*** The  S I L M A R I L L I O N   Index***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* F - I *

appx =     Appendix [Silmarillion - Elvish roots]
D =          Dwarvish
Dor =      Doriathrin
Etym =    The Etymologies
Ilk =        Ilkorin [see Dark Elves]
M =        Men, Mannish
N =         Númenórean, Adûnaic
Nol =      Noldorin
ON =      Old Noldorin
plur =     plural
Q =         Quenyan [High Elven]
S =          Sindarin
LOTR =   Lord of the Rings Dictionary



Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [appx]
Words of the languages of the Rohirrim, Hobbits and Common Speech are traced to possible roots in the
      ancient Elven tongue, although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are
      derived from ancient English, especially Anglo Saxon


Faelivrin     S; the name is translated variously as 'sheen [of the Sun] on the pools of Ivrin', 'gleam on
      the waters [of Ivrin]', and 'glimmering sheen on the glassy pools [of Ivrin]'; in The Book of Lost
      Tales the name - given there as Failivrin - is adequately dissected into its componenet linguistic
      parts... unfortunately those sources are not available to us in this present work; by that analysis,
       fail = pale, ``and Failin a name of the Moon´´ [and see discussion of fael- under Fëanor]; the only
      stem in The Etymologies that comes close is GIL- shine (white or pale), gael pale, glimmering [Etym;
      all the forms given are 'Nol' since initial 'g' does not occur in Q; there is no known demonstrable
      mutation in S of g > f]; it would seem that the name is an old one that Tolkien liked enough to retain
      in his later writings, and its sources are a bit obscure, although the meaning is sure: (figuratively)
      'Pale, Delicate Radiance'; a name of the Noldorin princess Finduilas [below]; see also Ivrin 'a glassy
      substance' [below]; Tolkien originally rendered the name in Old English as Fealuléome: fealu
      'yellow, tawny' + léoma 'gleam, radiance'
Faithful, The     See Elendili
Falas     S; see falas shore, line of surf [appx], from PHAL-, PHÁLAS- foam, Nol falas (plur feles) beach,
      shore, adjective falathren [Etym]; the coasts of Beleriand
Falathar     S; falath- see previous; see also THAR- beyond [Etym]; 'beyond the shore line'; as neat as
      this appears, the -ar ending would be uncommon in Dor / S except as a plur verb form, and PHAL-
      occurs as a verb as (e)spal- 'to foam', plur 'they that foam', which would not seem to apply here; the
      name may be in the S dialect of the Falas; a mariner
Falathrim     S; falath- see previous; see also RIM- numerous, as a collective plur -rim [Etym]; 'people
      of the shore'; Elves whose leader was Círdan, the shipwright
Falmari     Q; falas see previous, Q falma (crested) wave [appx]; the -i ending forms a plur in Q, perhaps
      related to LI- many, Q lie people, -li plur suffix [Etym]; 'shore-dwellers' or 'Wave-folk': i.e.: the Teleri
Fëanor     S-ised Q; [the pure S form would supposedly have been Faenor, the Q was Fëanáro]; see fëa
      spirit [appx]; perhaps fëa results from the expansion of 'let it be' - the creative word of Ilúvatar;
      the 'Children of Ilúvatar' [Elves and Men] possessed a fëa 'soul' or 'indwelling spirit', and a hröa
      'physical body'; the closest stem in Etym is PHAY- radiate light [Etym], but more at SPAN- white,
      Nol fein white, faun cloud [Etym; because a cloud appears to have substance but is intangible]; fëa
      actually derives from a stem not in Etym: /PHAYA spirit, Q fëa, ?S fae-(-l); Christopher Tolkien
      assumes S fael to derive from /PHAYA, and gives the meaning as 'fair-minded', which derivation
      may be a bit of a stretch of credulity, and would not seem to apply to fael- in Faelivrin ['pale'
      (above)]; also see ANÁR- sun, Nol Anor [Etym]; 'Essence of [blazing] Fire'; son of Finwë, leader of
      the Noldorin rebellion in Valinor; devised the Fëanorian script [Tengwar]; maker of the Silmarils;
      also Curufinwë
Fëanturi     Q; Fëa- see previous; Fëan- uses a special Q plur form -n; see TA-, TA3- lofty; noble, tára,
       turo master [combining form with TUR- power, turo, tur 'master, victor, lord' (Etym), tur 'mastery'
      (appx)]; the -i is also a Q plur ending, perhaps connected with LI- many, -li plur suffix [Etym];
      'Masters of Spirits', two of the Valar
Felagund     S; the text says it is 'Dwarvish' in origin [felak-gundu 'cave-hewer' (felek 'hew rock' and
      gundu 'underground grotto'), but translated in Nol as 'Lord of Caves']; the etymology offers
      PHÉLEG- cave, Nol fela [Etym], although in this name it is said to also imply S fael 'fair-minded',
      connected with fëa 'spirit [see previous]; the last element then would derive from KUNDU- prince,
      Nol cunn [-gund in names; Etym]; a name of King Finrod after he built Nargothrond
Finarfin     S-ised form of Q (ON) Arafinwë; also S Finarphin; see fin- hair [appx], from SPIN- Q finde,
      Nol fin- hair [Etym]; see also ar(a)- high, noble, royal [appx], and NAR¹- flame, Q nár, Nol naur, nar
      [Etym; a play on words in S, indicating his royalty and his light complexion]; also see PHIN-
      nimbleness, skill, Nol phin, fin [Etym; sometimes duplicates fin 'hair' - another play on words]; in
      being S-ised the repeated fin element actually becomes meaningless; the patriarch of the clan was
      Finwë, and the element Fin- was used in Valinor in all of the first generations; apparently the original
      name in S was Arfin ['Noble Fair-one' or (interpretively) 'Royal Son of Finwë'], and the initial Fin- was
      prefixed later to honor the patriarch, Finwë; in S loosely 'Fair and Wise Prince'; third son of Finwë;
      remained in Aman and ruled after the departure of the Noldor; he and his descendants had golden
Finduilas     Telerin or S? fin- see previous [in the older dialects find- was taken to indicate 'golden hair'
      due to the Teleri having a fair appearance]; see also TUY- spring, sprout, Nol tuil- [Etym]; if the
      name is Telerin or Nandorin, the -il element could be a conjunctive suffix ['and' - see LOTR
      Thranduil], and du- would mean 'dark', which seems unlikely since Finduilas is described 'as a
      golden tree'; still, in one place Tolkien describes the name as 'Telerin' in the Third Age in the royal
      line of Dol Amroth; see also LAS¹- leaf [green], Nol lhas [Etym], S las, perhaps related to an early
      root of LÁYAK- green [Etym] - LAYA flourish, laisi vigour; while this analysis is convenient, the
     source of -las may be different, although the meaning is not much changed; in a recently published
      addendum to Etym, the stem GALÁS- joy, Nol glas, mentions the name Borlas ['faithful and joyous',
      where joyous could mean 'full of life'], the -g- becoming a syncope as a medial consonant; Finduilas
      of the golden hair, 'A Yellow Blossom in the Greening of Spring'; daughter of Orodreth, killed by
      Orcs; also called Faelivrin
Fingolfin     S-ised form of Q (ON) Finwë Ñolofinwë; see PHIN- skill [Etym]; the ending - derives
      from WEG- (manly) vigour [Etym], and is used often agentally implying 'Noble One'; the third
      element is from ÑGOL- wise, Nol *ngolda wise, learned in deep arts, golw lore [Etym; Ñolo- is a Q
      and ON form, the -o either being a male marker or more likely a genitive sign]; 'Wise Noble of Skill
      and Lore'; as with Finarfin the first element is repeated, and one may imply hair, as his mother was
      Indis 'the fair'; in being S-ised the repeated fin element actually becomes meaningless, but the Fin-
      prefix was intended to honor the patriarch of the family, Finwë; in Valinor he also bore the Q name
      Arakáno [ar(a)- high, noble (appx) + káno commander (appx; used for a prince or royal underling)];
      second son of Finwë; died in single combat with Morgoth
Fingon     S-ised form of Q (ON) Findekáno; SPIN- braid of hair, Q findë lock of hair [Etym] + káno
      commander [appx; used for a prince or royal underling]; the text states, however, that it would have
      been natural to use the Fin- element simply to honor the family patriarch's name, Finwë; the final
      element would seem to relate to KAN- dare, valour [Etym], but Tolkien either abandoned that
      definition, or created a similar stem: KAN cry, call aloud, Q káno commander, S caun, -gon in names
      of royalty [appx]; as with the fin- elements in Finarfin and Fingolfin, the -gon element may have
      lost its original implication ['commanding'] in S, meaning simply 'call' or 'shout'; son of Fingolfin,
      called 'the Valiant'
Finrod    S-ised form of Q/Telerin [Findaráto Ingoldo];  fin- is said in the text to refer to SPIN- braid of
      hair, Q finde lock of hair, Nol findel, finnel [Etym], Q finda 'having hair, -haired'; in the older dialects
      find- was often taken to indicate 'golden hair' due to the Teleri having a fair appearance; however,
      Fin- is also part of the royal heritage of the children issuing from King Finwë [next], sometimes
      indicating 'hair', perhaps sometimes indicating PHIN- skill [Etym], but always denoting their royal
      blood line; the last element of Findaráto is derived from ar(a)- high, noble, royal, extended stem
      arat-, aráto champion [appx; -o is a male marker], in becoming S-ised, apparently blended with
      RAUTA- metal, Q and ON rauta, Nol -rod in names, often implying 'copper' [Etym; or 'auburn' or
      'fair-haired']; Ingoldo: I- Q article 'the' [Etym] + ÑGOL- wise ... ÑGÓLOD- the wise folk, Q noldo
      [*ñoldo], Tel golodo = Ingoldo [*Iñgoldo] 'an eminent Noldo [*Ñoldo]'; in S the name Finrod
      essentially means 'Copper-haired (Prince)'; Finrod is of the line descended from the Vanyarin
      matriarch Indis 'the fair'; son of Finarfin and founder of Nargothrond; also Felagund
Finwë     Q and ON; fin- see previous discussions - in this case likley PHIN- skill [Etym], as from him
      came the love of the Noldor in things of craft, and his eldest son, Fëanor, fashioned the mysterious
      light of the Silmarilli; - is a masculine suffix derived from WEG- (manly) vigour [Etym], also used
      agentally here as a mark of royalty, maintained in his male offspring [see previous entries]; 'Noble
      One of Craft'; leader of the Noldor; father of Fëanor, Fingolfin, and Finarfin
Fírimar     Q; see PHIR- Q firin dead, fírima mortal [Etym]; -r forms a Q plur; the -ima ending generally
      was used in forming adjectives in Q, but when pluralised in an ethnic context seems to indicate a
      'people' [MEL- love, Q melima loveable, fair, Melimar = Lindar ('Vanyar'), due to their fair
      complexions; Etym]; however, in late notes Tolkien extended this stem to *PHIRI to exhale [a verb],
      Fírimar 'those able to die', implying that -ima was an adverbial form meaning '-able' in Q, and adding
      -r forms a plur noun; originally the verb had no connection with death, and it should be presumed
      that when the Noldor came in contact with Men in Beleriand they adapted the term 'expire' to mean
      'death', just as it does in English; 'Mortals', Men
Firstborn, The     the Elves
Followers, The     Men; translation of Hildor
Formenos     Q; see formen north [appx], from PHOR- right-hand, Q formen north [Etym; MEN- Q men
      place (Etym) = 'right-hand place'], S for, forn, forod [appx]; the stem implies that the standard map
      perspective would be facing West, not North; see also OS- round, Q osto city, town with wall round
      [Etym], os(t) fortress [appx]; in the older Q Lexicon the term os(s) [rather than ost] denoted a walled
      structure with a moat; 'Northern Fortress'; stronghold of Fëanor in the north of Valinor
Fornost     S; For- see previous, S for(n) north; see os(t)- fortress [appx]; 'Northern Fortress', a
      Númenórean city in Eriador
Forsaken Elves     See Eglath
Frodo     anglicized form of Hobbit; the name is 'English' for Hobbit Maura wise, experienced; Anglo-
      Saxon fród wise, old, Old Norse fróðr knowing, learned; -o forms a masculine ending; it could be
      remotely related to PHOR- right-hand, Forodwaith Northmen [Etym]; in Return of the King [Book
      VI, Chapter 4] a praise is sung to Frodo and Sam on the Field of Cormallen, where Frodo is called
      Daur; this must derive from a combined form in Etym; under TÁWAR- wood in a sub-paragraph is:
      Nol adj. taur mighty, blend of *tara mighty [TA-, TA3- high, noble] and *taura masterful, mighty
      [TUR- power, victory] [which has little to do with 'wood']; Daur must be a S lenited ['softened'] form
      of taur, which does not mean 'wise' but rather 'Victorious'; in the King's Letter [Sauron Defeated,
      Chapter XI, pp. 128-9], Tolkien translates the name Frodo as Iorhael [referring to Sam's son, Frodo,
      not the Ringbearer]; YA- ago, Nol iaur old [Etym], S ior [Nol au = S o] + SAY- know, Q saira wise
      [Etym], S sael [s > h in compounds (appx: sîr)] = 'Old and Wise' or perhaps 'Savvy'; The Ringbearer
Fuinur     the name may be N, but is translatable in S; see fuin darkness [appx], from PHUY- deep
      shadow Nol fuin [Etym]; see also -(n)dur devoted to [appx]; 'Servant of Darkness'; a Black

Gabilgathol     D; see Belegost
Galadriel     S for Q Altáriel, Telerin Alatariel(); see GAL- [variant of KAL-] shine, Nol calad light
      [Etym], kal-, (gal-) Q alata radiance, S galad shine [by reflection; appx]; see also RIG- Q rie crown
      [Etym], rig- wreathe [appx]; Tolkien expanded this stem after he wrote Etym: RIG wreathe, riga
      garland, Q and Telerin ría, S ; Q and Telerin riellë and S -ríel add feminine ending -iel, from YEL-
      daughter, Telerin -iellë, Nol and S -iel; 'Maiden Crowned with a Festival Garland of Brilliance', or, as
      the text gives, 'Maiden Crowned with a Radiant Garland'; after removing to Middle Earth, the name
      became blended with other forms: alda tree, S galadh [appx], from GALAD- tree, Nol galadh [Etym;
      ?Silvan galað], and ril brilliance [appx], and indeed, she eventually became a queen over the Silvan
      or 'Green' Elves; 'maiden crowned with glory'; one of the leaders of the Noldorin rebellion and one of
      those known to be the most ancient of Elves at the end of the Third Age; keeper of Nenya, the Ring
      of Water, in Lothlórien
Galathilion     S, although perhaps borrowed from ON; see KAL- shine [Nol: GAL-], Nol calad light
      [Etym]; perhaps implied is GALA- thrive, Nol galas growth, plant [Etym] - see Silpion; also implied
      is galadh tree - see Galadriel; see also THIL- (variant of SIL, shine silver > Moon) Nol thilio to
      glister [with silver sheen; Etym]; KEL- run (especially of water), Nol eithel 'spring' [older form aithil;
      Etym] may have originally been implied, as Telperion issued silvery drops of light into a pool at its
      root; -ion is sometimes used as a genitive plural formation that augments the previous element(s),
      and here perhaps also implying [drops] of silver light; 'Great Silver [Tree of] Brilliance', 'The White
      Tree of Tirion', an image of Telperion
Galdor     S; see GAL- [Nol] shine, variant of KAL- [Etym], although the 'Nol' form means more at
      'radiance'; the element may be inspired by a head of golden hair; the -dor masculine suffix derives
      from TA-, TA3- noble ... found in names [Nol] as Tor-, -dor [Etym]; 'Noble Light'; also Galdor
      Orchal 'The Tall' [ORO- high (Etym) + KHAL²- uplift, exalted, orchel (error for orchal) lofty,
      eminent (Etym) = 'Very High']; the name may have been fashioned after an original M name; gal-
      could relate to a Gallo-Roman base *galia strong, Early Irish, Gaelic gal valour - but also used as an
      element meaning 'foreign', as Men were considered in First Age Beleriand; -dor could relate to the
      base form *dur 'stong' [Latin durare to endure], Middle Irish dorr 'harsh, rough', also 'anger'; (M)
      Gal + dor = 'Brave and Impetuous (Foreigner)'; son of Hador Lórindol, father of Húrin and Huor;
      an Adan
galvorn     S; gal- see previous; see also MOR- black [Etym], S adjective suffix -vorn meaning 'black' [as
      in Meglivorn 'black bear']; m > v by a process called lenition; 'black radiance'; a crafted metal
Gandalf     see Olórin; see LOTR Dictionary
Gates of Summer     [sunrise]
Gelion     S; the etymology first derives the name from GAL- shine, bright [Etym; kal-, (gal-) shine
      appx]; but apparently more at GYEL- [< GEL-] shout, Nol gell joy, Gelion merry singer [as a fast-
      flowing bubbling stream; Etym], Old S gel(l); -ion is used as a genitive plur suffix, often as an
      augmentative [for further analysis see Galathilion (above)]; 'Boisterous [One]'; described as a
      'swift river of small volume'; a great river of Beleriand
Gelmir¹     S; gel- see previous; see also mîr jewel [appx]; 'Jewel of Joy'; Elf of Nargothrond
Gelmir²     S; see previous; Elf of Angrod
Gildor     S; see gil star [appx]; the suffix derives from TA-, TA3- noble, found in names, as Tor-, -dor
      [Etym]; 'Noble Star'; the name may have been fashioned after an original M name, perhaps Old Norse
      gildr 'of full value, great, stout', gildi 'repute'; -dor see Galdor [above]; 'Swift and Stout'; an Adan
Gil-Estel    S; gil star [appx], from GIL- shine [Etym]; Estel means 'hope' and derives from a root not in
      Etym: /STEL remain firm; the S form would normally be thel 'purpose, resolve', but in this case the
      word is likely borrowed from Q; estel was a Q word using a prefixed 'determinant vowel' called a
      sundóma [see discussion at entry Astaldo] and means 'hope' or 'trust'; it refers to trust in Eru, and
      hope for a better existence beyond the span of this earthly life; it somewhat relates to the stems
      STÁLAG- firm, Nol thala [Etym] and to some extent YES- Q yesta desire, Nol iest wish [Etym],
      although the forms from STEL resemble those of STELEG- a Nol stem that produces thela point
      [Etym]; 'Star of Hope'; S name for Eärendil bearing the Silmaril as a star
Gil-galad     S; gil- see previous; galad 'shine' [see discussion under Galadriel]; 'Star of Radiance',
      given because of his appearance in bright armour; later name of Ereinion; slain in combat with
      Sauron; son of Fingon and last High King of the Noldor
Gimilkhâd     N; last King of Númenor
Gimilzôr     N; see Ar-Gimilzôr
Ginglith     S [?dialectal]; see WIG- foam, Nol gwing spindrift, flying spray [Etym], [?dialectal] S ging
      [presumed]; see also lith ash [appx], from LIT- Q litse sand [mud], Nol lith [Etym]; described as
      'glad and golden' in the Lay of the Children of Húrin [Course III], 'golden' implying muddy, which
      also implies it may have flowed slower than the Narog, with which there was confluence somewhat
      north of Nargothrond; in The Lay of Leithian the Ginglith is said to 'foam-splash' the land; a river in
Gladden Fields     see LOTR Dictionary; partial translation of S Loeg Ningloron; area of reeds around
      the Anduin
Glaurung     S, perhaps a dialectal form; see GLAW(-R)- Nol glaur gold [Etym; in its positive sense the
      reference is to 'golden light' or 'sunlight'; in a more mundane context the meaning appears to be
      simply gold]; the last element is uncertain but could derive from ROY¹- chase, Q *ronyo 'chaser',
      Nol rhui(w) [Etym], ?S rung [proposed] - 'Gold-Chaser'; more likely would be a derivative of RUK-
      demon, Q ranko, Nol rhaug, -rog [Etym]; Tolkien's notes mention an extended verbal base, *RUKU,
      with such S forms as groga and grunc - 'to feel terror'; one archaic form - runk - could occur as
      -rung; 'Gold Demon' or 'Golden Predator'; the Great Worm - a dragon slain by Túrin; see Urulóki
Glingal     S; see (Q) LING-, (Nol) GLING- hang [Etym]; the form seems to overlap GLIN- sing [Etym];
      further, appx offers glîn gleam, from a S-only stem not in Etym: GLIM 'glint', glînn; see also KAL-
      shine, Nol gal bright light [Etym]; the text defines the name as 'Hanging Flame', although 'Sparkling
      Brilliance' might serve as well; a copy of the tree Laurelin
Glirhuin     S? see GLIR- sing, Nol glîr song, poem [Etym]; -huin: see S- demonstrative stem, Nol
      masculine ho, hon, plurals huin, hîn [Etym; 'they' - ?used as a multiplier: 'many'?]; 'Ballads'; a minstrel
      and seer
Glóredhel     S; see LÁWAR- gold [light or sheen], Nol glor [Etym]; -edhel is either derived from ELED-
      depart, Nol edela 'eldest', -eðel [Etym; this latter may have been abandoned], or from a sub-stem
      ÉLED- Star-folk, Q Elda(plur: -r) [Elf], Nol eledh, Danian Edel [Etym; reversed spelling since they
      had been 'forsaken' on the journey to Valinor; see discussion at Eglador], S edhel 'elf' [appx]; 'Elf-
      gleam'; the name may be fashioned after an original M name; e.g.: Old English gloren 'to shine
      brightly' + eðel 'native, domestic' = 'Radiant Pilgrim'; an Adan, wife of Haldir; probably of fair
Glorfindel     S-ised ON? glor- see previous; see also SPIN- braid of hair, ON sphinde lock of hair, Nol
      find(el) [Etym; in his notes Tolkien implies that find- implied light hair in the older Elvish dialects as
      in the name Finduilas], fin- 'hair' [appx]; êl, elen star [appx], and by extension 'Elf', is implied in the
      final element; 'Golden-haired [Elf]'; the Elves of Rivendell spoke S, but the S form of the name would
      presumably be Glorfinnel; in the King's Letter [Sauron Defeated, Chapter XI, pp. 128-9], the King of
      Gondor uses the name Glorfinniel 'Goldilocks', referring to one of Samwise's daughters [using the S
      feminine suffix -iel]; issues arise with the name because it appears first as a Noldorin Elf of the Exile
      who was slain in combat with a Balrog in the fall of Gondolin in the First Age; Tolkien returns the
      name to the Council of Elrond in the Third Age and speculates on Elvish 'reincarnation', since they
      were immortal, thus implying an extremely special status for this Elf who was allowed to return to
      Middle-earth; this could explain the archaic usage in 'Sindarin'
Golodhrim     S; see ÑGOL- wise ... ÑGÓLOD- one of the wise folk, Q Noldo [plur -r], Nol [and S: appx]
      golodh, plur golodhrim [Etym]; also see RIM- numerous, Nol rhim host, -rim as a collective plural
      suffix - 'people' [Etym]; the Noldor
Gondolin     S-ised Q; see gond stone [appx]; see also DUL- hide, Nol dolen hidden, secret [Etym; the
      -en suffix was intended here as a participial verb form, while -in could imply an adjective in S];
      originally the final element was intended to be derived from ID- heart, desire, Nol inn, ind [Etym] -
      'heart of hidden stone', but also became mixed with LIN²- sing, from the Q form of the name -
      Ondolindë [GOND- stone, Q ondo (Etym) + LIN²- sing, Q linde tune (Etym) = 'song of stone' or
      'Singing Stone']; the adaptation in S takes on the meaning 'The Hidden Rock'; a secret Elven city
Gondolindrim     S; gond- see previous; gondolin(d) see previous; see also RIM- numerous, Nol rhim
      host, -rim as a collective plural suffix 'people' [Etym]; Elves of Gondolin
Gondor     S; gond- see previous; see also dôr land [appx]; 'Land of Stone'; southern Edain kingdom
Gonnhirrim     S; see GOND- stone, Nol gonn a great stone [Etym; more precisely, the form gonnhir- is
      used because the triple consonant -ndh- would not be acceptable in forming compounds in S; still,
      'great' may be implied]; see also KHER- rule, master Nol hîr [Etym]; see also RIM- numerous, Nol
      rhim host, -rim as a collective plural suffix 'people' [Etym]; 'Masters of Stone', or 'Mason Folk'; a S
      name for Dwarves
Gorgoroth¹     S; see gor horror, dread, gor + gor = terrible horror (with reduplicated gor) [appx], from
      ÑGÓROTH- horror, Gorgoroth deadly fear (*gor-ngoroth) [Etym; see KHOTH- gather, Nol hoth
      host (Etym), -oth as a plur intensifier 'nearly always in a bad sense' (appx)]; also Ered Gorgoroth
Gorgoroth²     S; see previous; a highland in Mordor
Gorlim     S; gor- see previous; see also LI- many, Nol -lin, combined with RIM- numerous -lim 'many'
      [Etym]; 'many woes', 'the Unhappy'; if the name had a M precursor it is hard to discern; perhaps a
      derivative of Germanic *karo 'lament, grief' or connected with Gaelic goir 'cry'; an Adan
Gorthaur     S; gor horror [see previous]; see also thaur abominable [appx], from THUS- Q saura foul,
      Nol thû stench [Etym; Nol form: Gorthû 'Horrible Stench']; in his letters Tolkien mentions the
      adjective aura, from a base /THAW 'detestable', which yields 'contemporary Q' Sauron; in the
      earliest tales Thû was a name of Sauron; the relationship of the name to stink is explained in the
      entry Sauron; 'Foul Horror'; S name of Sauron
Gorthol     S; see gor horror, dread [appx]; see also thôl helm [appx; perhaps from TEL-, TELU- hood,
      covering, Nol ortheli roof (OR- high; note the mutation of t > th in compounds) - Etym, perhaps in S
      influenced by NDOL- head (Etym) - 'head covering'; 'Dread Helm', a name of Túrin
Gothmog     S; see GOS-, GOTH- dread, terror [Etym]; also see MBAW- compel, oppress, Nol (m-)baug
      cruel, Gothmog (*Gothombauk-) [Etym; Nol au > S o]; 'Oppressive Terror'; the use of mog instead
      of bog seems to indicate an outside influence; the name Gothmog occurred in the older lexicons, and
      may have been retained in its original form; originally mog derived from a root MOKO 'hate', which
      could render the name 'Hated Terror'; Lord of Balrogs, also an Orc in the Third Age
Greater Gelion     see Gelion
Great River     see Anduin
Green-elves     anglicised form of Q Laiquendi
Greenwood the Great     later known as Mirkwood
Grey-elven tongue     Sindarin
Grey-elves     see Sindar
Grey Havens     see Mithlond
Greymantle     see Singollo, Thingol
Grinding Ice     see Helcaraxë
Grond     S; see RUD- rough piece of wood, Nol grond club [Etym]; the great mace of Morgoth
Guarded Plain     see Talath Dirnen
Guarded Realm     see Valinor
Guilin     S [?dialectal]; there is some question about the element gui-; see KUY- awake, Nol cuil life
      [Etym], S guil [presumed, although chuil would seem more likely; perhaps it is a dialectal S]; guil
      occurs in Etym under GEY- everlasting, Nol guil, uil, although it appears this stem was abandoned;
      there is a reference there, however, to WAY- enfold, Nol ui, ?gui [Etym]; see also LI- many, Nol -lin
      [Etym; however, this evolved to -lim by merging with RIM- host] - 'Many Lives'; the reference
      would certainly be obscure; perhaps the last element derives from LIN²- sing [Etym], lin- sing [appx]
      - ?'About Singing'; perhaps the last element is derived from ID- desire, Nol inn, ind heart [Etym] -
      'Heart of Life', or perhaps it is just the S adjectival suffix -in, the term being interpreted [?dialectaly]
      as 'Lively'; a noble Elf of Nargothrond
Gundor     S; see KUNDU- prince, Nol cunn, -gund [Etym]; see also TA-, TA3- high, noble, in names
      Tor-, -dor [Etym]; 'Noble Prince'; the name may have been fashioned after a M precursor; Gaulish
      cuno- high ('noble'), but which often became blended with , Breton koun 'hound' ['fierce fighter'];
      -dor could relate to the base form *dur 'stong' [Latin durare to endure], Middle Irish dorr 'harsh,
      rough', also 'anger'; [M] 'Fierce and Powerful'; an Adan, son of Hador
Gurthang     S; see gurth death [appx], from ÑGUR- death, Nol gûr, gurth- [Etym]; see also anga iron, S
      ang [appx]; the text gives 'Iron of Death', a sword; see Anglachel
Gwaith-i-Mírdain     S; see gwaith people [appx], from WEG- vigour, Nol gweith manhood, host [Etym],
      [S] gwaith 'people' [appx]; -i- is a genitive article [-in- with the n becoming a syncope due to
      following consonant]; see also mîr jewel [appx]; the last element derives from TAN- make, fashion,
      [Etym], S -dan 'maker', plur -dain; 'People of the Jewel-smiths'; Elven craftsmen in Eregion who
      helped forge the 'Rings of Power'
Gwindor     S; see WIN-, WIND- pale blue, grey, Nol gwind pale, grey [Etym; an addendum to Etym
      states: gwind (adj.) = pale gray-blue]; 'grey from his tribulations' says The Lay of the Children of
      Húrin - because he had worked so long in the mines of Angband; this would imply he had an earlier
      name, which appears to be Flinding [no derivation given but likely means 'faithful' ('straight', 'true',
      perhaps related to PÍLIM- arrow - Etym)]; see also TA-, TA3- noble, found in names as -dor [Etym];
      'Noble Anguish'; Elf of Nargothrond, son of Guilin and brother of Gelmir¹

Hadhodrond     S; see hadhod [appx; Common Eldarin kh- > Q & S h-; z does not really occur in the
      Elvish tengwar, although it is represented in Q by character #31, generally transcribed as ss; it is
      here presumed that in S z was represented by ts (tengwa #1: t, and tengwa #29: s); in S t is softened
      to d (see Gwaith-i-Mírdain above), and s is softened to h (see appx: sîr) - thus D khazad = S
      hadhod; it should be mentioned that this name is probably the sole exception to the dropping of z
      entirely in S from the times of Beleriand onward]; see also rond a vaulted or arched roof, or a large
      hall [appx; the source in Etym is ROD- 'cave', and in Nol 'hollow' or 'cavernous'; this stem relates to
      a Common Eldarin stem *RONO (or *RON) 'arch over, roof in (often by excavation)']; S
      pronunciation of D name Khazad-dum (Moria); '[Great] Dwarf Halls'; hod- may have implied
      KHOTH-, Nol hoth host [Etym]
Hador     S and M?; see KHAT- hurl, Nol hador thrower (of spears or darts) [Etym]; TA-, TA3- noble, in
      names -dor, may be implied, albeit one scholar believes the original Elvish form of hador was hadr
      [much the same as Old Norse], and that -or was a natural linguistic progression; as with the other
      early Edain, the Elvish name may have been fashioned after an original M name; Anglo-Saxon hador
      'clear, distinct, fresh'; Gaulish catu- 'to war' and Old High German hadu- 'fight'; Old Norse haddr
      'hair; also known in S as Lórindol 'Goldenhead' [LÁWAR- gold, Nol Lor- in names (Etym) + -in (S
      adjectival suffix) + dol 'head' (appx)]; head of the Third House of the Edain
Haladin     M? the name would seem to derive from KHAL²- uplift, ON khalla noble, Nol hall exalted
      [Etym]; in one note Tolkien says that this name cannot mean 'lord' - as they were vassals of the
      Noldor - and originates in the ancient tongue of Bëor, meaning 'warden' [hal(a) guard, halad =
      warden, plur haladin]; in Anglo-Saxon the word heald [noun] means 'guard', healdan [verb] 'to
      hold', also 'to guard', 'to defend'; the Gothic was haldan, Old High German haltan, Old Norse halda
      'hold fast'; yet in another place does Tokien state, 'Hal- = chief'; however, Etym hints that the Elvish
      interpretation could be related to SKAL¹- screen, hide (from light), halda veiled, hidden [Etym],
      perhaps because they lived under the tree cover of Brethil; -in denotes an adjectival suffix in S -
      '(those of) Halad'; adan Man [appx] could also be implied; the Second House of the Edain
Haldad     this name of the ancestor of the Haladin is presumably M - see Haladin; the text gives
      'watchdog'; -dad is possibly agental: 'one who is', or 'one who does' - 'warder', 'Watcher'; a patriarch
      of the Edain
Haldan     presumably M; for hal- see Haladin [the element carried from generation to generation
      indicating family lineage]; as M-influenced S it might be derived thus: KHAL²- uplift, Nol hall noble
      + adan Elf-friends, Men [appx] - 'Noble Adan'; son of Haldar; an Adan
Haldar     presumably M, at least in part; for hal- as the family's heritage name see Haladin; in one note
      Tolkien writes 'dar = mastery', presumably in M - 'Chief of the Haladin'; or perhaps Old Norse darr
      spear, dart, Anglo-Saxon daroð; 'Spear of Halda'; for an Elvish equivalent, see DAR- stay, endure
      [Etym] - 'Watch and Wait'; son of Haldad; an Adan
Haldir     presumably M & S; for hal- as family name see Haladin; also see KHAL²- uplift, ON khalla
      noble, Nol hall exalted [Etym]; however, Etym assigns the first element to SKAL¹- hide [Etym], with
      the definition 'Hidden Hero'; see also DER- man, Nol dîr 'man', or as agental suffix in proper names
      [Etym]; [M] 'Man of Halda', [S] 'Noble [or 'Hidden'] Hero'; son of Halmir; an Adan
Haleth     probably M; for hal- as family name see Haladin; -eth [< -itta] is a somewhat rare S feminine
      suffix used in adapting Q names ending with -issë [which seems unlikely here, especially since the
      followers of Haleth had difficulties with the Elvish tongues] [-issë is probably related to NDIS(SE)-
      woman, Lady, Q (n)issë (Etym)]; in 'Haleth', -eth is likely a M suffix, perhaps a feminine marker
      meaning 'Lady'; 'the Lady Haleth [of Halda]'; also see Halmir
Half-elven     translation of S Peredhel, plur Peredhil; see PER- divide in middle, halve [Etym]; see also
      edhel elf [appx; see discussion at Glóredhel (above)]; Elrond, Elros and Eärendil
Halflings     translation of Periannath; see Hobbits LOTR Dictionary
Halmir     the name could be M at least in part; in one Tolkien writing the name is also used as S,
      meaning 'the Hunter'; for hal- as family name see Haladin; under SKEL- skin, fur [Etym], a rejected
      portion published in a recent addendum appears to mention Haleth [?Halath], inferring 'Fur-hunter';
      also see discussion of SKAL¹- hide [Etym] under Haladin (above); see also mîr jewel [appx]; 'Jewel
      of the Halda'; son of Haldan, Lord of the Haladin
Handir     S or M? see KHAN-understand, Nol hand intelligent [Etym]; see also DER- man, Nol dîr
      'man' [Etym], often used agentally as 'one who is' or 'one who does'; 'Man of Prudence'; in M hand-
      could relate to Gaelic conn 'sense', Early Irish cond, which some relate to Dutch handig, Gothic
      handugs 'wise, clever'; son of Haldir and Glóredhel; an Adan
Haradrim     S; see KHYAR- left hand, Nol harad south [Etym; the configuration presumes a westward-
      looking orientation]; see also RIM- numerous, host, Nol -rim as a collective plur 'people' [Etym];
      'Southrons'; the Men of the lands south of Mordor
Hareth     S or M? see 3AR- have, hold, Q haran, Nol aran king, high, noble [Etym]; -eth is a rarely used
      S feminine suffix [see Haleth]; Robert Foster's Complete Guide to Middle-earth defines the name as
      'Lady'; har- does not seem to be a S form for 'noble', however [see ar(a)- noble (appx)]; perhaps the
      name was adapted from a M precursor; Anglo-Saxon har 'grey, old', although perhaps more at hærra
      'lord', and Old Norse hár 'high', even 'glorious' [also 'hair'], although perhaps Tolkien had in mind Old
      Norse harðr 'hardy', or simply 'hard', with a sense of 'care-worn'; originally called Hiriel 'Lady' [heru
      lord, hiril lady (appx) + -iel feminine ending from YEL- daughter, Nol -iel (Etym)]; daughter of Halmir;
      a female Adan
Hathaldir     ?S-ised M; perhaps Anglo-Saxon heaðo-, heaðu- 'war', Old High German hadu- 'fight' [Old
      Norse háða 'hold' ('fight')] + eald, ald 'old' = 'Battle-worn', or æld [æled] 'firebrand', Old Norse eldr
      'kindle a fire' = 'Battle-fire'; for the S interpretation see SYAD- cleave, Nol ð hack [Etym], but more
      at KHAD hack through, Nol hathel broadsword-blade, axe-blade [a stem not in Etym]; in either case
      the ending probably derives from DER- man, Nol dîr in proper names, especially as an agental suffix
      [Etym]; called 'the Young'; at one early point Tolkien used the name in LOTR for an Elf; 'Blade
      Warrior'; an Adan
Hathol     S; hath- see previous, S hathol axe [although the -ol ending is taken to be participial:
      'chopping']; called 'the Axe'; the name may have had another M precursor: Anglo-Saxon hatol
      hostile, hetol savage, severe; father of Hador Lórindol; an Adan
Haudh-en-Arwen     S; see haudh mound [appx], from KHAG- mound, Nol hauð mound, grave [Etym];
      -en- [singular] used the same as -in- [plur] indicating a genitive article; the name Arwen means
      'Royal Maiden' [from ar(a)- royal (appx) + wen maiden (appx)]; 'mound of the Lady' or 'The
      Ladybarrow'; burial-mound of Haleth, an Adan of the First Age
Haudh-en-Elleth     S; haudh-en- see previous; the last element is from EL- star [Etym], and 'Elf' by
      implication [see Glóredhel (above)]; -eth a somewhat rarely used S feminine suffix [which seems a
      bit odd here; see the rule stated at Haleth (above)]; 'Rest of the Elf-Maid'; mound in which Finduilas
      was buried
Haudh-en-Ndengin     S; haudh-en- see previous; see also NDAK- slay, Nol [noun] dangen slain [Etym;
      dengin would be the S plur form ' (those) slain']; the -en-nd- is notable [see Bar-en-Danwedh],
      perhaps requiring a vocal stop, and may denote a dialectal variation [Etym has Hauð i Ndengin,
      showing the plur -in- with the n becoming a syncope]; 'The Mound of Slain (Ones)' from the
      Nirnaeth Arnoediad; see next entry
Haudh-en-Nirnaeth     S; haudh-en- see previous; the last elements are from NEI- tear, Nol nîr tear,
      weeping [Etym], and NAY- lament, Nol nae, naeth (nakt-) biting [Etym; the latter element is also
      blended with NAK- bite (Etym)]; 'The Mound of [Bitter] Tears'; also Haudh-en-Ndengin
Havens, The     see Mithlond; Alqualondë
Helcar     Q; see KHEL- freeze ... KHELEK- ice, Q helke ice [Etym], helka 'icy, ice-cold' [appx]; the
      earliest lexicon gives Q helkar arctic cold [Tolkien eventually changed all the Q -k- spellings to -c-];
      -r is usually a Q plur noun ending; perhaps in this ancient usage the -ar ending is from ÁYAR-
      (inner) sea, Q ear [Etym; ëar 'sea' (appx; also eär)]; 'The Inland [Icy] Sea, a primeval body of water
Helcaraxë    Q; also Helkaraksë; helcar- see previous; see also KARAK- sharp fang, spike, Q karakse
      jagged hedge of spikes [Etym]; 'Icefang'; this latter is a bit misleading, since it contains the stem AK-
      narrow, Q aksa ravine [Etym]; often in describing this location did Tolkien use the term 'Strait (of the
      Grinding Ice)', and moreover YAK- means 'a (narrow) neck' or 'isthmus', Q yat- (*yakta) [Etym];
      named in Old English by Tolkien Isgegrind [is 'ice' + ge- 'together' + grind 'crash', grindan 'to scrape,
      gnash' = 'Grinding Ice']; in the older Elvish lexicons akse meant 'waterfall', which was pertinent in
      Tolkien's original conception of this arctic phenomenon; the mutation of -ksë to - is nowhere
      explained; the Valarin word maxananaškad 'Doom Ring' was rendered in Q as Máhanaxar, where we
      find x > h and aška ?> aksa > axa by metathesis; still, x is not common in Q; the 'Grinding Ice' in the
      straits northwest of Middle-earth
              In the earliest ages of the creation of the world - according to one account of the Ingolmor [I-
          intensive prefix (Etym) {or ?ING- first, foremost, (Etym), Q inga top, highest point} + ÑGOL- wise
          (Etym), iñgole 'lore', ingolmo 'loremaster' (-mo = agental) + -r (plur) = 'Loremasters'] - Middle-earth
          was surrounded by a great ocean; to the East and West the land rose from the center, then fell to
          meet the shoreline, while to the north and south it was more level, even unto the reaches of the
          edge of Kúma [KUM-, Q kúma the Void (Etym)]. In that pristine and primeval perpetuity the Lords
          of Power [BAL- power, Q Vala God, plur Valar (Etym)] resided on an island named Almaren
          [GALA- thrive, Q alma good fortune, almare blessedness (Etym) + MBAR- home, Q mar (Etym) =
          'Blessed Home'] located in the inland sea of Helcar [see above]; all around Almaren the earth was
          fashioned to be harmonious. The sea that licked the Western shore stretched to the Ekkaia
          [*HEK removed (not in Etym) + KHAYA- distant, (intensive) ekkaira far distant (Etym, which
          contains ÁYAR- sea, Q aire) = 'the Outer Sea'] as far as the horizon. To the north and the south
          these waters flowed to the edge of a great chasm, Ilmen [ilm- {'high, deep'} (appx) + MEN- place =
          'Deep Place'], where they mingled with the frigid waters of the Outer Sea at a great waterfall [Q
          akse]. Massive ice floes formed there, and bridges of ice.
              At an evil juncture came the Usurper, an Aratar [ar(a)- royal (appx) + tar- high (appx) = 'most
          high' = 'the Exalted' (the highest of the Valar)] known in the High-elven tongue as Melkor [MELK-
          power, Q *mbelek {which contains BEL- strong (Etym)} (not in Etym) + ORO- rise (Etym) = 'He
          Who Rises in Might'], who overthrew the harmony of Middle-earth, and raised mountains in the
          north that touched the frozen void - known subsequently in the Grey-elven tongue [thin(d) 'grey,
          Q sinda, plur Sindar = 'Grey Elves' (appx)] as the Ered Engrin [ORO- high, ÓROT- mountain, Nol
          orod (Etym), plur ered (appx) + ANGA- iron (Etym), S (genitive) angren 'of iron', plur engrin (appx)
          = 'The Iron Mountains']. This Lord of Abominations delved pits into the cold earth [ur- 'be hot'
          (appx; although in Etym it is also listed as 'great') + TUB- deep valley, Q tumna lowlying (Etym) +
          ?-no as a genitive suffix = Utumno '(Great) Depth of Fire' or 'Hell', S Udûn], and filled them with
          various forms of sweltering flame - seeking ever to emulate the Secret Fire of Ilúvatar [see below].
          Such were the hoarde of his corruptions that the Valar called it Aþaraphelun Dušamanuðan -
          'Arda Marred' [Valarin Aþaraphelun = 'the appointed dwelling' = Arda < 3AR- hold, Nol GAR-
          (extended to GARAT to defend - in a recently published addendum to Etym), Q Arda 'the Realm'
          (Etym); Valarin Dušamanuðan = 'defiled' ?< DUS- ?brown, burn (in a recently published addendum
          to Etym) + man blessed (appx; said to be from an unknown Valarin word meaning 'at peace') +
          ?STAK- split, Q sanka (Etym; the ancient Q could have been þan|k|; older lexicons Q root SNKN
          'rend, tear', sankë 'hateful')].
              In the event, the Lords of Power removed their Blessed Home from Helcar to a great land mass,
          at the western-most reaches of the ocean, named Valinor [BAL- (see above) + NDOR- dwell, Q
          nóre land (Etym; blended with NO- beget, Q nóre race) = 'Land of the (People of the) Valar']. They
          also reshaped the world with some curvature, such that the northern-most horizon of Valinor
          bowed close to the coasts of Middle-earth. This confluence resulted in a narrow strait which,
          according to some lore, still received influx from the frigid waters of the Outer Ocean, thus
          producing prodigious ice floes. Due to the clashing of these currents, the ice cracked and heaved
          and thrust upon itself; this 'Grinding Ice' was known as Helcaraxë. Some Loremasters claim that at
          this juncture of the eternal lands of Valinor with Middle-earth and the waters of the Outer Oceans
          there occurred a portal only accessible to the greatest of the Valar - the Ando Lómen [AD-
          entrance, Q ando gate (Etym) + DO3- dusk, Q lóme night (Etym; -en as genitive suffix) = 'Door of
          Timeless Night'] - through which the Dark Lord Melkor was put forever without the Walls of the
          World into the dark void.
              At the passage of time, the world was rounded, and the Undying Lands removed from the
          Uttermost West to the distances of the Outer Sea, beyond the ken of mortals. The last of the
          Elvish ships departing Middle-earth sail the 'Straight Road' (not subject to the curvature of the
          earth) that leads beyond the horizon to that distant shore - White Sands, and then that Green
          Land... and past that utmost: a fast-rising Dawn...
Helevorn     S; see KHYEL(ES)- glass, Nol hele [Etym; appx adds that the word was fashioned after the
      D kheled-zâram 'Mirrormere']; see also MOR- black [Etym; in S combinations m = v by a process
      called 'lenition'; Q morn (black) > S -vorn]; 'Black Glass'; a mountain lake
Helluin     S; see KHEL- freeze, Nol hell frost, hel- ice [Etym]; see also LUG²- blue, Dor [S] luin pale
      [Etym]; 'Blue Ice'; the star Sirius
Herumor     Q; see KHER- rule, Q heru master [Etym]; see also MOR- black [Etym]; a Black Númenórean
Herunúmen     Q; heru- see previous; the last elements are NDU- go down, Q -, númen west [Etym;
      + MEN-, Q men place (Etym) = West]; 'Lord of the West'; a king of Númenor
Hidden Kingdom     Doriath; also Gondolin
High-elven     see Quenya
High Elves     see Eldar
High Faroth     see Taur-en-Faroth
Hildor     Q or 'Common Eldarin'? see KHIL- follow, Q plur hildi followers (mortal men) [Etym]; -dor
      would seem to be from NDOR- dwell [Etym], but  is taken to be -do, used as a Q agental suffix with
      -r affixed to form a plural [see Astaldo]; the -do suffix may be used in a cosmic or expansive sense -
      Hildor indicating the follow-on 'Children of Ilúvatar' - while the term hildi 'followers' was a more
      mundane reference to simply 'men'; 'the Followers'; another approach might be to consider that in
      Old Q -o was a pronominal suffix 'a person', made plur with the addition of -r 'they': hild- + -o + -r =
      'the Followers' [although the process seems confusing]; Elvish name for Men
Hildórien     Q; see Hildor above; the -ien place-name suffix is possibly related to YAN- sanctuary
      [Etym]; 'birthplace of Men'
Himlad     S; see him cool [appx]; it would not seem that this derives from KHIM- stick, Nol him abiding,
      hîw sticky, viscous [Etym]; there may be a relation to the stem SWIN- whirl, eddy, which produces
      Q hwinya- to swirl, Nol chwinio whirl [Etym], as the area is said to be 'cool' due to being swept by
      cold alpine winds; no source has surfaced for S him- as 'cool'; see also lad plain [appx]; 'Cool Plain';
      a small plateau south of the Pass of Aglon brushed by winds through the cleft
Himring     S; him- see previous, Nol him [as adverb] 'continually'; see also ring cold [appx]; 'Ever-cold';
      a hill west of Maglor's Gap
Hírilorn     S; see KHER- rule, Nol híril lady [Etym]; see also orn tree [appx]; 'Tree of the Lady'; a great
      beech-tree in Doriath
Hísilómë     Q; see hîth mist [appx], from KHIS-, KHITH- mist, fog, Q híse [Etym; hísië in appx]; see also
      LUM- gloom, Q lumbe, Nol lhum shade [Etym; -lum is actually identified as 'Northern S' in one text],
      blended with DO3, - Q 1óme night [Etym; lómë dusk (appx)]; 'Land of Mist', Q name of Hithlum
Hithaeglir     S; hith- see Hísilómë [above]; see also AYAK- sharp, pointed, Nol oeglir range of
      mountain peaks [Etym; S aeg-]; the plural suffix is derived from LIR²- row, range [Etym; only Nol
      forms given]; 'Line of Misty Peaks', the 'Misty Mountains'
Hithlum     Northern S; 'Land of Mist'; see Hísilómë
Hollin     M; Middle English holin holly tree, Anglo-Saxon holen; see Eregion
Hollowbold     M; Anglo-Saxon bold house, more at 'hall, castle', related to the verb build, Old English
      bulden; 'hollow dwelling'; M translation of S Nogrod
Huan     Q-influenced S; see KHUG- bar [in the sense of being longer than it is wide], *khugan: Q huan
      (húnen) hound, Nol , Huan (name) [Etym]; see also NEÑ-WI- nose, Q neng-, Nol nem [Etym; this
      element may be more 'implied' than overt; Q húnen (shortened to huan) may include -nen as an
      agental element - 'one with a bar (snout)'; in S the -an ending could derive from ÁNAD- long, Nol
      ann (Etym)]; 'bar nose', 'Long Snout'; huan became 'Common Eldarin' for 'dog'; a great wolfhound
Hunthor     S; see KHO-N- heart, Nol hûn [Etym]; see also THOR-, THORON- eagle [Etym]; 'Heart (of
      an) Eagle'; in several texts Túrin calls him 'great heart'; the name may have had a M precursor, based
      on the Gaulish , cuno 'high, noble', but also used as 'hound' [*kunos, Old English hund],
      designating a fierce fighter; an Adan of the Haladin of Brethil
Huor     S; Etym gives this word as a combining form [Khogore, Q Huore, Nol Huor] from KHO-N- heart,
      Nol hûn [Etym], and GOR- impetus, vigour [Etym]; Huor = 'Heart-vigour, Courage'; the Elvish form
      of the name may have been fashioned upon M elements, such as Old English heort 'heart', English
      courage from Latin cor 'heart'; son of Galdor, brother of Húrin; an Adan
Húrin     S; see KHOR- urge on, Nol hûr vigour, fiery spirit [Etym]; see also ID- heart, desire, Nol inn
      heart [Etym]; similar to Huor 'heart-vigour, courage'; also called Thalion 'the Steadfast'; brought the
      Nauglamîr to King Thingol; an Adan
Hyarmentir     Q; see hyarmen south [appx], from KHYAR- left hand, Q hyarmen south [Etym] + MEN-
      Q men place [Etym] = 'left hand place'; the word supposes a map orientation facing West; see also
      tir watch (over), guard [appx]; 'South-Watch'; in the older lexicons there occurred a root TIRI 'stick
      up', and this was later extended to an association with 'tower' as a place from which to 'watch'; this
      peak towered over the far southern reaches of the Pelóri mountain 'fence', guarding that approach
      to the Undying Lands; the highest mountain south of Valinor

Iant Iaur     S; see iant bridge [appx], from YAT- join, Q yanta yoke, Nol iant yoke [Etym]; see also iaur
      old [appx], from YA- [of time] ago, Q yára olden, Nol iaur ancient [Etym]; 'The Old Bridge' north of
      Doriath; also Bridge of Esgalduin
Ibun     D; a son of Mîm
Idril     (Celebrindal) S adaptation of Q Itarillë [ITA- sparkle (not in Etym; does not occur in S) + ril
      brilliance, Q ril() (appx)]; a name with much evolution in the lexicons; the earliest notes defined the
      name as meaning 'sweetheart' or 'Beloved' [ID- heart, wish (Etym), and RIL- glitter, brilliance (Etym)];
      in The Book of Lost Tales, she is called Irildë [Q: KHER- rule, Q heri, Nol hiril lady (Etym) + KHIL-
      follow, Q hildi followers (mortals; Etym) - 'Mortal Maiden' because she married a mortal], and Idril
      Tal-Celeb - 'Idril of the Silver Feet' [tal foot (appx) + celeb silver, Q telep, telpë (appx)], also Irildë
      Taltelepta [see just previous; the -ta ending is indicative of a 'pair' - in this case a 'pair of feet' -
      probably related to the bases AT(AT)- again, and TATA- 'two' (Etym)]; the only child of Turgon and
      wife of Tuor, an Adan
Illuin     Q (probably archaic); see GIL- shine (white or pale), Q il- [Etym; see Ilmarë and Ilmen below;
      in the older Q Lexicon ilu is glossed as 'ether' or 'high airs'; also see ilm- ('high, deep') (appx)]; see
      also [S] luin blue [appx], from LUG²- blue, Q lúne, Nol lhûn, Dor. luin pale [Etym]; the form -luin
      appears as part of the older Q Lexicon as 'blue'; however, in an addendum to Etym published
      recently, there appears a stem LUY-, Q luina pale; also in the older [Nol] lexicon, luin appears as a
      reference to 'time': lu 'time', luin '(time) past' [LU-, Q lúme time, Nol lhû (Etym)]; '(High) [Ancient]
      Pale-blue Light'; one of the Great Lamps of the Valar long before the Ages of the Sun
Ilmarë     Q; see ilm- 'high airs' [appx ('high, deep')], and GIL- shine (white or pale), Q Ilma starlight
      [Etym]; see also MA3- hand ... MAG- use, Q mára useful, good [Etym] - 'high handmaid'; once
      named by Tolkien as a daughter of the King of the Valar, Manwë, perhaps simply decoded as Q
      ilma 'starlight' + -r (plur) + -ë (genitive, ?or feminine) = '(of Much) Starlight'; a Maia of the house
      of Varda on Taniquetil
Ilmen     Q; ilm- see previous; see also MEN- Q men place [Etym]; 'Place of the Highest Airs'; the region
      of the stars
Ilúvatar     Q; see ilúvë the whole [appx], from IL- all ... ILU- universe, Q ilúve (~ + UB- abound, Q úve
      great quantity) [Etym]; see also atar father [appx], from ATA- father, Q atar [Etym]; 'Father of All';
      Ilúvatar is a prototypical being that fashions his creation after 'himself'; Tolkein has included core
      cosmological concepts into the name, such as these: 1/ I- intensive prefix where i is base vowel
      [Etym]; 2/ LU- Q time [Etym]; 3/ UB- úve abundance [Etym]; 4/ BAT- tread, Nol bata beaten track,
      pathway [Etym; *battá > Q *vat, *vant]; 5/ WA- blow, wind, Q va- [Etym; Old Q wind]; 6/ AR²-
      Q ara outside [Etym]; 7/ tar- high, noble, Q tára 'lofty [appx]; also see Eru
Imlach     ?M; the first element in Elvish could derive from AM²- up [Etym] - in the sense of 'rising'; also
      see lhach 'leaping flame' [appx]; father of Amlach [?same etymology; Welsh am- (prefix) on both
      sides + llach lash, criticize - 'argue both sides' (Welsh am- or ym-, Irish or Scottish im-)]; ?'two-
      minded'; an Adan
Imladris     S; see LOTR Dictionary; 'Rivendell' (literally, 'Deep Dale of the Cleft')
Indis     Q; see I- intensive prefix where i is base vowel [Etym; similarly, ID- heart, Q indo heart, mood ...
      as íri- 'lovely' (Etym)]; see also NDIS- woman, Nol ndîs, intensive form *i-ndise = Q Indis 'bride'
      [Etym]; 'Genteel Maiden'; Vanyarin Elf known as 'the Fair'; mother of Fingolfin and Finarfin
Ingwë     Q; see ING- first, top most [Etym]; - is from WEG- (manly) vigour, taking Q form -we [Etym];
      the term is often used in names of royalty or nobility, and also agentally 'one who is'; 'First One'; first
      probably because he was among the first to 'awaken', although Tolkien says that no particular
      meaning became attached to these primitive names; the name Ing appears in Beowulf, and is
      prominent in Anglo-Saxon legends [Yngvi], often associated with geong 'young'; upon leaving
      Cuiviénen there were four 'Kings' of three Elvish groups: Ingwë, King of the Vanyar, Finwë, King of
      the Noldor, and Olwë and Elwë, brothers and joint Kings of the Teleri; when Elwë's group was
      sundered from the Teleri on the march Westward, he became known as 'King of the Sindar'; in Aman
      Ingwë became 'High King of all the Elves'
Inziladûn     N; said to mean 'Flower of the West'; a king of Númenor; also Tar-Palantir
Inzilbêth     N; a queen of Númenor
Irmo     Q; see ID- heart, desire, Q íre desire, írima desirable [Etym]; -mo is an old Q suffix similar to -
      'person', often used agentally 'one who is, one who does' [see Manwë; also see 'the problem with
      moth' in the Supplemental Appendix (in progress)]; the suffix -o is probably also a masculine
      ending; 'Desirer' or 'Master of Desire'; ar(a) high, royal (appx) may well be implied in the first element
      of Irmo, a possible carry-over of Valarin -har, -xar 'height'; similarly heru lord, hir- (appx); the root
      (G)WERE, (w)ir- from the old Q Lexicon meaning 'twirl, twist' also may be implied, in the sense of
      'spinning' a dream, as well as the root IRI dwell, abide ['rest'; in the older lexicons]; Irmo is the true
      name of the Vala Lórien [named after the gardens of his creation]; along with Námo,  known as the
      Fëanturi - 'Masters of Spirits' [fëa spirit (appx - see Fëanor; fëan- possessive form) + tur mastery
      (appx) + -i Q plural suffix], since both were the Lords of 'retreats', the gardens of Irmo to dream, the
      halls of Námo [Mandos] to rest
Iron Mountains     see Ered Engrin
Isengard     anglicised form of the language of Rohan; the S name was Angrenost; 'Iron fortress'; see
      LOTR Dictionary
Isil     Q; see I- intensive prefix where 'i' is base vowel [Etym]; also see SIL- shine silver, Q Isil Moon,
      Nol Ithil [Etym]; 'The Silvery Shining' or 'The Sheen'; name of the Moon
Isildur     S; isil- see previuous; see also -(n)dur devotion, friend [appx]; 'Moon Friend', or more likely
      'Friend of the White [Tree]'; son of Elendil; cut the Ruling Ring from Sauron's hand; the final heir of
      Isildur was Aragorn
Istari     Q; see IS- Q ista- to know, ista knowledge, istyar learned man [Etym], from an ancient Q root
      ISI, ista 'to know'; as a noun istar would be the plur of ista, i.e.: 'much knowledge', perhaps
      rendering the ending as an agental element 'one who is'; -i is a Q plural; defined in one text as 'those
      who know'; 'the Wizards'; see Curunír, Saruman, Mithrandir, Gandalf, Olórin, Radagast
Ivrin     S [?Northern]; the source of this name is nowhere stated, and may be an archaic holdover from
      the older lexicons that Tolkien fancied; there seems little doubt the name means 'glassy' or 'crystal',
      as Tolkien variously described it as 'a mirror', 'a glimmering goblet [basin]' and 'glassy-clear with
      crystal waters'; often called the '(glassy) pools of Ivrin'; perhaps the source is found in Etym as
      MIR- jewel, with I- an intensive prefix [or as deictic article] appended; in S the m of -mir could be
      softened to v following the affixed vowel - the second i becoming suppressed - with the S plur
      adjectival suffix -in added: I + v(i)r + -in = 'the jewel-ish', or 'The Crystalline (Pools)'; an etymology
      is offered in the older lexicons which seems to bear upon the issue; a word - vírin - appears,
      referring to a wondrous malleable crystalline jewel-like substance; it was intended by Tolkien
      originally to be the substance of the moon; vírin could be associated with an ancient Q root: FIRI,
      with forms findl 'lock of hair' [see SPIN- braid of hair, Q finde (Etym)], but also firin 'ray of the sun'
      [see PHAY- radiate, Q faire radiance (Etym)]; of this icy clear jewel-like material Tolkien wrote:
      [Aulë] brought to being a substance thin as a petal of a rose, clear as the most transparent Elfin
      glass, and very smooth, yet might Aulë of his skill bend it and fashion it, and naming it he called
      it 'vírin'*; the base form is given as brin, possibly meaning 'shiny' or 'glassy'; a cognate element
      might be found in an early [Nol] name of Varda: 'Bridhil, Queen of Stars'; in later lexicons Varda is
      referred to in S as Gilthoniel 'Lady star-kindler'; perhaps the early Q base brin- became brid- in
      [Nol] - -hil meaning 'Lady' - giving brin a meaning such as '(Star-)sparkling', 'delicate glimmer'; the
      lake [pools] and falls beneath Ered Wethrin; see Eithel Ivrin - 'Springs of Sparkling Jewels'; for
      further details, see Faelivrin
            * The Book of Lost Tales, Vol 1, Chapter VIII, The Tale of the Sun and the Moon

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