*** The  S I L M A R I L L I O N   Index***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* C - E *

appx =     Appendix [Silmarillion - Elvish roots]
D =          Dwarvish
Dor =      Doriathrin
Etym =    The Etymologies
Ilk =        Ilkorin [see Dark Elves]
M =        Men, Mannish
N =         Númenórean, Adûnaic
Nol =      Noldorin
ON =      Old Noldorin
plur =     plural
Q =         Quenyan [High Elven]
S =         Sindarin
LOTR = Lord of the Rings Dictionary



Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [appx]
Words of the languages of the Rohirrim, Hobbits and Common Speech are traced to possible roots in the
      ancient Elven tongue, although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are
      derived from ancient English, especially Anglo Saxon


Cabed-en-Aras     S; see KAP- leap, Nol cab- [Etym]; -ed likely forms a gerund [verb form used as a
      noun] - 'a leaping' - in Dor, but see also ET- forth, Nol -ed- [Etym], which may be implied - 'leap(-ing)
      forth'; -en- forms a possessive article; the term is defined as 'Deer's Leap' or 'Leap of the Deer'; Aras
      is problematical as 'deer'; perhaps a Dor construct of 3AR- have [Etym], and RAS- stick up [Etym],
      S ras horn [appx] = 'having horns' or 'deer'; perhaps ar(a)- high [appx] is implied, but then more at
      KHARÁS- precipice, sheer height, Nol i-rass [Etym; i- likely being the same as im- in 'Imladris':
      'steep'] - 'Lofty Precipice'; called originally by Tolkien Mengas Dûr [MEN- place [Etym] + GAS-
      gape, Nol 'gap' [Etym] + DO3, - night, Nol dûr somber: 'Dark Chasm] - 'a grim place'; a deep
      narrow gorge with sheer sides that was nearly dark at the bottom; see Cabed Naeramarth
Cabed Naeramarth     S; cabed- see previous; see also NAY- lament, Nol noer sad [Etym], S naer; see
      also amarth doom [appx], from MBARAT- fate, doom, Nol ammarth [Etym; Tolkien uses the
      'reduplicated base vowel' as an intensifying principle]; 'Leap of Dreadful Doom'; also called Cabed-
      en-Aras before Nienor leapt from its heights
Calacirya     Q; see kal- (gal-)  shine [appx], from KAL- shine, Q kala light [Etym]; the -a- could also
      imply a possessive; see also kir- cleave [appx; the -ya suffix is an adjectival element in Q; kir-
      sometimes became confused in Q with KIL- divide, Q kilya cleft [Etym]; 'Cleft of Light', on which
      was the green hill of Túna
Calaquendi     Q; cala- see previous; see also quen- (quet-) say, speak [appx], from KWEN(ED)- Elf, Q
      qende  - 'speakers' [Etym; the name was given before Men 'awoke', and thus was used to mean
      'people'; later it was used for 'Elves' only]; -i forms a plur in Q; 'Elves of the Light'; those who had
      lived in the light of the Two Trees in Aman; see Moriquendi
Calenardhon     S; see KAL- shine, Nol calen green [Etym; 'green' as a bright color; -en forms an
      adjectival suffix in S]; see also 3AR- have, hold, Nol ardh realm [Etym]; the S -on ending is difficult
      to assign; in at least some words it is an augmentative [amon 'hill, mountain' < AM²- up (Etym);
      annon 'great gate' < AD- (Etym)], and in his lettersø Tolkien defines Calenarðon as 'the (great) green
      region'; however, in one source¤ Christopher Tolkien appears to assign the element to S lond, from
      either a primitive root LON haven, or LOD- narrow path, pass [Etym; the -l- becomes a sycope and
      the final -d is dropped in long S names]; the region is a long grassy strip between two mountain
      chains, but not specifically 'narrow'; 'The (Great) Green Province', original name of Rohan; also
              ø The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, #297, p. 383
              ¤ Unfinished Tales, Part Three, Chapter II, note #49
Camlost     S; see KAB- hollow, Nol cam hand [Etym]; see also LUS- Nol lhost empty [Etym], S lost;
      'Empty-handed'; name of Beren
Caragdûr     S [Northern]? see carak- fang [appx], from KARAK- spike, Nol carag 'spike of rock' [Etym;
      possibly compound of KAR- make (Etym) + AK- narrow (Etym); and see Charcharoth]; similarly,
      KHARÁS- precipice [Etym]; see also dûr dark [appx], from DO3, -, Nol dûr dark [Etym]; 'Fell
      Fall'; the precipice of Gondolin on Amon Gwareth
Caranthir     S-ized Q and ON [the Q form was Carnistir]; see caran red [appx], from KARÁN- red, Q
      karne, Nol caran red, crann ruddy of face [Etym]; see also THE- look, Nol thîr face, countenance
      [Etym; no Q forms under this entry in Etym, yet here we see the Q derivative -stir, giving rise to a
      possibility of a divergent stem in Q]; 'Ruddy-face'; the text says he was 'dark-haired' and 'red-faced';
      one of his original names was [Q] Morifinwë [MOR- black, Q móre (adjective) dark (Etym) + SPIN-,
      Q finde hair (Etym) + WEG- (manly) vigour, -we in names (used agentally - 'one who is' - Etym)]
      'Dark-haired One'; called 'the Dark'; one of Fëanor's seven sons
Carcharoth     S; see KARAK- fang, Nol carch tooth, fang [Etym; and see Caragdûr]; see also GAY-
      red, Nol gaer [Etym], ?Northern S char [presumed], or perhaps a shortening of KARÁN- red, Nol
      caran [Etym; see next]; see hoth host, horde [appx; [the -h- is suppressed here], used as a intensive
      plural suffix ?for fang = 'countless teeth' = 'huge jaw'; possibly the final element derives from GOS-,
      GOTH- dread, Nol -oth [Etym (addendum)] = 'dreaded fangs' = 'huge jaw'; 'the Red Maw'; a great
      wolf; also Anfauglir
Cardolan    S;  car- see caran red [appx; the form may be shortened (see Carcharoth above)]; see also
      NDOL- knoll, Nol dôl [Etym]; see also LAD- Nol lhann, land wide, and LAT- open, Nol lhand open
      space [Etym], S lan(n) [the final -d was often dropped in names]; 'Red Hill Land', where also were
      Bree and later the Barrowdowns; the reason for 'red' in the name is nowhere given
Carnil     Q; see KARÁN- red, Q karne [Etym]; see also GIL- star, Nol gíl, Q il [Etym], although more at
      an associated base NGIL silver glint, Q ñil, S gil [not in Etym; Q does not use initial 'g']; a 'red star'
Celeborn¹     S; see KYÉLEP- silver, Q t(y)elpe, Telerin telpe, Nol celeb [Etym], Q telep, telpë [appx]; see
      also ORO- high ... ÓR-NI- high tree, Nol and Dor orn tree [Etym]; 'Tree of Silver [Light]'; off-shoot
      of the original [Q] Telperion [S Galathilion, one of the Two Trees of Valinor], planted on Tol
      Eressëa and named by those Nol exiles returning to Valinor at the end of the First Age
Celeborn²     S; see previous; Elf of Doriath and later an Elven lord in Lothlórien
Celebrant     S; celeb- see previous; see also rant course of a river [appx], from RAT- walk, Nol & Ilk
      rant vein, course of river [Etym]; 'Silver Lode', a river that had confluence with the Anduin
Celebrimbor     S-ised form of Telerin Telperimpar, and Q Tyelpinquar; see celeb silver, Telerin
      adjective telperin, S adjective celebrin silver-like [appx], from KYÉLEP- silver [see Celeborn¹]; see
      also KWAR- fist, Q qáre, Nol paur, -bor [Etym], Q quárë [the grasp of the smith, not a fighter's  fist;
      appx]; 'Silver Grasp'; a great Elven smith, maker of the Three Rings of the Elves; devised the name
Celebrindal     S; celeb (-rin) see previous; see also TAL- foot, Q tál, Nol tâl, -dal 'lower end' [Etym];
      'Silverfoot'; in one place the Q form is given: Taltelepta [TAL- foot + KYÉLEP- silver, Q telep
      (Etym); the -ta ending is indicative of a 'pair', probably related to the bases AT(AT)- again, and
      TATA- 'two' (Etym)]; also see Idril
Celebros     S; celeb- see previous; see also ros foam, spray [appx] - 'white-water' or 'waterfall'; 'Silver
      Foam' or 'Silver Rain'; a river of Brethil
Celegorm     S-ised form of Q and ON Tyelkormo; see KYELEK- swift, Q tyelka, Nol celeg [Etym]; the
      final element presents some problems; the likely source is GOR- violence, haste, Q orme, Nol gormh
      vigour, gorn impetuous [Etym; the form gormh was apparently dropped; yet in notes dated 1968,
      Tolkien claims that the -m was retained, and did not soften to -v because the name had been adapted
      into Northern S dialect]; 'swift and passionate'; however, the Q form was translated as 'Hasty-riser',
      which points towards ORO- rise [Etym], but there are no -orm derivatives offered in either Q or Nol;
      the form may possibly be influenced by the name of the Vala Oromë, with whom this Noldorin Prince
      spent some time before the Exile [and which name is associated with ORO- and the dawn or 'rising-
      Sun' in this author's view]; a son of Fëanor, quick to temper
Celon     S; see KEL- run (especially of water), Ilk celon river [generic; Etym]; in Etym the stem KEL-
      states the name 'Celon' is kelu + n, but offers no explanation of -n; perhaps the -on ending is
      augmentative [see discussion at Calenardhon], although the text states that the name means 'Stream
      Flowing Down from Heights'; the last element may be from TUN- hill, Nol -don [?the -d- becoming a
      syncope]; Tolkien was dissatisfied with the previous construct and stated his intention to change
      the name to Limhir [lim clear, sparkling (see LOTR entry Limlight) + sir river > hir as suffix in
      names (appx) = 'clear stream'], but never effected the change
Children of Ilúvatar     Elves and Men; also Híni Ilúvataro, Eruhíni
Círdan     S; see KIR- ship, Nol ceir [Etym], S cír [appx]; the first element closely relates to KIRIS- cut,
      Q kirisse slash, Nol criss [Etym], as a prow of a ship cuts through the water; see also TAN- make,
      fashion, Nol -than [Etym], S -dan [appx]; 'The Shipwright'; a Telerin Elf, lord of the Grey Havens,
      keeper of Narya, the Ring of Fire; perhaps the oldest Elf of all the tales
Cirith Ninniach     S? see KIRIS- cleft, Q kirisse gash, Nol criss slash [Etym; see Crissaegrim below], S
      cirith cleft(-ing) [presumed: kir cleave (appx) + ris cleave (appx) = (augmentative) = 'deep cleft' or
      'high pass'];  S -ith indicates a verb form - 'cleft-ing' - used as a noun (gerund); see also NIN-DI-
      fragile, slender, Nol ninn thin [Etym], although perhaps nen water, nîn wet [appx] is implied; also see
      YAK- neck [Etym] S -iach [presumed; see discussion at Brithiach], although YAT- join, Nol ian(w)
      'bridge' [Etym] would seem related; 'crevasse of the thin (water-) neck' or 'Rainbow Cleft'; a word for
      'rainbow' is presented under 3EL- sky, Q helyanwe 'skybridge', Nol eilian(w) [Etym], but Tolkien
      chose to be metaphoric in this case, perhaps because these rainbows were not in the sky, but in the
      spray of the fast-flowing stream; see Annon-in-Gelydh
Cirith Thoronath     S; cirith 'cleft', see previous; see THOR-, THÓRON- eagle [Etym; ... THOR- come
      swooping down (Etym) + -ron, an agental suffix (see Sauron; -on is taken at times as a genitive
      singular suffix; if so in this case, the plur is achieved with the -ath affix) = 'one that swoops down'];
      ath is a S collective plural - see note following Argonath; 'Eagles´ Cleft'; a lofty pass
Cirth     S; singular certh; see KIRIS- cut, N criss cut [Etym], S *kirte cutting, Q [borrowed from S later]
      certa, plur certar [these forms not listed in Etym]; related stems are KIR- ship [as 'dividing' water],
      Nol ceir [Etym], and KIRIK- sickle, Nol critho reap [Etym]; the older lexicons give the root KIRI cut,
      split [see Cirith above], here in the sense of dividing words into syllables and letters; 'The Runes'
      [cuttings]; the runes were 'devised' by Daeron of Doriath
Ciryon     Q; cir- see KIR- ship, Nol ceir [Etym]; the suffix is from YO, YON- son, Q yondo,  Q and Nol
      -ion, masculine ending; ship-man or 'Mariner'; Tolkien originally assigned Ciryon the name
      'Vëandur' [ (Nol gwi-) is identified in the older lexicons as deriving from a Q root VEHE, without
      meaning or derivatives; however, in the Index to The Lost Road vean- is defined as 'sea'; -(n)dur
      friend of (appx); 'devoted to the sea']; a son of Isildur, grandson of Elendil, the great N mariner
Corollairë     Q; a combination word - Coron Oiolairë; see coron mound [appx], from KOR- round
      [Etym] + -ron, an agental suffix (see Sauron) = coron = 'that which is round'; also see OY- eternal, Q
      oi, oia ever(-lasting), oio- [Etym]; see also LÁYAK- green, Q laiqa [Etym]; the Q form laira 'summer'
      does not appear in this Etym entry; it is mentioned in one of Tolkien's letters as a derivative of an
      associated base LAY [not much used in S]; in the older lexicons lairë means 'meadow', which is
      close to the intention here, from an old Q root LAYA flourish; it is on this rise that stood the Two
      Trees that bathed the Undying Lands with their golden and silver light; 'The Green Mound' [of
      Valinor]; also 'the Ever-Summer Mound'; see Túna; also Ezellohar
Crissaegrim     S; see KIRÍS- cut, cleft, Nol criss [Etym]; in Tolkien's early notes this word was
      fashioned upon KHARÁS- precipice, mountain wall, Nol rhass [older form in Nol i-chrass; Etym];
      either changes the meaning little - deep ravines between sheer towering peaks; see also AYAK-
      sharp, pointed, Nol oeg sharp [Etym], S aeg peak; -rim plur suffix, from RIM- numerous [Etym];
      'inaccessible heights', 'Clefted Peaks'; mountains south of Gondolin, so steep that only the eagles
      [of Manwë] could traverse them
Crossings of Teiglin     see Teiglin
Cuiviénen     Q; see KUY- come to life, Q kuive, kuivie awakening [*kuiwe; Etym; - can form a gerund
      (using a veb form as a noun) in Q - '(the) awakening'; still, -vie may hint at WEG- Q vie vigour
      (Etym)]; see also NEN- Q nén water [Etym]; 'Water of Awakening', where the first Elves 'awoke'
Culúrien     Q; see KUL- gold, golden-red, flame-coloured [Etym], cul- golden-red [appx]; see also UR-
      be hot, Q úr fire [Etym]; - can form a gerund (using a veb form as a noun) in Q - '(the) burning', and
      final -n here denotes a dative ending: 'The Burning of Gold-red Flame'; the name refers to Laurelin,
      the Golden Tree of Valinor; -ien here might also imply YAN- sanctuary, holy place [Etym], which in
      turn is related to AYAN- holy [Etym]; 'Sacrarium of the Golden Flame'
Curufin     S-ised form of Q and ON Kurufinwë; see KUR- craft, Nol curu [Etym]; see also PHIN- skill,
      Nol phin, fin [Etym], although in Q and ON - was used as an agental element in names of nobility -
      'Noble One of Craft'; also one name of his father; called 'the Crafty'; apparently the last element did
      not carry over into S as 'skill', but is derived from a separate stem SPIN- braid of hair [Etym], S fin-
      hair [appx]; a son of Fëanor and father of Celebrimbor [above]; not surprisingly, a friend of the
Curufinwë     Q and ON; curu- see previous; -we is a masculine ending from WEG- (manly) vigour,
      taking Q and Nol form -we in names [Etym], and used as an agental suffix; for finwë see Curufin
      [previous]; a name of Fëanor
Curunír     S; curu- see previous, also S curu 'skill' [appx]; see also DER- man [and the emphatic form
      NDER-], Nol dîr, also used as agental ending [Etym], S nir; '[man] of cunning devices [craftiness]' -
Cúthalion     S; see KU3- bow, Nol - [Etym], 'bow' [appx]; see also STÁLAG- stalwart, firm, Nol
      thala, thalion hero [Etym], thalion 'dauntless' [appx]; the -ion ending could be a masculine marker,
      derived from YO, YON- son, Q and Nol -ion [Etym], but here may be a genitive plur suffix used to
      strengthen the previous element; 'Strongbow'; see Beleg

Daeron     S; daer is from a S root DAY - 'large' or 'great' [found in Tolkien's later notes; not in Etym, and
      not connected with DAY- shadow]; the ending -ron is an agental suffix ['one who is' or 'one who
      does'] possibly from a Common Eldarin source: hröa body, S rhón, -ron [also seen, for example, in
      Sauron and Tauron]; minstrel, creator of a Cirth (Runes); 'one who does great things', 'Great One'
Dagnir     S; see NDAK- slay, Nol dagr battle, dagro to battle [Etym], S dagor 'battle' [appx]; -nir is a
      masculine suffix, derived from DER- man, Nol dîr [Etym], used here as an agental ending - 'doer,
      maker'; 'Slayer'; there may be a M form of the name on which the Elvish was patterned; dag is an old
      European base found in the modern word 'dagger', believed to possibly have Celtic origins: a 'blade-
      man' or 'warrior'; an Adan
Dagnir Glaurunga     S; Dagnir see previous; see Glaurung; in this Dor construction the -a ending
      seems to signify a possessive form; 'Glaurung´s Bane' - Túrin
Dagor Aglareb     S; see NDAK- slay, Nol dagr battle [Etym], dagor 'battle' [appx; the ending may
      intend to imply GOR- violence (Etym)]; see also AKLA-R- brilliance, Nol aglareb glorious [Etym;
      the -eb ending forms an adjective in S]; 'The Glorious Battle', third of the Wars of Beleriand
Dagor Bragollach     S; dagor see previous; see also BERÉK- Nol bregol violent, sudden [Etym], S
      bragol [appx]; also see lhach leaping flame [appx; the term has not been sourced; the closest in
      Etym is LAK²- swift; however Tolkien uses the element lach variously for 'flame' without noting an
      etymology]; 'The Battle of Sudden Flame', fourth of the Wars of Beleriand
Dagorlad     S; dagor see previous; see also lad plain [appx], from LAD- wide [Etym], also from LAT-
      cleared (of land) [Etym]; 'Battle Plain'; a battlefield at the end of the Second Age
Dagor-nuin-Giliath     S; dagor see previous; see also NU- underneath, Nol no under, with article 'the'
      nui(-n) [Etym]; GIL- shine, Nol gîl star [Etym]; -ath is a S collective plur [see note following
      Argonath]; 'The Battle-under-Stars', the second of the Wars of Beleriand
Dairuin     S; dair may be from a base DAY - 'large' or 'great' [not in Etym], or it may derive from DAY-
      shadow, Ilk dair shadow of trees [Etym]; see also ruin red flame [appx], from /RUN red, glowing, S
      ruin fiery red, a stem not in Etym; either 'Great Red Flame' or perhaps 'Savage Shadow'; an Adan
Dark Elves     (Moriquendi); the Elves that never saw the Two Trees of Valinor; includes Danas, Green
      Elves [Silvan], Nandor [both terms from NDAN- back, Q nan, Nol Dân, plur Danas (Etym) = those
      who stayed 'back'], Lembi Elves remaining behind [see LEB-, LEM- stay, (Etym)], and the term
      Ilkorindi: LA- not, Q il- [Etym; blended with AR²- outside, Nol al- 'without' (Etym)] + Kôr [Túna] +
      Quendi [Elves] = Elves not of Valinor
Dark Lord, The     Morgoth and Sauron; see Sauron Appendix
Deldúwath     S; see DYEL- feel fear, abhor, Nol del- [Etym]; see also DO3, - night, Nol [Etym];
      also see WATH- shade, Nol gwath [Etym], S wath ['dim light', not shadows cast by light; appx];
      'Horror of Night-shadow', 'Deadly Nightshade'; later name of Dorthonion (Taur-nu-Fuin)
Denethor     ?Silvan [the first Elf of this name was of the Nandor]; 'Tall and Supple'; an etymology is
      offered in The War of the Jewels, Volume XI of The History of Middle-earth series, p 412; *dene- is
      given as meaning 'strong and supple'; it likely relates to TAY- make long(er), Q taina extended, Nol
      taen long (and thin) [Etym; Silvan forms not available], or perhaps STINTA- short [in the sense of
      'thin' or 'lacking'], Q sinta, Nol thent [Etym], S then; the text assigns the last element of Denethor to
      thara 'tall and slender'; it likely relates to TER-, TERES- pierce, Q tere- slender, Nol trîw fine, slender
      [Etym; Silvan forms not available, but see Drengist (below)]; appx defines S thar-, thara as 'across',
      which would not seem to apply here; another possibility for thara might be a combination, such as
      TA3- high and AWA- forth, beyond, Nol ar [Etym], although it seems less likely; the final element
      would more likely derive dialectally from STAR- stiff, Nol thâr(a) stiff grass [Etym], but it seems to
      contradict 'supple'; it would be myopic to ignore the fact that Denethor was the leader of the Dana
      Elves; see DAN- Nandor [Etym - see Dark Elves] - the Green-elves - from NDAN- back [Etym - since
      they turned back from their journey to Aman]; however, for a different etymology see LOTR
      Dictionary Denethor; chief of the First Age Danas or Nandorin Elves
Dimbar     S; see DEM- sad, Ilk dimb [(Ilk only); Etym; the 'Ilkorin' identity was abandoned, and its forms
      generally transferred to S; however, see Dimrost (next)]; the appx lists the element dîn 'silent' but no
      root source has ever been proposed; perhaps dîn 'silent' has a common source with dim 'empty,
      forlorn' that has never been published [see LOTR Rath Dínen 'the Silent Street' and Dor Dínen
      below]; see also MBAR- inhabit, Nol -bar (land) [Etym]; 'empty country', 'Forlorn Land'
Dimrost     S; the first element is problematical as 'stair'; perhaps it relates to TEÑ- Nol line, row, Q
      téma series [Etym; perhaps: Q tém-, Nol -, Dor dím- series (of steps)]; see also ROS¹- Nol rhoss
      [fine] rain, spray [Etym; there was a subset stem in S, ROSS- (not in Etym), which indicated 'wind-
      swept spray'; -rost is presumably derived from this stem, although in Etym the element rost occurs
      under ROS²-, Dor (S) rost plain, valley]; 'the Rainy Stair'; a waterfall; later called Nen Girith
Dior     S; see NDEW- follow, (*ndeuro) Dor [S] Dior successor (i.e. of King Thingol) [Etym; Nol Dûr
      (addenda)]; TA-, TA3- high, lofty, noble, Nol -dor [Etym] could be implied; in Anglo-Saxon deor
      means 'wild', also 'brave'; called Aranel, and Eluchil 'Thingol´s Heir'; son of an Adan, Beren, and
      Lúthien, Princess of Doriath
Dol Guldur     S; see NDOL- knoll, Nol dôl [Etym], dol head, hill [appx]; see also gûl sorcery [appx],
      from ÑGOL- wisdom, Nol gûl magic [Etym]; the last element derives from dûr dark [appx], from
      DO3, - night, Nol dûr dark [Etym], i.e. guldur = 'dark wisdom'; 'Hill of Sorcery'
Dolmed     S [Dor]; dol- see previous [in Dor the term apparently indicated more than a 'hill', perhaps a
      flattened peak]; see also MIZD- Q miste fine rain, Dor [S] mid moisture, adjective med wet [Etym];
      'Wet Head', a great mountain
Dor Caranthir     S; see dôr land [appx], from NDOR- dwell, Nol dor land [Etym]; 'Land of Caranthir';
      see Thargelion; see Caranthir
Dor-Cúarthol     S; dor- see previous; see KU3- bow, Q , Nol arch [Etym]; see also AR²- beside, Q
      ar 'and' [Etym; while ar as 'and' does not appear as S in Etym, it is attested in the King's Letter
      (Sauron Defeated, Part One, Chapter XI, pp. 128-9)]; see also thôl helm [appx; perhaps from TEL-,
      TELU- hood, covering, Nol ortheli roof (OR- high; note the mutation of t > th in compounds) - Etym,
      perhaps in S influenced by NDOL- head (Etym) - 'head covering']; 'Land of Bow and Helm'
Dor Daedeloth     S; dor- see previous; see dae shadow [appx], from DAY- shadow, Nol dae [Etym];
      also see DYEL- fear, Nol deloth abhorrence [Etym; the text derives -oth from GOS-, GOTH- terror
      (Etym), although hoth host (appx), used as an augmentative suffix, serves as well]; 'Land of the
      Shadow of Horror'
Dor Dínen    S;  dôr land [appx]; see also dîn silent [appx; see commentary underDimbar above]; the
      source of dîn is not given; it may relate to TIN- sparkle, which is extended in Nol to tinw small star,
      and tinnu dusk, twilight [Etym], as a 'quiet' time of day; the -en suffix comprises a singular adjectival
      formation in S; 'The Silent Land', between two rivers in Beleriand
Dor Firn-i-Guinar     S; dor- see previous; see also PHIR- Nol fern, plur firn dead (of mortals) [Etym];
      -i- indicates a possessive with an article - 'of the' - shortened from [plur] -in- with the 'n' a syncope
      perhaps due to following 'g'; see also KUY- awake, Nol cui-, chui-, guino to be alive [Etym], S chui-,
      gui- [appx]; the final -ar seems to be a plural verb form - 'they live'; 'Land of the Dead that Live'; in
      late writings Tolkien rendered the term Dor Gyrth i chuinar [ÑGUR- death, Nol gûr, also guruth
      (Etym), S gurth (appx), plur gyrth; 'Land of the Dead that Live']
Doriath     S; said to be a compound of Dôr Iâth; dor- see previous; -i- implies a possessive; see also
      iâth fence [appx] - 'Land of the Fence'; there is no attested source for iâth; it could be related to
      GAT(H)- cave, Dor gad fence [Etym]; gad is a late additon, as Tolkien originally termed Doriath as
      'Land of the Cave' due to its 'thousand caves'; the relation of iâth 'fence' to GAT(H)- is not given,
      but is likely; the closest stem is GAT- catch, hook [Etym], which is what this fence did; also called
      the Girdle of Melian, this barrier was to keep things out; another word for fence Tolkien used was
      cail, which came from a stem KEG- 'snag' [not in Etym]; the 'barbs' of Doriath's fence were the
      enchantments of the Queen of Menegroth; iâth may be a compound of WAY- to enfold, Nol ui(a)
      [Etym] and GAT- to catch, hook [Etym] - to 'catch and enfold', 'surround with a fence'; 'Land of the
      Fence'; also the 'Hidden Kingdom'; see Menegroth
Dorlas     the name may be M; ?Anglo Saxon deor brave; the Gaelic offers dòrn fist, dòrlach a handful,
      Gaulish *durno; in S, the element dor- can be derived from a root element DORO - firm, unyielding
      [not in Etym], related to the stem NDOR- dwell, stay, (land) [Etym]; -las would seem to derive from
      LAS¹- leaf [Etym; but see discussion of this final element at Finduilas]; Dorlas went to the attack
      on Glaurung, but retreated in fear
Dor-lómin     ?Northern S; see NDOR- dwell,  Nol dor land [Etym]; see also GLAM- Nol glamor echo,
      Dor lómin [Etym], but the S more at LAM- to sound, Dor [S] 1óm echo [Etym], lómin ?genitive plural;
      'Land of Echoes'
Dor-nu-Fauglith     S; dôr land [appx]; see NU- below, under [Etym]; see also PHAU- gape, Nol faug
      thirsty [Etym], also faug- gape [appx]; see also lith ash [appx], from LIT- sand, Nol lith (ash) [Etym];
      'Land under Choking Ash'; see Anfauglith
Dorthonion     S; dor- see previous; see also THON- Ilk [S] thôn pine-tree, Nol thaun, plur thuin [Etym];
      -ion is here used as a genitive plural [see ERÉK- in Etym], often generalised to be inclusive: 'lands';
      'Land of (the) Pines'; after its destruction called Taur-nu-Fuin, an ironic pun of the 'Nol' form Dor-
      na-Thuin [-na- is a genitive sign similar to -in- (see Dor Firn-i-Guinar above); translated in the
      Elvish chant A Elbereth Gilthoniel as 'to' (NA¹-; Etym)], although this construction was abandoned
Draugluin     S; see draug wolf [appx], from DARÁK- Nol draug wolf [Etym]; see also luin blue [appx],
      from LUG²- blue, Dor luin pale [Etym]; 'Pale (Blue) Wolf'; a great werewolf
Drengist     S; a difficult term, perhaps the somewhat-S dialect Falathrin; dren- is almost certainly an
      evolved form from TER-, TERES- pierce, Q teren, Ilk [S] trêw slender [Etym]; the dilaect of the Falas
      could relate to the older Q form teren: [initial t > d] and drop the first duplicated vowel = dren
      'slender', although the element is too rare to attest this analysis; see Denethor [above] and LOTR
      Thranduil; the last element likely derives from KIRIS- cut, Nol crist cleft, gash [Etym; ?the -r-
      becoming a syncope, presumably due to the initial 'r' in dren-]; 'Slender Gash' or 'Long Firth'; a less
      likely possibility might be from KHIS-, KHITH- mist, fog, Q híse, N hîth, Dor. hiðum [Etym;
      ?Falathrin -gist] - 'Foggy Furrow'; a long narrow estuary at Nevrast
Duilwen     S; see DUI- Ilk [S] duin, duil river [Etym]; while the appx offers wen as 'maiden', part of the
      element was transferred to gwen indicating sheen; GWEN- green, Ilk. gwên greenness, fresh [Etym];
      'River Verdant'; a tributary of Gelion
Dúnedain     S; see NDU- sink, set (of Sun), Nol dûn west [Etym]; see Atani - S Adan, plur Edain; 'The
      Edain of the West'; see Númenóreans
Dungortheb     See Nan Dungortheb
Durin     D; see LOTR Dictionary; a lord of the Dwarves
Dwarrowdelf     M; 'Delving of the Dwarves': translation of Khazad-dûm (S Hadhodrond); see LOTR
Dwarves     see Nauglamír; also Naugrim

     Q; the term is a root metaphysical concept, and likely has no derivation; other roots are closely
      associated to , however; WA- wind, Ilk. gwau [Etym]; also WAY- enfold [as the Outer Void
      enveloping the world], Nol ui [Etym]; 3AR- have, hold, Q arwa possessing, harma treasure [Etym];
      ëar means 'sea' [appx and next], as a 'vast expanse' and as the 'eternal mother', and is associated by
      Tolkien with Q áya awe, wonder [GAYA awe, dread; associated with GÁYAS- fear - Etym]; ëala
      means 'spirit' in Q, and likewise fëa is 'soul'; Eä implies change, and since no Elvish word is found for
      'change' in Etym, perhaps it is implied in the term; likewise, Tolkien says that the element ilú(ve) [of
      Ilúvatar] means 'the all' [Etym IL- all], and is equivalent to 'Eä'; the creative word of Ilúvatar; in
      Elvish 'It is' or 'Let it be'; the material universe, or simply 'the world'
Eärendil     Q; see ëar sea [appx], from AY- pool ... AYAR-, AIR- sea, Q ear (earen, perhaps implying a
      genitive article 'of the') [Etym; see a more complete discussion at Belegaer]; see also -(n)dil devoted
      [appx]; son of Tuor, a mortal who violated the ban and sailed West to the Undying Lands to plead
      with the Valar; his judgment was to sail the heavens in his ship with a Silmaril appearing in the night
      sky as a star; 'Lover of the Sea'
Eärendur¹     Q; eären- see previous; -(n)dur is same as -(n)dil [appx], except -ndur refers more to a
      detached dedication rather than an emotional affection; 'dedicated to the sea'; a lord of Númenor
Eärendur²     Q; see previous; a king of Arnor
Eärnil     Q; variant of Eärendil; a king of Gondor
Eärnur     Q; variant of Eärendur; last King of Gondor
Eärrámë    Q; eär- see previous; see also RAM- Q ráma wing [Etym]; 'Sea-wing'; name of a ship
Eärwen     Q; see ëar sea [appx]; see also wen maiden [appx]; GWEN- freshness, Q wen youthful vigour
      [Etym] is probably implied; 'Sea Maiden'; a Telerin Elf
Echoing Mountains     see Ered Lómin
Echoriath     S; see echor encircle [appx]; *ek(e)- is an ambiguous element in S; most obvious is EK-
      spear, point, Nol. êg, ech- [Etym], which here could refer to mountain peaks; there was also a
      primitive root element *HEK, which essentially means 'out', and also descended into S as *ek; it is
      probably reflected in the stem ET- out, forth [Etym]; echor- would seem to be ET- [or *HEK] plus
      KOR- round, circle [Etym] - 'out-circle' or 'surround'; see also iâth fence [appx; see discussion at
      Doriath, above]; -ath is also a S collective plural ending, and is likely implied here; 'encircling fence',
      'The Encircling Mountains'
Ecthelion     S; see EK-, EKTE- spear [Etym]; also see thalion strong, dauntless [appx], from
      STÁLAG- stalwart, Nol thalion hero [Etym]; 'Valiant Spear'; however, Etym assigns the name to
      STELEG- point, N thela [Etym], which would make the name simply 'Spear-point'; the intent is likely
      the same; in Tolkien's notes he cites a stem STEL 'remain firm', S verb thel resolve [not in Etym; see
      discussion under Astaldo]; the -ion suffix is presumably the usual masculine suffix from YO, YON-
      son, Q & Nol -ion [Etym]; in the volume Unfinished Tales Tolkien identifies this Elf as 'Lord of
      Fountains', hinting that this was the meaning of the name; the older lexicons give Q ektelë, (Nol)
      ecthel 'fountain', relating to the stems ET- 'out' and KEL- 'go, flow' [Etym], but this etymolgy runs
      into hurdles in the S at the time of The Lord of the Rings; this is seen in appx: kel- 'flow away',
      et-kele = Q ehtelë, S eithel; a gate warden of Gondolin
Edain     See Atani
Edrahil     ?S; the name is a matter of much speculation; the name was fashioned to replace the name
      Enedrion - which presents problems of its own: ?ÉNED- middle, center (Etym) + ?RI- edge, border
      (Etym) + -ion (traditional male suffix - see Ecthelion) = ?'inner circle' or perhaps ?'palace guard';
      similarly, Edrahil might derive from ?ET- out (Etym) + ?REG- border, Nol rhain, edrain, [plur]
      edrein [Etym] + ?KHIL- follow (not in 'Nol'; the S was -chil) = ?'border follower' or 'March Warden';
      some have argued that the name is Adûniac, a M tongue, but this is unlikely since the name belongs
      to an Elf of Nargothrond; since this Elf is described as the 'chief' of a group of knights, this author
      leans towards 'inner circle' by implication; notwithstanding, the name does not decode easily in S
Eglador     S; see ELED- depart, ÉLED- departed Elf, Q Elda, Dor egla Elf [the letters transposed to edel
      (?or edla- in compounds) to indicate 'left behind' or forsaken (ET- out; Etym) - those who did not
      'depart' for Aman; Etym]; Tolkien's notes expand on this mutation; the form egla is taken from early
      Q hekla - 'put aside', 'left out', from *HEK [see Echoriath above; also see discussion under Ekkaia
      below]; see also dôr land [appx]; 'Land of the (Forsaken) Elves' - early name of Doriath, including a
      great part of western Beleriand; likely related to the name Eglath [below]
Eglarest     S [dialectic?]; egla- see previous; originally there was a 'River Eglor' in Beleriand [probably
      rendered 'River Nenning' in present maps], and the term Eglarest, according to The Etymologies,
      means 'ghyll of the River Eglor'; see RIS- cleave, Nol rhest, Ilk [S] rest a deep ravine [Etym]; the
      meaning of Eglor is given as 'Elf River' in Ilk, as outlined in Eglador above; -(g)lor as 'river' perhaps
      derives from GLAW(-R)- gold, Nol glor, lor in many names [Etym], in the sense of 'muddy', or
      perhaps from a combining form from SOL- Q solor surf [Etym]; the name may be in the Falathrin
      dialect; the southern coastal havens of Beleriand, a region under the lordship of Círdan
Eglath     S; egla- see previous; -ath is a S collective plural - see note after Argonath; 'The Forsaken
      People', the Telerin Elves who tarried in Beleriand seeking for King Thingol
Eilinel     ?S; in other writings described as 'the White' and 'the fair'; see GIL- shine white or pale, [?Nol]
      singular geil [Etym; geil is identified as 'singular' in a recent addendum to Etym]; also see LIND- fair
      [Etym], often blended with LIN²- sing [Etym] with an intent of 'beautiful' or 'sweet'; see also êl, elen
      star [appx]; the Nol feminine ending -iel [from YO, YON- son, -iel daughter (Etym)] may be implied;
      presuming the 'g' being dropped in geil in a dialectal form of S [as it would, for example, in Q], 'Fair
      White-shining Star'; in 'Nol' and Telerin 3EL- sky, also 'pale blue' [Etym] was mixed with êl 'star', and
      seems to be implied here; the name could be fashioned after an original M name; eil occurs in Welsh
      and Gaelic, meaing 'second' or 'other', used in Celtic dialects as allo- 'foreign' [see 'Allobrox']; lin
      could relate to lain, Celtic elements generally meaning 'gem' or 'bright-shining'; 'second light' or
      perhaps 'Moon-light'; wife of Gorlim the Unhappy
Eithel Ivrin     S; see eithel well [appx], from KEL- run (especially of water), Nol eithel spring [Etym; ET-
      forth, out + KEL- run]; 'Ivrin's Well'; see also Ivrin
Eithel Sirion     S; eithel see previous; see also SIR- flow, Nol sîr river [Etym]; the -ion suffix forms a
      genitive plural used in place names as an augmentative, and here implying '[all of] the waters of the
      [great] river'; 'Sirion's Well'; see Barad Eithel
Ekkaia     Q; see KHAYA- distant, Q ekkaira (intensive), haya (adverb) far off [Etym]; the root *HEK is
      found in ancient Q, with a sense of 'removed' or 'gone', and is likely the source of ek-; the stem ET-
      forth, out [Etym] is related to this ancient source [see discusion at Echoriath and Eglador for more
      on the relationship of ET- to *HEK]; 'the Outer Sea'; since this area of the cosmos is called 'the Outer
      Ocean' or 'Encircling Sea', some derive the term as ET- out + GAYA awe, dread [not in Etym; for 'awe'
      as 'sea' see discussion at ], but this seems to raise some etymological problems in Q; ek + (k)haya
      = 'far-away distant'; the stem AY- pool, Q ai- [Etym] may be implied, referring to a body of water or
      'ocean'; the -ia ending would also seem to imply WAY- enfold [as a ring 'encloses' the finger], Q vaia
      the enfolding airs [Etym]; the stem seems to be implied in such as void - as enclosing the Earth
      [appx], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm [Sil], and iâth fence - as an enclosure [Sil]; the original
      name assigned by Tolkien was Vaiya 'the Enfolding Ocean'
Elbereth     S; see êl, elen star [appx], from EL- star [Etym]; -bereth from BARATH- lofty [Etym], the
      same as BARÁD- lofty [Etym] and barad tower [appx; see 'Gallery' for a picture of goddess crowned
      with a tower]; they both derive from BAR- to uplift, protect [Etym; see Varda]; in The Road Goes
      Ever On, Tolkien says that the S used the form barath because it implied a queen as a royal spouse
      of a king; furthermore, in his notes Tolkien derives 'Elbereth' from elen-barathi, noting that since the
      b is not mutated in S to v, the resulting base form of the name would be elmbereth; this proves
      interesting because it implies the stem MBARAT- fate, destiny [Etym]; 'Star-Queen'; S name of
      Varda 'The Exalted'; see Elentári
Eldalië     Q; el- see previous; the present form relates to ELED- depart, Nol Eledh, Q elda, plur Eldar
      [Etym; those Elves that 'departed' for Aman]; see also LI- many, Q lie people [Etym]; 'The Elven-folk'
Eldamar     Q; elda- see previous; see also bar dwelling, Q már [appx], from MBAR- dwell, home [Etym];
Eldar     Q; see ELED- depart, Nol Eledh, Q elda [Etym]; -r forms a Q plur; it is often blended in usage
      with EL- star [Etym], Q (adj.) elda 'of the stars' [appx]; 'People of the Stars', although generally
      applied to those Elves that departed for Aman in the twilight years; Elves, High Elves; see Elves of
      the Light (Calaquendi); see Dark Elves (Moriquendi); see Úmanyar; see Eldalië
Eldarin     Q; see EL- star [Etym], blended with ÉLED- 'Star-folk', Q Elda(-r); -in denotes a dative plur
     ending in Q, applied here mostly to Elvish languages; '(Languages) of the Eldar'
Elder King     see Manwë
Eledhwen     S; see ELED- depart, blended with ÉLED- 'Star-folk', Nol Eledh Elf [Etym]; see also wen
      maiden [appx], used poetically as 'sheen', perhaps blended with GWEN- green, fresh [Etym]; 'Elf
      Sheen'; an Adan; see Morwen
Elemmírë¹    Q; elem- = elen- star [appx], with assimilation; see also mîr jewel, Q mírë [appx]; 'Star-jewel'
      or 'Elf-treasure' by extension; a 'star', perhaps Mercury in some of Tolkien's notes
Elemmírë²      see previous; a minstrel Elf
Elendë     Q; see êl, elen star [appx], from EL- star [Etym], and extended to ÉLED- 'Star-folk'; see also
      LED- go, travel, Q lende went [Etym; in a recently published addenda to Etym, there is another stem
      LED- way (no forms given except lembas |see LOTR|)]; a name of 'Elvenhome' in the West; the name
      is interpreted as 'where Elves walked under the stars of the West'
Elendil     Q; see êl, elen star [appx; by extension 'Elf' (see Elendë above)]; see also -(n)dil [appx], from
      NIL-, NDIL- friend [Etym; -(n)dil means an emotional commitment ('lover of'), while -(n)dur means
      more of a professional detachment ('devoted to')]; 'Elf-friend' or 'Star-lover'; escaped the Drowning
      of Númenor and founded the Edain realms in Middle-earth
Elendili     Q; Elendil see previous; -i forms a plur in Q, although LI- many [Etym] would seem implied;
Elendur     Q; see Elendil above; -(n)dur is a variant of -(n)dil friend [appx]; 'Elf Friend'; son of Isildur
Elenna     Q; see êl, elen star [appx]; see also NA¹- Q an, ana, na to, towards [Etym]; 'Starwards'; also
      Elenna nóreo [NDOR- dwell, Q nóre land (Etym) blended with NO- beget, Q nóre people (Etym);
      the -o ending is genitive ('realm of Starwards')]; a Q name of Númenor
Elentári     Q; elen- see previous; see also tar- high, tári Queen [appx]; 'Star-Queen', a name of Varda,
      said to have kindled the stars; see Elbereth; see Tintallë
Elenwë    Vanyarin; elen- see previous; - is a suffix that derives from WEG- (manly) vigour [Etym;
      often used agentally - 'vigorous one'], a masculine ending in Q and Nol, but in the tongue of the
      Vanyar it appears to be non-gendered; those Vanyar that came to Middle-earth with the exile of the
      Noldor assumed S forms of their names; Elenwë however died crossing the Grinding Ice and never
      saw Beleriand; 'Elven Lady', wife of Turgon
Elerrína     Q; el-, elen- see previous; see also RIG- Q rie crown, rína crowned [Etym]; 'Crowned with
      Stars'; the towering royal peak of the Valar; also Taniquetil
Elf-friends     the Edain; see Elendili
Elostirion     S; see êl, elen star [appx], and by extension 'Elves' [see Elendë and above]; see also os(t)
      fortress [appx]; the last element derives from tir watch [appx], from TIR- watch, guard, Nol  tiri to
      watch [Etym; -ion is a genitive plural often used as an augmentative: '(tower) for watching']; el 'star'
      + ost 'fort' + tirion 'watch-tower'; 'star-citadel of the watch' or 'Fortress of the Stars' [see Osgiliath in
      LOTR]; there is a play on el as 'star' as well as 'Elf', since it was here that the Elves went to look
      through the only one of the palantíri that communicated with their families in the Uttermost West; a
      tower on Emyn Beraid
Elrond     S; el- see previous; see also rond a vaulted or arched roof [appx]; builder of Rivendell and
      holder of the ring Vilya; also known as 'Half-elven'; 'Star-dome', or if el- be taken from 3EL- sky
       [Etym], then 'Vault of Heaven' [see discussion at Eilinel above]
Elros     S; el- see previous; see also ros foam [appx]; 'Star Foam', although in one place Tolkien gives
      the meaning as 'Star Glitter', an interpretation from ROS¹- drip [Etym], S ros(s) 'spray' [appx], 'as
      scattered by a wind'; an Adan, first King of Númenor
Elu     Old S form of Elwë; while the name is said to have no particular meaning, the Q - ending
      indicates one who is alive ['vigour'; WEG- (manly) vigour - Etym], most often a male; the Old S -u
      ending here can be taken to mean a [live] being; el- is taken to imply 'star', thus rendering the name
      by implication 'Star Being'; Elu also hints at 3EL- sky, ON [adj.] elwa (pale) blue, Nol elw pale
      [grey?], Dor gelu [Etym; the possibility of grey is of special interest - see Sindar]; the text says that
      the two forms êl and 3EL- were ever confusingly entertwined in the minds of the Elves
Eluchíl     S; elu- see previous; see also KHIL- follow [Etym], khil- 'follow' ... Eluchil [appx]; 'Heir of Elu
      (Thingol)'; in various notes Tolkien says this stem does not appear in S; still, it seems to occur here
      in 'Dor'; also see next; see Dior
Eluréd     S; elu- see previous; see also ERÉD- seed [Etym], from RED- sow [Etym]; in one note Tolkien
      attributed the last element to a M [Bëorian] element rêda heir, but this track was presumably
      abandoned; but see next; said to 'mean the same as Eluchíl'; son of Dior, brother of Elurin [next]
Elurín     S; elu- see previous; the final element derives from REN recall, have in mind, S rîn, a stem that
      is not in Etym; Eluréd may relate to the same stem; 'Remembrance of Elu (Thingol)'; son of Dior,
      brother of Eluréd [above]
Elvenhome     See Eldamar
Elves     see Eldar, Dark Elves (Moriquendi), Elves of the Light Calaquendi
Elwë     Q or Telerin; also see Elu; - is a masculine suffix derived from WEG- (manly) vigour [Etym],
      often used agentally; the name is said to have no assigned meaning, two twins being named Elwë
      and Olwë due to having a similar sound; still, Elwë implies 'star' or 'Star Being', as well as 'grey' [see
      Elu]; leader of the Sindar, ruler in Doriath; see Dark Elves (Moriquendi), also Thingol
Elwing     S; see êl, elen star [appx]; see also wing foam, (flying) spray [appx], from WIG- crest of wave,
      foam, spindrift, Nol. Ilk gwing flying spray [Etym]; 'Star-spray' ['Elf-foam' in one of Tolkien's letters
      (for El- as 'Elf' see Elendë)]; daughter of Dior; see Lanthir Lamath
Emeldir     S; the 'reduplicated base vowel': e ··· e, is a device in S to express intensity, but here initial e-
      is probably a feminine affix; see mel- love [appx], from MEL- love, Nol meldir friend [Etym; -dir
      used agentally - see following]; also see DER- adult male, ON dîr, Nol -dir [Etym; often used
      agentally: 'one who is' or 'one who does']; 'much love (for) man', 'man-lover', defined in the text 'Man-
      hearted'; the name could well be fashioned after a M equivalent; mel- occurs in Latin as 'honey' or
      'sweetness', which may carry over into Celtic mela 'to grind', but to 'grind softly', Irish root mel, mal
      'soft', Old Irish meld pleasant, Middle Irish melaim 'I enjoy' [English: 'mellow']; the Elvish -dir suffix
      may have been adapted in this name from Latin vir man, Gaulish viro-, Old Irish fer; wife of Barahir
      and mother of Beren
Emyn Beraid     S; see amon hill, plur emyn [appx]; see also barad tower [appx]; beraid is a S plur form
      of barad; 'The Tower Hills'; see Elostirion
Encircling Mountains     see Echoriath
Encircling Sea     see Ekkaia
Endor     Q; see ÉNED- centre, and NÉD- middle, Q ende [Etym], S en(n)- ['Ennor']; see also NDOR-
      dwell, Q nóre land [Etym]; see detailed discussion under Andor; 'Middle Land', 'Middle-earth'
Engwar     Q; see GENG-WA- Q engwa sickly [Etym]; -r forms a plur in Q; 'The Sickly', an Elvish name
      for mortal Men
Eöl     Q or Telerin? Tolkien says it is an ancient name without specific meaning; the appended name
      'Dark Elf' is said in one place to derive from his being an Avari ['refused' (to travel to Aman)];
      otherwise it is said he loved the dark shadows of the forest in memory of the starlight of old; quite
      likely it is a combined word of êl, elen star [appx; 'Elf' by extension (see Elendë)] and Q night
      [from DO3, - Etym] - spelled backwards [due to his obtuse nature]; there is a form under GAYA
      awe, S goeol fell, dire [not in Etym], but there is no known rule for dropping the base element go-;
      Eöl was considered a gloomy [joyless] Elf and a loner; a possible correlation might be found in YUL-
      smoulder, ON [?> Nol] iûl embers [Etym] - smithy; called the Dark Elf and known as a great smith
Eönwë     Q; Tolkien states that there is no known Elvish etymology for this name; described as 'the
      Herald of Manwë', the chief Vala; the name may simply relate to the primal Valarin word axan law,
      commandment; the ending is a masculine suffix in Q taken from WEG- (manly) vigour, Q -we [Etym],
      used broadly in Common Eldarin as a non-gendered mark of distinction, often agentally; 'Deputy'; a
      related stem might be KHAN- understand, Q hanya be skilled in dealing with, Exilic Nol henio [Etym];
      one of the mightiest of the Maiar
Ephel Brandir     S; see PEL(ES)- 'fenced' field, Nol [& S] pel-, bel-, walled house or village [Etym],
      related to the verb PEL- go round [Etym]; see also ET- out [Etym]; et-pel = ephel 'outer fence' [appx];
      'The Stockade of Brandir'; see Brandir
Ephel Dúath     S; ephel see previous; see also DO3, -, Nol night, gloom [Etym]; also see gwath,
      wath shadow [appx]; -ath also forms a S collective plur (see Argonath), and may be implied to
      indicate a whole mountain chain; 'Fence of Shadow', also called the [Encircling] Mountains of
Erchamion     S; see ERE- be alone, Nol [& S] er(-e) one, alone [Etym]; see also KAB- hollow, Nol cam
      hand [Etym], from kamba 'hand', S cam, -cham [appx]; -ion is a masculine name suffix from YO, YON-
      son, Nol -ion [Etym]; 'One-handed', a name of Beren after losing a hand in his escape from Angband
Erech     ancient M; a hill in Gondor; see LOTR Dictionary
Ered Engrin     S; see ORO- high, ÓROT- mountain, Nol orod [Etym], plur ered [appx]; see also ANGA-
      iron [Etym], S [genitive] angren 'of iron', plur engrin [appx]; 'mountains of iron', 'The Iron Mountains'
Ered Gorgoroth     S; ered see previous; see also gor horror, dread, gor + gor = terrible horror [appx],
      from ÑGÓROTH- horror, Gorgoroth deadly fear (*gor-ngoroth) [Etym; see KHOTH- gather, Nol
      hoth host (Etym), -oth as a plur intensifier 'nearly always in a bad sense' (appx)]; one sees the Elven
      play on words here with orod and Gorgoroth, something in which they delighted; 'The Mountains
      of Terror'
Ered Lindon    S; ered see previous; another name for Ered Luin, the 'Blue Mountains'; see also Lindon
Ered Lómin    S; ered see previous; see also lóm echo [appx], from LAM-, Dor 1óm echo [Etym; the -in
      ending appears to indicate a participial modifier ('echoing'), although in the name Dor-lómin it seems
      more of a genitive plural ending ('of echoes'); in Etym the Dor participial form is 1ómen 'echoing', but
      then is said to be 'Noldorinized' to -in, confusing the issue; as a conjunctive compound in S the -in-
      form is taken as a possessive plural article, and is likely best interpreted here the same: 'of (the)
      echoes']; 'The Echoing Mountains' or 'Mountains of (the) Echoes'; the echoes because, by some of
      Tolkien's writings, this is where the cries of Morgoth and Ungoliant rang forth in their super-earthly
      combat at the dawn of time, and any subsequent noise awakened anew those ancient echoes
Ered Luin     S; see ORO- high, ÓROT- mountain, Nol orod [Etym], S plur ered [appx]; see also LUG²-
      blue, Nol lhûn, Dor [?plur adj.] luin pale [Etym], S luin 'blue' [appx]; 'The Blue Mountains'; also Ered
Ered Nimrais     S; ered see previous; see also nim white [appx], from NIK-W- snow, Nol nim- white
      [Etym; Q kw > Nol m(p)]; see also RAS- stick up, horn [Etym], S plur rais [appx]; the 'White [-horn]
Ered Wethrin     S; ered see previous; see also WATH- shade, Nol gwath [Etym], S gwath, wath
      'shadow' [appx]; in late notes Tolkien states that there is an extended stem in Common Eldarin:
      WATHAR, which explains the intrusion of -r- in the plur weth-rin, singular S adjectival form
      wathren 'shadowy'; 'The Mountains of Shadow'
Eregion     S; see ereg thorn, holly [appx], from ERÉK- thorn, Nol ereg holly tree [Etym]; -ion is used in
      place-names as a genitive plur augmentative implying 'lands'; 'Land of Holly'; called by Men Hollin
      [Middle English holin holly tree]; 'Noldorin' realm of the Second Age
Ereinion     Nol; see 3AR- have, hold, Nol aran king, plur erain [Etym; the plur form erein may have
      later become archaic]; -ion masculine name suffix [YO, YON- son, Q and Nol -ion; Etym]; 'Scion of
      Kings'; surnamed Gil-galad
Erellont     ?dialictal S; the name raises a number of problems, which seemingly are best explained by
      considering a dialect of S, such as Falathrin, or a combination of S and M; with some doubt would
      be KHER- rule, Q héra chief, heru master, ON khéro, Nol hîr master [Etym; in his letters Tolkien
      extends the stem to KHERU, S hîr 'lord']; see also LOD- narrow path, Q londe road (in sea), Nol
      lond entrance to harbour [Etym] - i.e. 'sea-road master' or 'Navigator', or even 'harbour master'; a
      possible Q form occurs in the index to Unfinished Tales as Hirilondë 'Haven-finder' [there is no base
      in Etym for 'find'; (proposed) *KHIR-I find, Q hírø + londë haven (appx)]; an alternate analysis might
      take the name as a combination of M and Elvish: Welsh eryl [E ril; see LOTR entry Erelas] 'look-out'
      or Old Irish, Gaelic aire 'watch (for)' + S [?Falathrin] lont = 'Haven-finder'; a mariner
              ø Namárië, The Road Goes Ever On, Ballantine Books, NY, pp. 58-9: (Q) híruválye 'you will find'
Eressëa     See Tol Eressëa
Eriador     S [early]; in the earliest tales the name was Ariador, from AR²- outside [Etym], referring to Ilk
      Argad place 'outside the fence' [see GAT(H)- ... Dor gad fence (Etym; see discussion at Doriath
      above); argad 'outside the fence' - the 'Girdle of Melian'] denoting 'outside of Doriath', which
      included a good portion of Beleriand at first; this construct was apparently abandoned for the
      meaning 'Wilderness', denoting the wild lands east of Beleriand and the Blue Mountains; see ERE-
      be alone, Q erya isolated, lonely [Etym; which form apparently carried over into Nol and S 'in ancient
      compounds' (according to Tolkien's notes)]; in these older compounds -i- is maintained as a medial
      vowel and does not itself denote a possessive; see also dôr land [appx]; 'wild land'; see Arnor
Eru     Q; while the name is primeval, it relates to ERE- be alone, Q er one, alone, and in Nol eru means a
      desert [Etym - a metaphysical concept]; erin means 'remains'; the name is also closely associated
      with IL- all ... ILU- universe [Etym] and Ilúvatar [ilúvë all (appx) and atar father (appx) = 'Father of
      all']; in the earliest lexicons eru- is derived from AR²- Q ara outside [Etym]; this should not be
      discounted, since, as far as can be determined, Eru remained 'outside' his creation of Middle-earth;
      another element intimately related is 3AR- 'have, hold', from which come such forms as Q arda realm
      and arwa, an adjective (with genitive) 'in control of', and aran king [Etym], as well as ar(a)- 'high,
      noble, royal' [appx]; from AR¹- comes Q are day ['light'], and ara dawn [Etym; 'beginning']; before
      and after Middle Earth's existence, Eru 'remains'; 'The One', 'He that is Alone': Ilúvatar; also see
Esgalduin     S; see esgal screen [appx]; the form derives from SKAL¹- 'screen, hide', Ilk esgal 'screen,
      hiding, roof of leaves' [Etym; the 'Ilkorin' designation was abandoned and its forms mostly absorbed
      into S]; the initial vowel would seem to derive from EZGE- 'rustle, noise of leaves', Q eske, Ilk esg
      [Etym], although there is a question of whether this stem was abandoned; the original gloss was
      'shade'; if the stem is retained, there is a conflict with ESEK- Ilk esg sedge [Etym], which appears to
      have been retained, and its forms are 'Ilk' only; it is this author's guess that Tolkien's original
      inspiration was 'shade', with 'a rustle of leaves', and that he elected to keep the name after changing
      the lexicons; see also DUI- Ilk duin water, river [Etym]; it may also be noted that the stem DO3-, -
      (darkness) has the Nol form 'night, gloom', and may be implied here in duin, although the
      derivative forms are not 'Ilk'; the text translates the term 'River under Veil' [when Tolkien spoke of
      veil, he almost always meant 'clouds' or 'shadows', and not a material curtain]; a river of Doriath
Estë     Q; see EZDE (and SED-) rest, Q Este, Nol Idh [Etym], and in other places is found Telerin Edë, S
      îdh 'rest', N sîdh 'peace' [these latter two not used as a proper name]; 'Rest'; also called 'the Pale'
      because she eschewed the sunlight and walked under starlight in the time of dreams; thus she little
      attended the councils of the Valar, but is noted for arguing for a period of 'nightime' after the first
      appearance of the Sun; ISI was a root form in the older Q glossaries, with derivatives iska 'pale' and
      is 'light snow', possibly a hint to a name for 'pale' that Tolkien might have had in mind due to its
      similarity to Estë; a Valier
Estolad     ?Dor; see EZDE rest, Q este [Etym], Ilk ed [addendum to Etym]; this form might combine in
      'Ilkorin' with KHAW- rest [verb], Nol haust bed, *khau-sta resting [noun] [Etym; no Ilk or Dor forms
      offered]; Ilk might form a verb *esto- 'to rest', in somewhat the same way that it forms esgal from
      SKAL¹- [see Esgalduin]; while this analysis is in doubt, it may be the answer to the odd form esto-;
      see also LAD- Nol lan(d) wide, open [Etym], lad 'plain' [appx], although perhaps as much at LAT- lie
      open, Nol lhad [Etym]; 'Resting Spot'; an alternate approach to the leading element might be KHAD
     cleave, a stem not in Etym but intertwined with SYAD- shear through, Q hasto hack through, hast
      axe-stroke [Etym]; this stem may explain the Q word hastaina 'marred' [where -ina is a participial
      ending in Q] and appear in Ilk as a verb esto- 'cleared' - 'cleared opening (in the forest)'; translated in
      the text as 'the Encampment', where Men dwelt after they first crossed into Beleriand
Ezellohar     of pre-Elven [Valarin] origin; Tolkien's notes define ezel, ezella as 'green'; a stem likely
      related to that source is SALÁK-(WE) Q salqe grass, Ilk salch herb [Etym]; however, the first
      element could possibly also be related to ESE-, ESET- Q esta first, esse beginning [Etym], i.e.:
      'primeval'; given that, lohar might well relate to LÁWAR- Q laure [golden] light [Etym], since the
      Two Trees grew there before the times of the Sun-cycles; -har might point towards KHAG- pile,
      mound, Q hahta [Etym], and also KARAK- spike [Etym], and KHARÁS- precipice [Etym], as the
      rise was said to be 'steep'; the stem 3AR- 'hold' [Etym] leads to 'high, noble' [appx], implying 'raised
      up'; in the ancient Q Lexicon the form lairë meant 'meadow', from a root LAYA 'flourish', implying
      'green'; 'The Green Mound'; see Túna; also Corollairë

 Return to main page