an interpretation than 'Prince' in the sense of the period of Judges in Biblical
      Israel, wherein, lacking a king, judges settled legal and civic disputes of their individual tribes; Men
      coming into Beleriand did not have 'kings', but rather 'chieftains']; an Adan, nephew of Barahir
Barahir    S; bara- see previous; the element may also refer to Bëor, ancestor and patriarch of the 'clan';
      see also KHER- rule, Nol hîr household, chief [Etym]; 'Fiery Chief'; also see Baragund for possible
      M element *bera judge; -hir might relate to a possible Celtic source *kairo blaze (English hoar);
      father of Beren
Baran     ?M; Gaelic baran baron ['strong man'], Old English bæran bearing; also see Baragund for
      possible M element *bera judge [which may also refer to Bëor, ancestor and patriarch of the 'clan'];
      see BARÁN- brown [Etym], or perhaps an adapted form of BARÁD- lofty, ON branda, brann noble,
      chief [Etym]; son of Bëor
Baranduin     S; see BARÁN- brown [Etym]; see also duin river [appx]; 'The Brown River'; in Hobbit the
Bar-en-Danwedh     S; see bar dwelling [appx], from MBAR- dwell [Etym]; -en- indicates a possessive
      article; Danwedh appears to be a compound of NDAN- back, Nol dân contrary [Etym], and WED-
      bind, Nol gweð bond, compact [Etym] - 'contrary contract', i.e. ransom; 'House of Ransom'; also
      known as Echad i Sedryn 'Camp of the Faithful' [?AK- confined (Etym; S not certain; S ec- does
      occur under EK- spear) + SAT defined area, set aside, S sad (not in Etym), sad > had in compounds
      (see appx: sîr) = confined area (?or spear place), 'camp'; -i- forms a possessive article; seidia- a S
      verb 'set aside for a special purpose' from the same as sad, plural sed- + ryn (S plur of agental suffix
      -ron) = special ones or 'faithful']; hideout of Túrin on Amon Rûdh
Battles of Beleriand     The first battle: the first attack by Morgoth against the Sindar and Noldor [see text
      of The Silmarillion, p. 96]; the second (the Battle-under-Stars): see Dagor-nuin-Giliath; the third (the
      Glorious Battle): see Dagor Aglareb; the fourth (the Battle of Sudden Flame): see Dagor Bragollach;
      the fifth battle (Unnumbered Tears): see Nirnaeth Arnoediad
Bauglir     Nol; see MBAW- compel, force, Nol baug cruel, bauglir tyrant [Etym; baug + ?LIR²- row,
      range (?Nol only; Etym), perhaps used here as an augmentative plural - chain of cruelties = 'Tyrant'];
      there is some question whether -(l)ir forms an 'aorist' [indefinite] verbal element here [-i- + (plur) -r];
      perhaps, but with the term Hithaeglir the element is actually part of the translation: 'row'; perhaps
      terms such as Bauglir, Anfauglir and Eglir argue for a special [?plur] agental form, supported in
      one of Tolkien's writings by the variant Baugron [see Sauron]; it is interesting to note that the
      element does not occur in the LOTR lexicon; name of Morgoth; also 'The Constrainer'
Beleg     S; [Elf of Doriath]; see beleg mighty [appx], from BEL- strong, Ilk Beleg 'the Strong' [the entry
      explains that Nol beleg 'great' is derived distinctly from the Ilk; perhaps the 'Ilk' form is derived from
      WEG- man (Etym), used often as an agental suffix: 'one who is strong']; a great archer; also called
      Cúthalion 'Strongbow'
Belegaer    S; beleg- see previous (Nol), but also read bel- element under Balar (above); see also AY-
      pool, AYAR- sea, Nol oear [Etym], S aear; however, appx gives gaer 'sea' from GAYA 'awe, dread'
      [see GÁYAS- fear, dread (Etym)]; notwithstanding, in a fairly late letter dated August, 1967 [#297],
      Tolkien states: *AYAR 'sea', Q ëar, S aear; in one of his notes Tolkien also relates the latter element
      to *GAY- 'astound, make aghast', proto-Eldarin *gayar 'sea', Q ëar, S adjective *gaira, fearful ... S
      gaear sea, because they beheld the sea with awe; 'The Great Awesome (Sea)'
              ‡ War of the Jewels, Part Four, p. 400
Belegost     S; see beleg mighty [appx], and see Beleg; see also os(t) fortress [appx]; 'Great Fortress'; the
      Dwarvish is Gabilgathol; See Mickleburg
Belegund     Nol; beleg- see previous; see also KUNDU- prince, Nol cunn, (-gund in names) [Etym];
      'Mighty [or Great] Prince'; perhaps the Elvish name is fashioned upon an older M name, such as
      Gaulish bele-, *belo- 'flash, fire' [Indo-European root bhel-¹ 'bright'], and Gaulish cuno- high ('noble'),
      but which often became blended with , Breton koun 'hound' ['fierce fighter']; father-in-law of Huor
Beleriand     ?M & S [see Balar for bal-, bel-]; the -i- can indicate a possessive; see also LAT- lie open,
      Nol lhand open space [Etym], closely related to LAD-wide, Nol lhand, lhann [Etym]; the -l- becomes
      a syncope in compounds; a related stem is NAD- Nol nand, nann wide grassland, watered plain, Nol
      nand field, valley [Etym]; the 'Land of Balar', originally coastal lands near the mouth of the great river
      Sirion and the island of Balar, came in time to include most of the lands west of the Ered Luin and
      south of the frozen North; Beleriand was plunged to the bottom of the sea so that following the First
      Age only Ossiriand (Lindon) remained, plus a few isolated islands
Belfalas     M & S; Bel- see Balar; also see BEL- strong, great [Etym]; see also PHAL-, PHÁLAS- foam,
      Nol falas shore [Etym], S falas 'shore, line of surf' [appx]; 'the Great Coasts'; the name is said to
      partly have pre-Númenórean origins, 'Bel' adapted by the Elves and -falas appended [see discussion
      under Balar]; the coasts of Gondor; also Bay of Belfalas
Belthil     S; see BAL-, Q Vala power, God, Nol Bal-, Bel- [Etym; the bel- variation may indicate feminine
      gender]; see also sil- (and [S] variant thil-) shine (silver) [appx]; 'Divine radiance'; a reproduction of
Belthronding     S; see BEL- strong, great [Etym]; see also STAR-, Nol thâr stiff ... STARAN- Ilk. thrôn
      stiff, hard [Etym; the Ilk subgrouping was abandoned by Tolkien, but some of the linguistic forms
      were absorbed into S]; the suffix DING- is onomatopoeic, sound of a bowstring [Etym]; 'Intractable
      Bow'; bow of Beleg Cúthalion of Doriath
Bëor     Nol? see BOR- endure, Nol boron trusty man, vassal [Etym]; similarly, see BEW- follow, serve,
      Nol beor [Etym]; his original name was Balan; the name Bëor is said to have been added in his own
      tongue and mean 'vassal', yet the only tongue in which the term has been so defined is Nol; Anglo
      Saxon beor 'meal companion, guest', likewise beoran [bearan] 'to carry', also 'situated by birth',
      further 'endure, support'; the word is probably in a tongue Tolkien called 'Taliska', for which the
      inspiration is uncertain [?Latin talis 'of such a kind', 'special kind', related to Greek telamon
      'supporter, bearer' (a strap) - root *tal, *tel, 'take, lift']; called 'The Old'; a patriarch of the Adan and
      vassal to the Noldor; see Balan
Bereg     probably M, but see BERÉK- wild, Nol breg- [Etym]; ?Anglo Saxon bearg hog? or perhaps
      derived from Gaulish *bera 'judge, decide', with -eg as an adjectival or genitive suffix; a contrarian
      Adan of the House of Bëor [the first element in Bereg?] who emigrated back East
Beren     S; see BER- valiant, Nol beren bold [Etym]; -en forms a S adjective - 'Daring'; an Adan; pried a
      Silmaril from Morgoth's iron crown; only mortal to return from the dead; great-grandfather of Elrond,
      and progenitor of the Númenórean kings; of the line of Bëor [contained in first element of Beren?],
      so that through his union with the Sindarin Princess Lúthien, whose mother was the Maia Melian,
      the seed of the Ainu, the Elves and Men became joined; see Baragund for possible M element to
      the names of the descendants of Bëor; also called Camlost and Erchamion
Black Land     See Mordor
Black Sword     See Mormegil
Blessed Realm     See Aman
Blue Mountains     See Ered Luin and Ered Lindon
Bór     M or S? appears to derive from BOR- endure, Nol bór faithful vassal [Etym]; perhaps adapted
      from a M name based on Anglo-Saxon borh [borg] 'pledge, bondsman', from the Germanic; or Early
      Irish borr 'to stick out' (e.g.: the chest), 'great, pride'; Anglo Saxon bora means 'ruler'; chieftain of
      men from the East; bound himself to Maedhros and Maglor
Borlach     S? bor- see previous; also see lhach leaping flame [appx]; what seems likely is that the name
      of Bór, the patriarch of this clan, was originally in their own tongue, while the names of his sons
      seem to have retained the element yet been adapted to Elvish ['faithful'], presumably S: Borlach =
      'Enduring Flame'; in Gaelic -lach forms a collective noun from a single entity, here: borr + lach =
      'Proud Ones', or Gaelic lach in combination with the S bór-: 'the Faithful'; Old English *borlic exalted,
      borlice excellently, bærlic open [see Borlad, next]; son of Bór
Borlad     S? bor- see previous; also see LAD- wide, open [Etym], or LAT- free, open [Etym], perhaps
      reaffirming his sovereignty even in service to the Noldor [see Borlach]; the Old English equivalent
      may support this, as læt is the class above slave but below freeman; the name was originally Borlas,
      perhaps Gaelic bor- great [see Bór] + las kindle, spark, lias torch, Early Irish lés, or perhaps Anglo-
      Saxon last vow [in S bor faithful + GALÁS- joy, Nol glas (Etym)]; the element bor- is preserved in
      the line of Bór and the line of Bëor, and is said to imply 'faithful men'; a son of Bór
Boromir     S; see BOR- endure, Nol bór faithful vassal, boron trusty man [Etym], and see Borlad; it
      seems likely that ROM- loud noise, horn-blast [Etym] must be considered; in one writing Tolkien
      states that Frodo was asked about the most memorable possession of the later Boromir [of the
      Fellowship of the Ring], and he replied 'I remember that he bore a horn'; see mîr jewel [appx];
      'Faithful Jewel (Horn)'; great-grandson of Bëor and ancestor of Beren, and a legendary name
      amongst the Edain; [the name is also legendary amongst stories of Irish heroes and kings - as
      Boroma (said to mean 'tribute' in one place, although this author has been unable to confirm it)]
Boron     S; see BORÓN- steadfast [Etym], also Boromir; the name may relate to the Gaelic baran a
      baron, Irish barún, Welsh barwn; father of Boromir
Borthand     S; bor- see Borlad; the element borth is mentioned in Etym under BOR- endure, faithful
      [Etym], but Tolkien neglected to develop his intentions; it is possibly BOR- blended with BARATH-
      lofty [Etym]; the second element is derived from KHAN- understand, Nol hand intelligent
      (Borthandos) [Etym]; 'Faithful and Compassionate Chief'; a M equivalent might be Anglo Saxon
      bora 'ruler' and ðand [< ðindan 'to swell'], or ðegn 'military vassal' [English thane]; a son of Bór
Bragollach     See Dagor Bragollach
Brandir     S; see BARÁD- lofty, Nol brand, brann noble [Etym]; the suffix is from DER- adult male,
      man, Nol dîr [-dir; Etym; often used agentally]; 'Man of Nobility'; an Adan; also called 'The Lame'; a
      M equivalent might be Celtic bran 'raven, crow', also the name of a Gaulish god-hero, and Gaulish
      *dûro- 'stubborn'
Bregolas     S; see BERÉK- wild, Nol bregol violent, Bregolas fierceness [Etym; the Indo-European root
      bhreg- 'to break' seems related]; the form is early [Dor], and does not seem to decode the same as the
      later name Legolas [see LOTR]; the suffix -as appears to form a noun from an adjective: 'violent';
      'Zealot'; father of Baragund and Belegund; an Adan, son of Bregor [next]; a M equivalent could be
      Old English bræc 'breaking, destruction', brecan 'break', from Germanic *brekan, and an Old Irish
      word colla 'strong man', from a root , ku 'power' [see Belagund]
Bregor     S; brego- see previous; the suffix is likely from GOR- violence, impetus, haste, Nol -or [Etym];
      Anglo-Saxon brego 'chief, lord' [and see Bregolas]; Anglo-Saxon gor, gar can be used for 'spear',
      also the idea of 'piercing'; father of Barahir and Bregolas, of the line of Bëor; 'Fervent'; an Adan and
      a bowman of reknown
Brethil     S; see BERÉTH- beechtree, Ilk [S] breth- [Etym]; see also SIL- [Etym] variant of THIL- 'shine
      silver' [Etym], due to the beech's silver-grey bark; it may be that the -il ending here is supposed to
      imply a plur, i.e.: 'forest' [IL- all (Etym), possibly used in the Silvan dialect to form a plur]; a similar
      name for a 'beechtree' forest was Dor Neldoreth; a forest of Beleriand
Bridge of Esgalduin     See Iant Iaur
Brilthor     S; see MBIRÍL- [Etym; compound of MIR- jewel (Etym), and RIL- glitter (Etym)], Ilk [S] bril-
      glass [Etym]; also see THOR- (eagle), come swooping down, adjective [Ilk?] thôr swooping (thórod
      torrent) [Etym]; 'Glittering Torrent'; a tributary of Gelion
Brithiach     S; see brith gravel [appx], from BIRÍT- Ilk [S] brith broken stones [Etym; perhaps a
      compound of PER- halve (Etym) + RIS- cleave (Etym) - 'cleave in half']; -i- forms a possessive; see
      also AK- narrow [Etym; ?Dor form -ach: see EK- spear, Nol ech (Etym)] - i.e. 'narrows of gravel' or
      'Gravel Ford'; the last element would seem to relate to YAK- neck [Etym] as a 'narrowing' [the Nol
      form is given as iaeth, but this derivative may have been misplaced]; a ford over Sirion
Brithombar     S; brithon- see next; see also MBAR- dwell (-ing) [Etym; the -n- becomes -m- in the
      compound, although it may also be that this name is in the S dialect called Falathrin]; 'Wards of the
      River Brithon', although in one text the last element is interpreted 'haven' - 'Haven of the River
      Brithon'; one of the Havens of the Falas; see Brithon [next]
Brithon     S; brith- see Brithiach; -on is possibly an augmentative suffix in S - see Calenardhon -
      'gravely'; it might also imply that the banks were pinelands - see THON- Ilk [S] thôn pine-tree
      [Etym]; some texts state that 'fair towns were builded' at the rivers' mouths [Brithombar and
      Eglarest], and the walls and 'quays and piers [were] of stone'; it seems likely that brith here refers
      to river rock as much as mere gravel; a river at Brithombar
Brodda     M; Gaelic brod a goad, prickle, Norse broddr, sting, brodda to prick, goad, incite, Anglo-
      Saxon brord a prickle [English: 'prod']; an Easterling who may have fought on the side of Morgoth
      at the Nirnaeth Arnoediad

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