*** The  S I L M A R I L L I O N   Index***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* K - N *

appx =     Appendix [Silmarillion - Elvish roots]
D =          Dwarvish
Dor =      Doriathrin
Etym =    The Etymologies
Ilk =        Ilkorin [see Dark Elves]
M =        Men, Mannish
N =         Númenórean, Adûnaic
Nol =      Noldorin
ON =      Old Noldorin
plur =     plural
Q =         Quenyan [High Elven]
S =          Sindarin
LOTR =    Lord of the Rings Dictionary

Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [appx]
Words of the languages of the Rohirrim, Hobbits and Common Speech are traced to possible roots in the
      ancient Elven tongue, although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are
      derived from ancient English, especially Anglo Saxon


kelvar     Q [?Old]; see KYELEK- swift, agile [Etym], related to kel- go away [appx], from KEL- go, run
      [Etym]; originally Tolkien apparently based this element on kal- shine, calen green (appx) and
      intended it as representing green plants, but eventually assigned that meaning to olvar; -va is an
      ancient method of forming an adjective in Q [Tolkien's notes indicate that the adjectival plur form is
      -ve; -r normally forms a plur in Q nouns, but here perhaps serves as a 'class' plur]; kel (verb 'run') +
      -va (?verb > adjective 'run-able') + -r (?> {class} plur noun 'moving things'); 'animals, living things
      that move'; the term is more cosmological than conversational; see olvar
Kementári     Q; see kemen earth [appx], from KEM- soil [Etym] + MEN- place [Etym; defined as 'a flat
      floor (place)' under Menel 'the Star-place' or 'heavens']; see also tar- high, feminine tári 'she that is
      high' [appx], from TA-, TA3- high, Q *tari queen [Etym]; 'Queen of the Earth'; a title of Yavanna
Khazâd     D; name of the Dwarves in their own language
Khazâd-dûm     D; see Khazâd; dûm is probably a plural or collective, meaning 'excavations, halls,
      mansions'; S Hadhodrond; later known as Moria
Khîm     D; son of Mîm
Kinslaying, The     The slaying of the Teleri by the Noldor at Alqualondë

Ladros     ?S & M; see LAD- wide [Etym] and LAT- lie open [Etym], lad 'plain, valley' [appx]; see also
      ROS²- plain, wide land between mountains [Etym]; [loosely] 'High Heath'; -ros could be attributed
      to ROS¹- drip [Etym], S ros 'spray' [appx]; in reality, the name is somewhat nonsense in S, much
      like the 'High Noldorin' names of the Exiles coming to Beleriand from Valinor [see Fin-]; it is possible
      that the S name was fashioned after a M precursor; Gaelic làd, Irish lád relates to English 'lade'
      ['ladle'], and Gaelic lad, similarly related to English, means 'mill lead' - which may be the intent here;
      Gaelic lod 'puddle' is said to relate to Latin lutum 'mud'; Gaelic ros means 'promontory', Early Irish
      ross means 'a promontory, a wood', said to relate to a Sanskrit word for 'plateau'; although there is
      no description of Ladros by Tolkien, from this data we might surmise that it is a 'high forested table-
      land' with some sort of marsh or river-race within; lands to the northeast of Dorthonion, itself a
Laer Cú Beleg     S; see GLIR- [Nol form of LIR¹-] sing, glœr long lay, narrative poem [Etym; in a
      recently published addendum, the Nol is corrected to glaer], S laer; see also KU3- bow, Nol
      [Etym]; 'The Song of the Great Bow' or 'Song of the Bow of Beleg'; also see Beleg
Laiquendi     Q; see LÁYAK- Q laiqa green [Etym]; see also quen- (quet-) speak [appx], from KWET-
      (and {'Nol'} PET-) say, Q qenta [Etym], because when they 'awoke', they discovered that they could
      speak, unlike the rest of the kelvar; from this is derived KWEN(ED)- Elf, Q qende [Etym; plur Quendi
      'Speakers']; 'The Green-elves', also known as the 'Silvan Elves' or 'Wood Elves'
Lalaith     ?S; the meaning 'Laughter' is attested; the name Lalwendë 'Laughing Maiden' [lal- + WEN-,
      WENED- maiden, Q wende (Etym), (S) wen 'maiden' (appx)] is also attested; Tolkien provides a
      'Common Eldarin' stem G-LADA- in one place, 'to laugh', with lala- being the Q form and glað being
      the S; it would seem to relate to GALÁS- joy, Q alasse joy, Nol glas [Etym], perhaps influenced by
      ALA 'blessed' [a stem only mentioned in passing in Etym; see ÁLAM- elm-tree (blessed), Nol, Ilk lal-
      (Etym)]; the -ith element forms a noun from a participial verb form [gerund; see Nen Girith]; the
      name appears to be Q-influenced; her original name was Urwen [UR- be hot, Nol ûr (Etym) + WEN- =
      Fiery Maiden], but due to her frivolity at play everyone called her after the name of the 'merry' stream
      that flowed by the house - Nen Lalaith [NEN- Nol nen water (Etym)]; at her death, her brother Túrin
      was told only to refer to her as Urwen, as 'laughter is stilled in this house'; she died in childhood
Lammoth     S; see LAM- to sound, Q láma ringing sound, echo, lamma a sound, Dor lóm echo [Etym],
      [S] lóm 'echo' ... Lammoth [appx]; the second element is derived from KHOTH- gather, Nol hoth host
      [Etym], -(h)oth as plural multiplier suffix; in the older lexicons moth meant 'sheep' and appears to
      have been used as a multiplier implying 'many' or 'numerous' [see Supplemental section, 'the problem
      with moth']; the last element also could imply MBOTH- Dor moth pool [Etym], in the sense of echoes
      being like ripples in a pond [confined space]; 'The Great Echo', region of the north; the name was
      inspired by the echoes of Morgoth's cry in his battle with the great spider Ungoliant; see Lanthir
Land of Shadow     see Mordor
Land of the Dead that Live     see Dor Firn-i-Guinar
Land of the Star     see Númenor
Lanthir Lamath     S; see DAT-, DANT- fall down, Q lanta a fall, Nol dant to fall [Etym; Dor lant- may
      follow the Q; there is some confusion regarding the element; under the stem TALÁT- 'to slope'
      occurs the 'Nol' adjective atlant slanting (Etym); a stem LANTA- fall was recently published as an
      addendum to Etym, but it not only offers only Q forms, it also appears to have been abandoned; it
      seems reasonable to presume that dant 'fall' yielded to lant in S (Dor)]; see also sîr river ... s > h in
      the middle of compounds [appx] - 'river fall'; lamath: see Lammoth previous, except that the ending
      here is the S collective plural -ath [see note following Argonath]; Tolkien appears to intend three
      separate stems in this category: 1/ LAB- [*LABA] move the tongue, Q lamba tongue, N lham(b)
      [Etym], used to refer to articulate speech, 2/ LAM- a ringing sound, Q láma, Dor lóm echo [Etym],
      and 3/ *LAMA vocal but inarticulate sounds (of beasts), Q laman, S lavan [not in Etym]; there is
      another stem in Etym - GLAM- for a 'din' of confused noise [changed to G-LAM- in recently
      published addenda to Etym], but the forms are referred to LAM-; 'Lamath' would seem to occur as
      a form from #1 above, although it is curious that the medial consonant m was not doubled; either
      'echo' or 'voices' would seem to be implied; 'Waterfall of Echoing Voices'
Laurelin     Q; see laurë gold (of light and colour) [appx], from LÁWAR- golden light, Q laure [Etym];
      see also lin-² sing [appx]; 'Song of Gold'; one of the Two Trees
Lay of Leithian     S; see LEK- release, Nol lhein free(d) ... leth- set free [this form appears to be
      influenced by LED- go, (Exilic) Nol (past tense verbal form) -leðas - lek- + leð = leith-], leithia- to
      release, leithian [noun] release [Etym]; the -ian ending indicates a verbal participle used as a noun
      [a gerund] - 'release (from) oppressing' [one example of this usage is Perian: PER- halve (Etym),
      Perian halving or 'Halfling' = Hobbit]; perhaps STAG- press, Nol thang oppression [Etym] is
      implied; 'Release from Bondage'; a long epic poem, source of one tale in The Silmarillion
Legolin     S; see LEK- loose, Ilk [S] legol running free [Etym]; the last element, sometimes used as a
      genitive affix [with the article], sometimes with a noun to form a plur, here seems to form an adjective;
      'Rambunctious'; a tributary of Gelion
lembas     S name of the waybread of the Eldar [earlier called lenn-mbas 'journey bread']; LEB- 'remain'
      has a derivative Q lemba (*lebna) [Etym], but it is not the source of this term; see LED- travel, Q
      lende, Nol ledh, lenn fared [Etym]; see also MBAS- knead, Q mas(t), Nol bast (-bas) bread [Etym];
      the food also goes by the Q name of coimas life-bread, from KUY- come to life [Etym], taken from an
      ancient Q root KOYO have life, coi life; Tolkien was at some pains in his letters to emphasize that
      lembas was not just sustenance for the body, but was succour to the life-force when it waned with
      fatigue; in notes Tolkien gave the Old English form: hlæf-dige, which Christopher Tolkien analyses
      as hlaf 'loaf' and dig 'knead' ['dig, delve'], but in Anglo-Saxon, while hlaf is still 'loaf', dige could
      relate to the verb digan 'to endure, survive', which was surely in Tolkien's mind
Lenwë     Q & ON; see LIND- fair, Nol lhend [Etym]; however, the first element is from LED- travel, Q
      lende departed [Etym], since his group 'left' the westward march from Cuiviénen; also see WEG-
      vigour, in names taking Q and Nol form -we [Etym; often as an agental ('one who is') title of nobility
      or value]; became known in Nandorin as Denweg [?TAY- make long(er), Q taina extended, Nol taen
      long (and thin), lithe (Etym; Silvan forms not available - see Denethor) + WEG], although the first
      element is often ambiguously attributed to DAN- and NDAN- back, a reference to the Avari [Etym]
      who 'turned back'; 'the Departed One'; leader of the Nandor Elves; see Lindon
Lhûn     S; see LUG²- blue, Nol lhûn [Etym]; 'Blue River'; river in Eriador; see LOTR Dictionary; see
Linaewen     S; see lin¹ pool, mere [appx]; see also AIWE- (small) bird, Nol aew [Etym]; -en is a singular
      genitive suffix; perhaps implied is GWEN- green, Ilk gwên freshness [Etym]; 'Lake of Birds'
Lindon     S; see LIND- fair (of sound), Ilk lind [Etym], related to LIN²- sing, Nol lhin(d), Ilk *Lind-and =
      Lindon 'because of water and birds' [Etym]; 'Musical Land' [LAD- wide and LAT- open, Nol lhand
      'wide open', '-(l)and' - Etym)]; in the older Q Lexicon one of many derivatives from the root LIRI 'sing'
      is lin 'melody', lindelë 'song, music', thus indicating a blending together of the two concepts of 'fair'
      [lind-] and 'song' [lin-] in Tolkien's mind; 'Fair Land' or 'Land of Song'; Etym also offers GLINDI-
      pale blue, Nol glind, glinn [Etym], from which Tolkien seems to have originally derived lind 'blue'
      referring to Ered Lindon, the Blue Mountains [said to be a stem later abandoned]; Lindon was
      called Ossiriand in the First Age
Lindórië     Q; lind- see previous; see ORO- high, Q óre rising [Etym]; perhaps implied is RIG- Q rie
      crown [Etym]; the - suffix appears to be a verb form used as an adjective; 'Rising Beauty', or
      perhaps more figuratively: 'High Crown of Fair Beauty' [i.e.: 'golden-haired']; Mother of Inzilbêth of
Loeg Ningloron     S; the first element derives from LOG- [Common Eldarin (S)LOG] wet, swampy, Q
      (rare) loi-, S , loen (*logna {where -na forms an ancient adjectival ending}), plur loeg [a stem not
      in Etym]; see also nen water, S nîn wet [appx]; the older lexicons give los (g)lóriol 'golden flower',
      which combines LOT(H) flower [Etym], with GLAW(-R)- gold [light], Nol glaur gold [Etym], S glór,
      glor- [appx]; the -on suffix is a plur genitive ending, but may also indicate an augmentative element,
      here as 'many' [see LOTR entry Caras Galadon (Galadhon)]; translated as 'Pools of Golden Water
      Flowers', the name is taken from the name of the (River) Ninglor 'Golden Water', due to the profusion
      of blossoms of the yellow Iris; see Gladden Fields
lómelindi     Q; S dúlin; see lómë dusk [appx], from DO3, - night, Q 1óme night [Etym], S 'night,
      dimness' [appx]; see also LIN²- sing, Q lindo singer [Etym]; -i forms a Q plural; perhaps mel- 'sweet,
      dear' [appx] is implied; 'dusk-singers' (nightingales)
Lómion     Q; lóme- see previous; -ion masculine name suffix [YO, YON- son, Q -ion - Etym]; 'Son of
      Twilight'; Q name of Maeglin
Lonely Isle     see Tol Erresëa
Lord of Waters     see Ulmo
Lords of the West     see Valar
Lórellin     Q; see ÓLOS- Q olor dream [Etym] and LOS- sleep, Q lóre slumber [Etym; (Q) lor 'dream'
      (Letters, p. 308)]; see also lin¹ pool, mere [appx]; a lake in Valinor where the Vala Estë sleeps; 'Water
      of Inspiration'; see Lórien
Lorgan     M; ?Anglo Saxon leogan lie, betray; or perhaps from Early Irish, Gaelic lorg track, footsteps,
      Old Irish lorc track, Lower German lurken creep; ?lorgan = tracker [as Tolkien wrote 'the hunters of
      Lorgan dogged (Húrin's) footsteps']; leader of the Easterlings, by whom a young Tuor was enslaved
Lórien¹     Q and S; a complex name, incorporating cosmological concepts of the Valar; of their many
      creations that failed or had to be refashioned, these gardens apparently endured; they were a place
      of rest and refreshing for the Valar, the Maiar and the Eldar [see Lórellin (above)]; the first element
      is taken from LOS- sleep, Q lóre slumber [Etym - from an early root - LORO slumber], and ÓLOS- Q
      olor dream [Etym; note DO3, - Q night (Etym)]; the ending may relate to YAN- sanctuary,
      holy place [Etym]; Lórien's wife was Estë, which is taken from EZDE, and means 'rest' [Etym]; almost
      certainly the element orn tree [appx] is implied; also to be considered is the element laurë gold light
      [appx], as well as DAL- flat, Q lára a valley [Etym], as one later name of the gardens was
      Laurenandë, which includes the stem NAD- Q nanda water-mead [Etym] - 'Golden Dale'; also to be
      considered is RIG- Q rie crown [Etym], the nobility of the Valar - 'Golden Crown'; so eternally
      beautiful were these gardens that Galadriel spent her latter years on Middle Earth yearning for their
      reassurance, and thus we should consider the base OY- ever, Q oira eternal [Etym]; perhaps the last
      element hints at this, incorporating the stem YEN- year [Etym], as Lórien's dreamy paths are timeless;
      the gardens of the Vala Irmo, himself called Lórien
Lórien²     see previous; enchanted land between the rivers Celebrant and Anduin; S Lothlórien, which
      appends the word loth 'flower' [appx]
Lórindol     S; lor- see laurë 'gold (light)', S lór [appx]; -in is an adjectival affix; see also dol head [appx],
      from NDOL- round head, Nol dôl, Dor ndol head [Etym]; 'head of gold' or 'Goldenhead'; see Hador
Losgar     S [?Falathrin]; see los snow [appx], and by extension 'white'; in the older lexicons the element
      was also related to loth flower [appx], often 'white' flowers; in his early writings Tolkien gave the
      meaning of this name as 'Place of flowers', but the cold of the region could indicate 'snow'; see also
      3AR- hold, Q arda, Nol gar realm [Etym]; 'White Realm'?; one suspects that the name became
      especially associated with 'white' when Fëanor burnt the white ships of the Teleri at this landing,
      securing its place forever in the tales of the Eldar; the name could have a M equivalent; Gaelic las
      kindle, losgadh a burning, Welsh llosgi to burn, llachar gleaming (*laksar-); Gaelic gàir outcry,
      gaoir shout of alarm, Welsh gawr clamor (*gâri-) - Indo-European root gar- to call; Tolkien writes
      of the landing at Lammoth ['the Great Echo']: the noise of the burning of the ships at Losgar went
      down the winds of the sea as a tumult of great wrath; harbour at the mouth of the Firth of Drengist
Lothlann     S; while the first element would seem to lead to loth flower [appx], in this case it refers to
      LUS- Nol lhost, loth empty [Etym]; it tends to confuse the normal etymology [loth flower]; see
      also LAD- wide, Nol lhann [Etym], and LAT- lie open, Nol lhand open space [Etym]; 'The wide and
      empty'; a large plain
Lothlórien     S; see loth flower [appx]; 'Lórien of the Blossom'; see Lórien¹
Luinil     S; see luin blue [appx]; see also sil- shine (with white or silver light) [appx], ril brilliance [appx],
      and gil star, even NIL- friend [Etym]; 'blue friend' or 'blue star-friend'; name of a star; ?Neptune
Lumbar     Q; see LU- Q lúme time [Etym] - as Varda created the star in anticipation of the awakening of
      the Elves; however, the correct derivation is probably LUM- Q lumbe gloom [Etym], and MBAR-
      inhabit, Q a-mbar earth [Etym] - 'dwell (in) murk' or 'World of Gloom'; a star associated with Saturn,
      known in our times as connected with 'Father Time', lending some credence to the first analysis
Lúthien     S; see LUK- enchantment, Dor luth charm [Etym]; for the last element see YO, YON- son,
      feminine yen daughter [Etym; -ion = masculine name suffix, -ien = feminine name suffix]; 'Lady of
      Enchanting Beauty'; Elven Princess, daughter of the divine Melian, she married Beren, an Adan,
      and chose to become mortal and share his fate; Tolkien placed this name on his wife's tombstone;
      see Tinúviel; see Gallery

Mablung     S; see MAP- seize, Ilk (Dor) mab [corrected to mâb in recently published addendum] hand
      [Etym; this stem is used as a verb in Q, a noun in Dor], related to  MA3- hand [Etym; Q and 'Nol'
      only, no 'Ilk' or 'Dor' forms]; see also LUG¹- heavy, Dor lung [Etym]; '(of the) Heavy Hand'; an Elf of
Maedhros     S; the first element is a S adaptation of a Common Eldarin stem MAGIT- 'shapely', Q maiti,
      S maed [not in Etym; perhaps related to MA3- hand, Q maite skilled, Nol moed ... MAG- use, Nol
      maen skilled (Etym); i.e.: 'crafted']; the Q/ON form of the name in Valinor was Maitimo 'well-shaped
      one' [where -mo seems to be an augmentative agental male suffix - '(great) one who is' or '(great) one
      who does' - as found in the Q name of the Vala Ulmo]; see also RUS- flash, glitter of metal, Nol
      rhoss, ros [Etym; in his notes Tolkien narrows the definition to 'copper coloured', from Common
      Eldarin RUSSA brownish-red, S ross (also see RUSKA- brown {Etym})]; this latter element was
      included in the S form because of a second Q/ON name in Valinor: Russandol 'copper-top' [russa +
      NDOL- round head, ON ndolo head (Etym)]; the 'copper' attribute derives from his mother Nerdanel,
      who had russet hair; 'Shapely and Bronze'; also called 'the Tall'; Maedhros was the eldest son of
      Fëanor; he bore one of the Silmarils with him to his death
Maeglin     S; see maeg, Q maika sharp, piercing [appx], from MIK pierce, Q maika sharp, S maeg(h)
      (*megr) [a stem not in Etym]; related stems are MAK- sword, Nol magl, magol [Etym] and AYAK-
      sharp, Nol oeg piercing [Etym], S aeg; see also glîn gleam - particularly applied to the eyes [appx],
      from a S stem GLIM glint, glînn glance [not in Etym; could conflict with the stem GLIN- sing (Etym)];
      a related stem is TIN- sparkle [as the eye; Etym]; 'Sharp Glance'; an Elven lord; see his Q name
      Lómion [above]
Maglor     S adaptation of Q/ON Makalaurë [the text says 'of uncertain meaning', but interpreted as
      'forging gold' due to his skill on the harp]; see MAK- sword, (as a verb) cleave, Q makil (*makla)
      sword, Nol magl, magol [Etym]; the last element is from LÁWAR-, GLAW(-R)- gold (light), Q laure,
      Nol glaur, reduced in polysyllables to glor-, -lor and appears in many names [Etym]; Etym gives the
      meaning of the name as 'Gold cleaver'; Maglor was a minstrel besides a Prince, and composed the
      Noldolantë; since the ON name is said to be 'prophetic', perhaps it implies 'golden tongue' [tongue
      implied by sword]
Maglor's Gap     The region between the northern arms of Gelion where there were no hills of defence
      against the North.
Magor     ?S; in one genealogical chart called 'the Sword'; see MAK- sword, Nol magl, [Etym]; also see
      GOR- violence, vigour, Nol (in names -gore [Etym]; the name may be adapted from an original
      Mannish name such as Anglo Saxon mago kinsman, warrior, or Old Norse mægir sword, Latin
      machaera sword; the Irish mál 'prince, hero' is taken to derive from a stem *maglo-; the early Elvish
      lexicons offer: Makar [Q Lexicon] 'God of battle', [Nol] Magorn; the old base is MAKA, with mak-
      'slay', makil 'sword'; an Adan leader
Mahal     D; however, it is worth mentioning: the Quenya Lexicon has a root MAHA with many
      derivatives, notably ma (= maha) 'hand', mavoitë 'having hands' - the idea being that Aulë was a
      'craftsman' [with his hands]; also a root HALA, with a derivative haloitë 'leaping' - perhaps because
      of the speed with which Aulë fashioned the earth; mahal occurs in Valarin as mahalma throne, from
      a root meaning 'authority' [see next]; name given to the Vala Aulë by the Dwarves; it is interesting to
      note that the Sanskrit mahî 'the earth', mahas 'great' is traced by some to the Gaelic magh 'a plain' or
      'field', Gaulish *magos 'expanse' - all a bit descriptive of Aulë; see Mahtan (below); also see Aulë
Máhanaxar     a pre-Elven term [Valarin]; see MAN- holy spirit ... MANAD- doom ...  which in Q is partly
      blended with MBAD- doom ... *mbanda [Etym], S band prison, duress, Q mando [appx]; the Valarin
      base was maxan authority, and the closest word is mahalma throne - as a seat of judgment [doom];
      the last element is believed related to the Black Speech term Nazgûl [nazg = ring] - -naxur [Black
      Speech is said by some to relate to the early pre-Elven forms, possibly because it was devised
      originally by Sauron, perhaps even tracing its origins back to Morgoth]; the element could also
      possibly be related to NAK- bite, *an-ka jaw, row of teeth [Etym], which could form a semi-circle;
      'The Ring of Doom'; the thrones of the Valar
Mahtan     ON and Q; see MA3- hand, Q mahta- handle, stroke [Etym]; see also TAN- make, fashion
      [Etym]; 'stroke and fashion', or 'Smithy'; a skilled Noldorin craftsman, favorite of Aulë; also see
Maiar     likely of pre-Elven derivation; originally translated as 'the Beautiful'; perhaps from MA3- hand
      ... MAG- use, Q mára good [Etym] - in the sense of the Maiar being the 'hands' of the Valar [see
      discussion under Maedhros (above)]; also from GAYA awe, dread, Q áya awe, reverence, and an
      extended stem *GAYAR the Terrifier, Q eär [see ëar sea (appx)], (adjective) aira terrible [neither in
      Etym, but see GÁYAS- fear, dread (Etym)]; aira was considered close to AYAN- [Etym], aina holy
      [appx; see Ainur]; -r forms a plur in Q; perhaps 'Good' and 'Holy' = 'Beautiful' [although some of the
      Maiar 'fell' and lost their beauty]; one Valarin base possibly related was maxan authority, Máhan as
      a Q name; the term maia was subsequently translated as 'spirit' [Úmaiar = 'evil spirits', from GU-
      prefix 'no, not', Q u- not (with evil connotation; Etym) + maiar]; the concept could be glossed as
      'willful angelic servants'; Sauron was a Maia, a 'fallen angel'; Ainur of lesser degree than the Valar
Malach     M; ?Anglo Saxon mæl sign, sword, talk, battle; ?læcan to spring up; 'Swift to Action';
      perhaps Welsh mael chieftain (Irish mál prince, *maglo-) + llach lash, flash = 'Savage Commander';
      the name may have been adapted from the original Mannish to S as mal- gold [appx], and lhach
      leaping flame [appx]; 'Leaping Gold', since he likely had golden hair, as did his later offspring,
      accounting for the 'gold' adaptation; an Adan; known by the Elvish name Aradan - 'King´s Man'
Malduin     S; see mal- gold [appx]; see also duin (long) river [appx]; probably means 'Yellow River',
      denoting a muddy stream; a tributary of the Teiglin
Malinalda     Q; see SMAL- yellow, Q (adjective) malina [Etym]; see also (Q) alda tree [appx]; 'Tree of
      Yellow-gold'; see Laurelin
Mandos     Q; see man- good, blessed [appx], from MAN- holy spirit ... MANAD- final end, Q mande
      [Etym], this last blended with MBAD- prison, Q Mando the imprisoner [Etym]; see also GOS-,
      GOTH- dread, Q osse terror [Mandosse = Dread Imprisoner; Etym]; in another place the second
      element is assigned to OS- round, Q osto city, town with wall round [Etym] - 'Castle of Custody'; the
      place of - and second name of - the Vala properly called Námo [below], 'the Judge' of souls
Manwë     Q adaptation of Valarin Manawenuz 'Blessed One' [see Máhanaxar, which contains the
      Valarin word mahan 'throne' or 'authority']; man- see previous, blended in Q with MBAD- doom
      [Etym]; also see WEG- vigour, manhood, taking Q form -we, used as an agental suffix ['one who is'],
      often implying nobility or value [Etym]; in Valarin wenuz also had an agental function, related to the
      first element: 'one who is blessed'; the Valarin form of the name hints at the word ayanuz upon which
      the Q word aina, ainu holy [appx] is based; the commentary states that the Q word man [blessed], as
      adapted from Valarin, implies 'of one accord [with Eru]'; chief of the Valar; since the Sindar never saw
      Manwë, they used the name Aran Einior 'Elder King' [ar(a)- high, aran king + einior (problematical;
      perhaps S- demonstrative stem, plur hein 'those, they' {Etym; as an augmentative} + YA- there, {of
      time} ago, Nol iaur ancient {Etym; ?-ior S comparative form 'older'} = 'Most Ancient')]; also called
Marach    M; ?Anglo Saxon mara greater, mightier; 'Valorous'; Gaelic màireach to-morrow, Irish márach
      seems improbable; Welsh mawr, great, large, Irish már or mór [Gaulish -mârós, Old High German
      mâri famed], enter into a great many Celtic names; or perhaps Welsh maer steward, guardian + -ach
      (diminutive) = 'prefect, reeve'; head of the third host of Men to migrate into Beleriand, ancestor of
      Hador Lórindol
Mardil     S; see bar dwelling ['house'], S bar, mar [appx]; also see ar(a)- noble, royal [appx]; see also
      -(n)dil devotion [appx]; 'devoted to the house [of the King]'; the first Ruling Steward of Gondor
Mar-nu-Falmar     Q; see bar dwelling (home), Q már land [appx]; see also NU- underneath, Q nún, no
      under [Etym; Q no apparently subsequently became nu]; the final element is derived from PHAL-,
      PHÁLAS- foam, Q falma wave [Etym]; -r is a Q plural suffix, perhaps related to AR²- beside, Q ar
      and [Etym]; 'The Land under the Waves'; Númenor after its drowning
Melian     S-ised Q; see mel- love [appx], from MEL- love, Nol mell dear [Etym]; also see ANA¹- to, Q
      anna gift, Nol ant [Etym], S -an [appx]; the -ian suffix could be a participial verb form used as a noun
      [gerund; see Lay of Leithian] (above)] - 'Loving'; however, the appx offers: Melian < Melyanna
      'dear gift' [Q adjective melya 'dear' + anna]; a Maia who married the Elven King Elu Thingol of
      Doriath; from her issued a seed of the 'gods' into the races of Elves and thence unto Men
Melkor     Q and ON; the name is not what it seems [mel- love (appx) and kor- round (appx)]; Q
      Melkórë 'Might Rising'; the early Q stem was MELK- power [not in Etym] + ORO- up, rise, Q óre
      rising [Etym]; the Q stem MELK- is undoubtedly reflected in Etym in the later Nol stem BEL- strong
      [Etym; not in Q, which may have subsequently substituted TUR-]; the S form was Belegûr [or
      Belegurth; BEL-, Ilk beleg strong, Nol beleg great (Etym) + NGUR- Nol gûr, gurth death (Etym), S
      (gorth), gurth (appx)] - 'Great Death'; in Nol form 'He who Arises in Might'; see also MIL-IK- desire,
      Nol melch greedy, lust [Etym]; in the older glossaries named Melko, said to be a Q adaptation of the
      Valarin Yelur > Q yelwa cold [see Appendix B: Sauron the Dark Lord]; the evil Vala, in some
      writings the equal with Manwë, King of the Valar - i.e.: Good and Evil; after the theft of the Silmarils
      called Morgoth, also Bauglir
Men     see Atani
Menegroth     S; the first element is problematical; it appears to derive from MINI- stand alone, Nol min
      one, with an extended stem MINÍK-W-, Q minqe eleven [Etym; in LOTR-style Q 'eleven' would likely
      be minquë]; we are left to ponder what influence on the original stem expanded it to a ten-fold
      number; it seems likely that an ancient base *KWA 'completion' is the best candidate, which leads
      to KWAT- 'full' in Etym; following this line of reasoning, the S form may be an early 'loan-word',
      adapted from the stem MINÍK-W- as meneg (?< older menegw); there were no early language-forms
      specifically for large numbers; in the older lexicons the word used for 'thousand' was moth, which
      also meant 'sheep' [?'numerous'], and perhaps it is implied in m-enegr-oth; the second element is
      groth (grod) delving, underground dwelling [appx], from a base *GROTO dig, tunnel, S (*grota)
      grod excavation, intensive form (*grotta) groth 'great digging' [not in Etym]; 'The Thousand Caves'
      [although the meaning 'caves' is an accommodation]; the hidden halls of Doriath
Meneldil     Q; see menel the heavens [appx; MEN- region (Etym) + EL- star (Etym)]; see also -(n)dil
      devotion [appx]; 'Devoted to the (Starry) Heavens', perhaps a reference to the star of his ancestor
      Eärendil, although Tolkien simply defines the term as 'astronomer'; a king of Gondor, and said in
      one place to be the last man born in Númenor; also see LOTR Dictionary
Menelmacar    Q;  menel- see previous; see also MAK- (noun) sword, (verb) cleave, Q makil sword,
      (*makta-) mahta- wield a weapon [Etym; Q k = c] + KAR- make, do, Q káro doer [Etym; as an
      agental element] = 'swordsman'; in late notes Tolkien identifies an early verbal root MACA- 'to forge
      metal', which may be intended as an original source of the stem MAK-; 'forging' or 'hammering'
      became synonymous with 'warrior' - hewing with a sword; S form: Menelvagor [See LOTR];
      'Swordsman of the Sky' = the constellation Orion; said to 'forebode the Last Battle that shall be'
      when Morgoth and his evil spawnings are finally and utterly vanquished
Meneltarma     Q; menel- see previous; see also tar- high ... Q tarma pillar [appx; perhaps tar high +
      -ma pronominal affix meaning 'thing' - 'high thing']; in the tongue of Men Heofonsýl [Anglo-Saxon:
      heofon heaven + sýl pillar]; 'Pillar of Heaven', a mountain of Númenor, upon which was a great temple
      of Eru Ilúvatar
Meres of Twilight     see Aelin-uial
Mereth Aderthad     S; see mereth feast [appx; from MBER- Q meren feast, festival, Nol bereth; S
      follows Q + -eth a genitive suffix = 'feast (of)']; also see AT(AT)- Nol ad again, back [Etym] + ERE-
      be alone, Q er one [Etym; Q erdë singularity, S (presumed verb) ertha-] + -ad [S participial ending
      '-ing' used as noun (gerund)] = 'one-ing again'; ETER- open, come out [Etym] may be implied; the
      'Feast of Reuniting'
Mickleburg     M translation of Belegost: 'great fortress'; Anglo-Saxon: micel, micle great + burg
      fortified enclosure
Middle-earth     Endor; see LOTR Dictionary
Mîm     D; perhaps based on Mimir, a giant of the Old Norse Eddas that guarded the well of wisdom; the
      Germanic source also implies 'mourning' and 'memory' [Indo-European root (s)mer-¹]; name of a
      'Petty-dwarf' that lived at Bar-en-Danwedh on Amon Rûdh
Minas Anor     S; see minas tower [appx], from MINI- stand alone, Nol min [Etym] + NAS- point, spike
      [Etym]; see also ANÁR- sun, Nol Anor [Etym; AR¹- day (Etym) + NAR¹- fire, Nol naur, nor (Etym) =
      'day-fire']; 'Tower of the Sun'; later called Minas Tirith
Minas Ithil     S; minas- see previous; see also I- intensive prefix where i is base vowel: Nol Ithil Moon
      [Etym], with sil- (and variant thil-) shine (with white or silver light) ... S Ithil, the Moon [appx];
      'Tower of the Moon', later called Minas Morgul
Minas Morgul     S; minas- see previous; see also MOR- black [Etym] and NGOL- wisdom, Nol gûl
      magic ... mor(n)gul sorcery [Etym]; 'Tower of Sorcery'; later name of Minas Ithil
Minastir     N; also Tar-Minastir
Minas Tirith¹     S; see minas tower [appx], from MINI- stand alone, Nol min [Etym] + NAS- point, spike
      [Etym]; see also TIR- watch, guard, Nol tirith watch [Etym; S -ith indicates a verb form - 'watch-ing' -
      used as a noun (gerund; see Mereth Aderthad above)]; 'Tower of Watch', or 'Tower of Vigilance';
      built on Tol Sirion; also Tol-in-Gaurhoth
Minas Tirith²     S; see previous; later name of Minas Anor of Gondor
Mindeb     S; see MINI- stand alone, Q mindo isolated, Nol min one [Etym], from an earlier root MI
      (MIN) one; the name occurs early in Tolkien's writings, and the form mind- generally meant 'isolated'
      - because the river coursed through uninhabited lands; -eb is an old S adjectival suffix [see Nan
      Dungortheb below]; DEM- [Ilk only] gloomy [Etym] may be implied, because the spawn of
      Ungoliant survived in that land and spun their dark canopies; still, the lone description of the river
      describes it as narrow, sparkling and rushing; 'Forlorn'; a tributary of Sirion
Mindolluin     S; see MINI- stand alone, Nol min one, mindon tower, isolated hill [Etym; min + TUN- hill,
      Nol tonn (Etym), S don = mindon]; see also NDOL- round head, Nol dôl [Etym], S dol 'head' [appx];
      also see LUG²- blue, Dor luin [Etym]; 'Towering Blue-head'; some disagree with this published
      translation and analyse the term as Q/Nol: mindon [see next] + luin, dropping the NDOL-
      interpretation - 'Lofty Blue Salient'; a great mountain of Gondor
Mindon Eldaliéva    Q; see MINI- stand alone, Q mindo isolated tower [Etym]; in one writing Tolkien
      identifies the ending as augmentative, perhaps by adding the agental suffix -on [see Tauron]; also
      see ELED- depart, Q Elda Elf [Etym] + LI- many, Q lie people [as an ethnic collective plur; Etym] =
      Eldalië 'the Elven-folk'; the ending -eva is apparently related to AWA- away, out [Etym], used as a
      privative suffix of exclusivity [exclusive possession; see Nurtalë Valinóreva below] - here simply
      meaning that the tower was exclusively for the Eldar; 'Lofty Tower of the Eldalië'; built in Tirion on
      the hill of Túna, it sent out a laser-like silver beam that penetrated the mists of the Shadowy Seas as
      a welcome beacon to Eldarin mariners
Míriel¹     Q and ON; see mîr jewel [appx]; see also YEL- and SEL-D- daughter, blended with YO, YON-
      son [Etym]; first wife of Finwë; 'Jewelled Lady'; also called Byrde Míriel - see Serindë
Míriel²     see previous entry; daughter of Tar-Palantir; also N Ar-Zimraphel
Mirkwood     M [Common Speech]; Middle English mirke, Old English mirce dark, evil [English: murky];
      the first element could be related to BERÉK- wild [Etym], which is a variation on an abandoned stem
      MERÉK-, Q form merka wild; originally called Greenwood the Great; for further analysis see LOTR
Misty Mountains     see Hithaeglir
Mithlond     S; see mith grey [appx], from MITH- Nol mith white fog [Etym]; see also LOD- narrow path,
      Nol lhonn, -lond [Etym; 'sequestered harbour']; 'The Grey Havens'
Mithrandir     S; mith- see previous; see also RAN- wander, Nol rhandir pilgrim [Etym]; the suffix is
      from DER- adult male, man, Nol dîr [Etym; used as an agental suffix - 'one who wanders']; 'The Grey
      Pilgrim'; S name of Gandalf; see LOTR Dictionary
Mithrim     S; mith- see previous; see also RIM- numerous, frequent, Nol rhim, -rim host [Etym],
      'commonly used to form collective plurals' [appx]; derived from the name of the Elves of the region,
      meaning the lake and the lands round-about; 'Grey Folk'; the final element may imply RINGI- cold,
      Nol rhim [as given in Etym] - 'Region of Mists'; name of a great lake and also of the region about it
      as well as the Sindarin Elves -called the 'Northern Sindarin' - who dwelt there
Mordor     S; see mor dark [appx], S morn black; see also dôr land from ndor [appx; -rn(n)d- > -rd-]; 'the
      Black Land'; also 'the Land of Shadow'
Morgoth     S adaptation of ON[?]; mor(n)- see previous; see also KOTH- strive, Nol coth enmity,
      enemy [Etym], S goth [-rng- > -rg-]; implied is GOS-, GOTH- terror [Etym]; the S form is said in one
      place to be adapted from Moringotto [or Moriñgotho], names used by the Noldor in Valinor -
      neither of which appears to be strictly Q, and which line of etymology [transitional ON] was likely
      abandoned; at any rate, the text states that the name Morgoth was first created by the Noldorin
      Prince Fëanor, adapted into the S of Beleriand; 'The Dark Enemy', 'The Black Terror' or [as 'the
      Morgoth'] 'the dreadful foe of darkness' [devil]; the name contains the word orc 'goblin'; later name
      of Melkor
Morgul     see Minas Morgul
Moria     S; S mor [môr] 'dark', adjective morn [appx; also Letters, pp. 382-3]; see also YAG- gape, gulf,
      Nol ia [Etym], S (*yaga) 'void, abyss' [appx]; 'The Black Chasm'; later name for D Khazad-dûm
Moriquendi     Q; see mor dark [appx], Q (*mori) more black [Etym]; see also KWET- (and PET-) say, Q
      q(u)enta [Etym], blended with KWEN(ED)- Elf, Q q(u)ende [Etym]; final -i forms a Q plur: 'speakers',
      i.e. Elves [Etym]; 'Elves of the Darkness' or Dark Elves, because they never saw the light of the Two
Mormegil    S; mor(n)- see previous; see also MAK- sword, Q makil sword, Nol magol, megil [Etym];
      'The Black Sword'; see Gurthang
Morwen     S; mor dark [appx]; see also wen maiden [appx]; 'Dark (-haired) Maiden'; also Eledhwen,
      translated in the text as 'EIfsheen' [ÉLED- 'Star-folk', Elf, Nol Eledh (Etym) + wen 'maiden' (appx),
      although GWEN- freshness, Q (?and Dor: see Duilwen) wen youth (Etym)] seems to be implied;
      the last element has a M cognate: Welsh gwen (-wen), feminine form of gwyn 'white, pure', Gaelic
      fionn, Old Irish find, Gaulish vindo-; a Lady of the Adan
[-moth     see 'the problem with moth' in the Supplemental Appendix; see Nan Elmoth (below)]
      [in progress]
Mountain of Fire     see Orodruin
Mountains:     of Aman, see Pelóri; of the East, see Orocarni; of Iron, see Ered Engrin; of Mist, see
      Hithaeglir; of Shadow, see Ered Wethrin and Ephel Dúath; of Terror, see Ered Gorgoroth
Mount Doom     see Amon Amarth
Music of the Ainur     see Ainulindalë

Nahar     Q; apparently the name is onomatopoeia; the horse of Oromë, named on account of his voice;
      the -ar ending indicates a Q plur; the word is a Q adaptation of Oromë's answer when the newly
      awakened Quendi asked him the name of his horse; he spoke the Valarin word næxærra 'the sound
      of his voice when he is eager to run'; it may be the Nol stem YUR- run, ON yurine I run, Nol iôr
      course [Etym] is related to this Valarin source; Valarin naxar 'circle' is apparently unrelated
Námo     Q; a root has been published in Tolkien's late notes - NDAB judge, with Q form nave [verb; in
      one place neme], Q namna statute; this would seem to relate to NDAM- ... Q namba hammer [Etym] -
      in the same sense as a gavel: finality; -mo is an old Q suffix similar to - 'person' [see Manwë; also
      see 'the problem with moth' in the Supplemental Appendix]; 'Ordainer', 'Judge'; A Vala; the true name
      of Mandos, which is the name of his domain; Námo collected the souls of the dead; along with Irmo,
      known as the Fëanturi - 'Masters of Spirits' [fëa spirit (appx; see Fëanor; fëan- possessive form) +
      tur mastery (appx) + -i Q plural suffix], since both were the Lords of 'retreats', the gardens of Irmo to
      dream, the halls of Mandos to rest
Nandor     Q; see NDAN- back, Q nan- (prefix) backwards [Etym; denotes negative action]; in Q the
      ending is not from NDOR- dwell, stay, which would yield nóre land, people, Nol dor [Etym], but
      rather from the Q agental ending -(d)o and the plural -r - 'those who turned back'; one might think
      there is a hint of anna 'gift' [ANA¹- to, Q anna gift (Etym)], since they 'gave back' the gift of
      experiencing the blessedness of Aman; those Elves who refused to cross the Misty Mountains on
      the westward journey from Cuiviénen and 'turned back'; includes the Green-elves; also [Nol] Danas
Nan Dungortheb     S; see NAD-, Nol nann wide grassland [Etym], nan(d) 'valley [appx]; see also DUN-
      dark (of colour), Dor dunn black [Etym]; also see ÑGÓROTH- horror, Dor ngorthin horrible [Etym;
      the adjectival ending -in was subsequently changed to -ebø]; ÑGUR- death [Etym], S gurth [appx],
      must be implied by (n)gorth-; 'Valley of Dreadful Death', where the spawn of Ungoliant built thick
              ø apparently as an intensive suffix, related to KWA(T)- full [Etym]; Q -inqua (?< *ikwa; ?I-
              intensive prefix |Etym| + *KWA 'complete') > Telerin -ipa > S -eb (Q kw > Telerin p > S b)
Nan Elmoth     S; see nan(d) valley, dell [appx]; also see êl, elen star [appx]; see also moth dusk [appx;
      the source of moth as 'dusk' cannot be positively traced; in the early Qenya Lexicon [not available to
      this author] is a root MAS? which may have led to 'Gnomish' math 'dusk' - later obsoleted; this base
      element does not appear in Etym, although a recently published addenda does offer MAS- 'soft',
      which could apply to the soft light and shadow of dusk, but it was never developed and thus leaves
      questions of Tolkien's intent in the matter [see 'the problem with moth' in the Supplemental
      Appendix]; in one context 'starlit mist' is associated with the name of this woody glen where Elwë
      Thingol was mesmerised by the Maia, Melian, when the world was young [see the Gallery]; 'Glades
      of Star-dusk'; an enchanted forest
Nan-tathren     S; see NAD- watered plain, Nol nand, nann wide grassland, valley [Etym]; see also
      TATHAR- willow-tree, Nol adjective tathren 'willow-y' [Etym]; 'Willow-vale', 'the Land of Willows';
      at the confluence of the river Narog with the Sirion
Nargothrond     S; see [River] Narog below; see also OS- round, Nol ost, othrond fortification [Etym];
      -rond is from a stem RONO arch over, S rond [not in Etym; however the stem RONO arises between
      ROD- cave (Etym) and GOND- stone (Etym); the element originally occured under ROD-, Nol
      rhauð, Ilk rond hollow out, domed roof (Etym)]; Nar(o)g-oth-rond - 'the fortress excavations of the
      Narog'; founded by Finrod Felagund
Narn i Hîn Húrin     S; see NAR²- relate, Nol narn tale, saga (Q nyarna) [Etym; narn denotes a tale in
      verse, to be spoken, not sung]; -i(n)- indicates a genitive article; see also híni children [appx; the
      source of this element is a stem KHIN child, Q hína, S -hin, plur -hini (combining forms only), hên,
      plur hîn (poetic forms); not in Etym; Christopher Tolkien states that the third word is properly Chîn
      in S, but he modified it to prevent the obvious English association with 'chin']; 'The Tale of the
      Children of Húrin'; see Húrin
Narog     S; see NÁRAK- tear, rushing, Nol narog [Etym; the -og ending may be more than a dialectal
      accommodation of -ak, acting to make the verbal stem a partitive noun: a single entity]; the -rog
      ending is reminiscent of the element 'demon' in Balrog, and may be implied in order to augment the
      idea of 'rampaging'; 'Torrent'; the major river of West Beleriand
Narsil     S; see nár fire, (a)nar sun [appx]; see also sil- 'shine (with white or silver light)' - the moon
      [appx]; the name is symbolic of the two celestial lights as dispelling darkness; sword of Elendil;
      reforged for Aragorn as Andúril; see LOTR Dictionary
Narsilion     S; see nár fire, (a)nar sun [appx]; see also sil- 'shine (with white or silver light)' - the moon
      [appx]; also see lin-² sing [appx; -ion denotes a genitive case: 'song of']; 'The Song of the Sun and
Narya     Q [adopted into S]; see NAR¹- flame, Q narwa fiery red [Etym]; the -ya suffix denotes a Q
      adjectival suffix; the ending - when used in Sindarin - may have implied WAY- enfold, *waya
      envelope [Etym], ?S uia-, and YAG- gape, gulf, Nol ia [Etym] - as a ring 'encloses' the finger; the
      element appears in S as void - as enclosing the Earth [appx], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm
      [appx], and iâth fence - as an enclosure [appx]; in the older lexicons -ya is identified as meaning
      'entwined'; the 'Ring of Fire' or 'Red Ring'; see Rings of Power
Nauglamir     S; see naug dwarf [appx], from NAUK- [?> NÁWAK] dwarf [stunted, lacking], Dor naugol
      (naugl-) [Etym; Tolkien may have subsequently changed this stem to NUKU, S verb nuitha
      truncate, S adjective naug(l), nog-]; the -a- adds a Dor genitive form; see also mîr jewel [appx;
      expanded here to include jewelry]; 'The Necklace of the Dwarves'; contained one of the Silmarils
Naugrim     S; naug- see previous; see also rim host, people [appx]; 'The Stunted People', S name for
      the Dwarves
Nazgûl    Black Speech [but adopted into S];  'Ring-wraith'; Robert Foster's Complete Guide To Middle
      Earth attributes this name to the Black Speech thus: nazg = ring, and gûl = wraith; it is said that
      Black Speech could relate to pre-Elven [Valarin; see Máhanaxar (above)], thus have relation to
      early Q; also see NOWO- think, Q nause imagination [Etym; as in 'spectre'], and NAT- weave, Q
      natse web, net [Etym; as in 'sorcery'], likewise NUT- bind, Q nauta bound [Etym; as to 'entrance,
      enthrall']; see also S gûl sorcery [appx], from NGOL- wisdom, Nol gûl magic [it may have merged
      with a precursor of KUL- golden- red, Q kulda 'flame-coloured' (Etym) in this instance of Black
      Speech (note: Valarin tul yellow {?gold})]; in Q the Úlairi; 'Phantom Slaves (Flames) of Sorcery';
      see Ring-wraiths; see LOTR Dictionary
Necklace of the Dwarves     see Nauglamir
Neithan     S; [?Anglo Saxon nyðan, neoð-an beneath (lowly); ?Old Norse neitan denying]; the first
      element is likely from NEI- tear [Etym], or NAY- lament, Nol naeth biting [Etym]; there is a S term
      eitha 'to insult, treat with scorn' [(primitive, formative) *ek-ta > EK- spear (Etym; 'point', but
      associated with an ancient root HEK 'removed, {left} out' - not in Etym) + ta stab (?related to TAK-
      fasten, pin, N taes - Etym) = 'prick with a point', (figuratively) 'treat with scorn'], -than is an agental
      suffix in S, as attested in Tolkien's late notes: Amarthan 'Fated One' < amarth 'fate'; the text
      translates the name as 'The Wronged' (literally 'one who is deprived'); name Túrin gave to himself
Neldoreth     S; see neldor beech [appx; NEL-, NÉL-ED- three (Etym) + ORO- high ... ÓR-NI- high tree,
      Dor orn]; -eth is a Dor genitive suffix: 'tree of three', named for the great beech tree of Doriath with
      three trunks (Etym)]; -eth is also a suffix of uncertain origin used at times to mean 'forest', perhaps a
      variation of -ath, a S collective plural [see Argonath]; a great beech-forest; also Taur-na-Neldor
Nénar     Q; see NEN- Q nén water [Etym]; see also nár fire, flame [appx] - 'Water and Fire'; a star; said
      in one place to likely be the planet Uranus, 'water' may denote a bluish-green color
Nen Girith     S; see nen water [appx]; see also girith shuddering [appx; from GIR- shudder (Etym)];
      the -ith element forms a noun from a participial verb form [gerund], although here it is used
      adjectivally; 'Shuddering Water'; a water fall; see Dimrost
Nenning     S; nen- see previous; the somewhat odd construction would be tempting to attribute to the
      dialect of the Falas, except Tolkien once proposed to use the name in the LOTR; the final element
      may derive from NIN-DI- thin, slender, Nol ninn [Etym] - 'Slender Rill', but it seems unlikely; perhaps
      the name simply means 'River of Ing', referring to Inglor, an early Elf-leader of the area; most likely
      the final element derives from ING- first, foremost [Etym; there is no other example of this element
      being used as a final syllable], since this stream would be the first encountered when approaching
      the Falas from the Elven kingdoms of Nargothrond and Doriath; 'First Water'; a river of Beleriand
Nenuial     S; nen- see previous; see also uial twilight [appx; from YU- two, Nol ui- twi-, uial twilight
      (Etym; ui- + KAL- shine - Etym )]; 'Lake of Twilight', by the city of Annúminas
Nenya     Q [adopted into S]; see nen water [appx]; the -ya suffix denotes a Q adjectival suffix; the
      ending - when used in Sindarin - may have implied WAY- enfold, *waya envelope [Etym], ?S uia-,
      and YAG- gape, gulf, Nol ia [Etym] - as a ring 'encloses' the finger; the element appears in S as
      void - as enclosing the Earth [appx], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm [appx], and iâth fence - as
      an enclosure [appx]; in the older lexicons -ya is identified as meaning 'entwined'; Nenya was made
      with mithril [see LOTR Dictionary]; the 'Ring of Water'; also the [White] 'Ring of Adamant'
      [diamond]; see Rings of Power
Nerdanel     ?ON; the name, while appearing straightforward, is problematical; the obvious etymology
      would be DER- man, Q nér [Etym] + NDAN- back, Q nan contrarywards, [Etym], ON dan (presumed)
      + EL- star, and by extension 'Elf' [Etym; -iel is a feminine suffix and may be implied] - note the mixture
      of Q and Nol forms; 'Man-contrary Elf' or simply 'Independent Female Elf' [a prophetic name at birth,
      foretelling her estrangement from her husband, Fëanor, and her refusal to leave Valinor with the
      exiled Noldor]; the first element may imply NAR¹- flame, fiery red [Etym; in a recently published
      addenda the word nerwing 'Red foaming waters' is noted in the margin, implying that ner- 'red' is a
      valid initial element (in Nol)], given her reputation for red hair; in late published material an editor
      notes a stem nerd-, [Q] nerdo 'large strong man'; this would surely relate to a base *NERE 'physical
      strength, valour' [not in Etym, but related to NDER- 'man', an extended form of DER- (above)]; such
      an element would seem to reinforce the idea that Nerdanel was strong of mind, will and body; called
      'the Wise' [Q and ON (apparently rejected) Istarnië: IS- Q ista- to know, ista knowledge (Etym) + Q
      plur ending -r (?much knowledge, knowledgeable; see Istari 'Wizards') + Q dative ending -n + old Q
      feminine ending - (see Valier); TA-, TA3- high, noble, Q and ON tára (Etym) may be implied; 'High
      Lady of Great Wisdom']; wife of Fëanor
Nessa     Q; see NETH- young, Q Nessa [Etym] - 'the Young'; also 'Ever-maid'; however, in one place the
      name is said not to be Elvish, but that note is appended to say it is a Q feminine adjectival form
      combining NER- man [Etym] + feminine suffix -issë, indicating man-like strength and vigour; perhaps
      'Verdant', as bursting with life in Spring [the Valarin word ezel means 'green' (verdant); perhaps more
      germaine is Valarin îniðil 'flower' or 'lily', where the element niði could imply 'blossom' or 'purity' and
      relate to NETH- young]; a related form would be ESE-, ESET- Q esta first, esse beginning (youth)
      [Etym]; also perhaps NAS- point, Q nasse thorn [Etym]; one of the Valier
Nevrast     ?S [see Nivrim (below)]; the name was changed from Nivrost 'West-dales', and so it appears
      in Etym under NIB- face, Nol nîf, Dor nef face, nivra- to face [Etym; a recently published addenda
      includes (Nol) nef (= nev)] + ROS²-, Dor rost plain (between mountains) [Etym], since this region
      'faced' the Great Sea [Belegaer] to the West; all map orientation was facing West, not North; the
      etymology was changed to what appears to be ros foam, spray [appx] except this form does not
      produce -rast, which appears to relate to KHARÁS- precipice, wall, N rhass [Etym]; perhaps the S
      changed the final sound to -t to separate it from ras 'horn', Caradhras 'Redhorn' [appx]; 'Hither
      Shore'; originally all the western coast of Middle-earth [the opposite being Haerast 'the Far Shore' -
      the coast of Aman (KHAYA- far, distant, Q haira, N hae {Etym})]
Nienna     Q; see NEI- Q nie tear [Etym]; -na forms an ancient adjectival ending - 'tearful', 'Mourning';
      still, the last element could imply ANA¹- Q anna [Etym], as the 'gift' of her tears brought healing for
      mourning, and thus compassion; a related stem is NEN- Q nén water [Etym], also NAN- mother
      [Etym], as well NAY- lament [Etym]; also to be considered is NDEW- follow, come behind, Q neuna
      [Etym], because she came after grief to bring healing; a Valier, Lady of pity and mourning; also Fui
      Nienna 'tears of night' (although one text says 'Death-goddess') [PHUY- Q fui night - Etym; fuin
      'gloom' (appx)]; also called 'Queen of Shadow'
Nienor    ?Q; sometimes written Niënor; nie- see previous; by Etym -nor is a Nol derivative of NAY-
      lament, Nol (adjective) noer sad; however nie is stated under NEI- to be Q, the Nol being nîr, nîn,
      nîd; if the name is Q [which Túrin used predominantly] - and presuming that the nie element follows
      the older lexicons and is extended to nien- [*neine (Etym)] - the final -o could be pronominal 'she' -
      'she of tears', and the -r would be a plur suffix: 'tears'; however, the text defines the name as
      'Mourning', not 'Mourner'; a Lady of the Adan, and the ill-fated daughter of Húrin
Nimbrethil     S; see nim white [appx; see niphredil (below) for origin]; also see brethil birch [appx; see
      Brethil]; 'Birch-woods', in the south of Beleriand
Nimloth¹     S; nim- see previous; see also loth flower, blossom [appx]; the White Tree of Númenor;
      Nimloth is the S form of Q Ninquelótë
Nimloth²     S; same derivation as previous; Elf Princess of Doriath
Nimphelos     S; see nim white [appx; see Niphredil ... nimp pale white]; see also KWEL- fade, Nol bel-
      [Etym], S p(h)el; also see los 'snow, snow-white' [appx]; 'White Faded-white'; pel- go round [appx]
      and OS- round may be implied - 'Pale-white Orb'; a great pearl
Níniel     S; see NEI- tear, Nol nîn teardrop [Etym]; -iel is a feminine ending derived from YEL- daughter,
      Nol iell, -iel [Etym]; 'Tear-maiden'; see Nienor
Ninquelótë     Q; see NIK-W- Q ninqe white [Etym]; see also LOT(H) Q lóte flower [Etym]; 'White
      Blossom'; a name of the White Tree of Telperion; S: Nimloth¹
niphredil     S; the name means 'snowdrop'; see NIK-W- snow, white, Q niqe snow, ninqe white, Nol
      nimp (nim) pale [white], nifred pallor, fear, nifredil snowdrop [Etym; Q kw > Nol mp, Telerin p > S f,
      phø; nim(p) is the source of S nim white in appx]; (ph)red- is problematical [niph = 'white' + red =
      'pale'; nifred = 'pallor' ('pale-white')]; perhaps the second element is simply from RED- scatter, Nol
      rheði to sow [Etym]; to sow white in one's face is to pale in 'pallor'; as likely is that -(r)ed is an
      abstract suffix [English: -ness] in S forming nouns from other word-forms [see Q Amarië]; also see
      til point, S -dil [appx] - 'paleness with point' or 'snowdrop'; some analysts believe rather that -il is a
      diminutive suffix - 'small paled-white' - which would probably better describe a snowdrop blossom,
      especially as small scattered flowers; it may be that RIL- glitter, 'brilliance' [Etym], and sil- (variant
      thil-) 'shine with white or silver light' [appx] are implied, as Tolkien said that these flowers had no
      equal in our modern world; a luminous white flower of Doriath and Lothlórien
              ø this sort of morphology occurs in Celtic and related tongues; for example, Latin equus 'horse'
          points to Celtic *ekwo-s, Gaulish epo-, *ekvo-s; the Anglo-Saxon is eoh, Welsh eb-, ep-, ebol
          'colt', Breton ebeul, Old Irish ech, Gaelic, Irish each 'a horse' and Gothic aihva-; similarly, Gaulish
          *dub-ro- 'deep' relates to Early Irish dobur, Welsh dwfr, Breton dour, Germanic tümpel
Nirnaeth Arnoediad     S; see NEI- tear, Nol nîr [Etym]; see also NAY- lament, Nol nae, noer sad [Etym;
      naeth is a combining form with NAK- bite, Nol naeth (nae + nakt-) biting (Etym)]; also see AR²-
      outside, Nol ar- without [Etym]; see NOT- reckon, Nol nod-, noedia to count [Etym; the change to
      -oe- is apparently due to the verbal -ia ending; in 'Nol' NOT- blends with NUT- tie (Etym) to form
      nod- to count up; the -ad ending forms a verbal noun (gerund) 'reckoning' (see Mereth Aderthad
      above)]; '[Battle of] Bitter-tears Beyond Counting', or '[Battle of] Tears Unnumbered'; fifth of the
      Wars of Beleriand
Nivrim     S [Dor]; see NIB- face, Dor nef face, nivra- to face, nivon west [Etym; because map
      orientation faced West, not North]; see also RI- border, Dor rim [Etym]; this term is obviously
      Doriathrin, which suggests that the term Nevrast (above) could be dialectal, perhaps from the
      tongue of the Falas, or perhaps 'Exilic' Nol - i.e.: unique to Turgon's people [also see ~ Nibin (next)];
      'West-march'; western part of Doriath
Noegyth Nibin     S [Dor]; see NAUK- [?> NÁWAK] dwarf, Nol naug , nog- [Etym], S naug 'dwarf', also
      nogoth, plur noegyth [appx], all from *NUKU 'stunted', adjective *nauka, S naug, nog-; nogoth ?<
      *nukotto 'a stunted person' [-o is an ancient masculine agental ending: 'a thing' or 'person'; the
      derivation of the whole -(o)tto ending is uncertain but the complete element could indicate a
      diminutive condition (e.g.: {Q} rotto = 'a small rot' or cave)]; the second word derives from NIB-
      face, front, Dor nivra- go forward, nivon west [Etym; see Nevrast and Nivrim (above); these forms
      are somewhat confused, perhaps partly due to dialectal change, but also perhaps due to the
      following letter: nevr-, nivr- but nibe-, nibi-]; -en is an adjectival suffix in S, but may be used here as
      a participial noun/adjective [gerund]: 'gone forth' [-in would be the plural adjectival form, used here
      to agree with Noegyth]; 'gone-forth Dwarves', because they had left the mountain halls of East
      Beleriand and settled on flat ground; 'Dwarves of the West' or 'Petty-dwarves' [petty because they
      were a small group estranged from the main Dwarvish population]; also Nibin-noeg [same
Nogrod     S; see NAUK- dwarf, Nol naug, nog [Etym]; also see groth (grod) underground dwelling
      [appx; see Menegroth above]; 'Dwarf-City'; S for D Tumunzahar; see Hollowbold
Noldolantë     Q; see NGOL- wise, Q noldo the Noldor [Etym; see next]; see also DAT-, DANT- fall
      down, Q lanta a fall [Etym]; in Q -ë suffix can form a genitive article - 'of the'; 'The Fall of the
      Noldor'; a tale of lament
Noldor     Q; Q Noldo [Q agental -o + -r (plur)], S Golodh, from ÑGOL- wise ... ÑGÓLOD-, Q ñoldo
      'one who is wise' [Etym]; 'the Wise'; also the 'Deep Elves' [Q: Nurqendi; NU- below, Q núra deep
      (Etym), and quen- (quet-) 'speak', in Quendi Elves (appx) - 'speakers']
Nóm, Nómin     M; Anglo Saxon nom-, niman 'obtain, comprehend'; Old English cnawan 'know'; the
      word is probably in a tongue Tolkien called 'Taliska', for which the inspiration is uncertain [?Latin
      talis 'of such a kind', 'special kind', related to Greek telamon 'supporter, bearer' (a strap) - root *tal,
      *tel, 'take, lift']; the word could relate to NOWO- think, form idea, imagine [Etym]; it is a bit of a play
      on words for Tolkien, who originally named the Noldor [above] Gnomes [Greek gnomon 'one who
      knows']; Nóm = 'Wisdom' and Nómin = 'the Wise', M names given  to Finrod and his people
Nulukkizdîn     D name of Nargothrond - 'fortress caves of the River Narog'
Númenor     Q; [In full Quenya form Númenórë - -ë forms a genitive case in Q]; see NDU- go down,
      set of Sun, Q númen west [Q form blended with NU- Q nún down below + MEN- Q men place; Etym];
      see also NDOR- dwell, Q nóre land [blended and confused with a quite distinct word nórë (NO-
      beget - Etym) meaning 'people'; Etym]; 'Westernesse', 'Westland'; a great island in the Western Sea
      created for the Edain; also Anadûnê, Elenna, and after its downfall Akallabêth, Atalantë, and
Númenóreans     anglicized form; those of Númenor; also Dúnedain
Nurtalë Valinóreva     Q; see NU- underneath ... [NUR (not detailed in Etym)] Q núra deep [Etym];
      perhaps the first element is better assigned to ÑGUR- die [Etym], which stem could likely be
      extended to ÑGUR-T- [ON *ngurtu (Etym)], which could produce *ñurta- in (Old) Q; the sense
      would be that 'to die' is 'to disappear' from worldly affairs; it has also been proposed that NU- /
      NUR was combined with perhaps TEL-, TELU- hood, covering, Q telta- to overshadow, telu- sky
      dome [Etym] to create a stem NURTA to hide, Q nurtala hiding; - can form a verbal noun [gerund]
      in Q: 'the hiding'; in Q the -eva suffix after Valinor may imply the Q -ë genitive suffix, but it is more
      directly apparently related to AWA- away, Q ava outside [Etym]; it is a special privative form that
      denotes the noun acted upon by the preceding verb form as a result - [hiding of] Valinor - the
      Valinor that was, that has now been 'changed' exclusively in some way; 'The Hiding of Valinor'

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