*** The  S I L M A R I L L I O N   Index***
~ ~
D i c t i o n a r y
* O - Y *

appx =     Appendix [Silmarillion - Elvish roots]
D =          Dwarvish
Dor =      Doriathrin
Etym =    The Etymologies
Ilk =        Ilkorin [see Dark Elves]
M =        Men, Mannish
N =         Númenórean, Adûnaic
Nol =      Noldorin
ON =      Old Noldorin
plur =     plural
Q =         Quenyan [High Elven]
S =          Sindarin
LOTR =   Lord of the Rings Dictionary

Roots in BOLD TYPE CAPITALS refer to listing in The Etymologies section, The Lost Road,
       J.R.R. Tolkien, Del Rey Books, ©1987  -- bracketed [Etym]
Roots in bold small type refer to listing in The Silmarillion, Appendix, J.R.R. Tolkien and Christopher
      Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Company, ©1977 -- bracketed [appx]
Words of the languages of the Rohirrim, Hobbits and Common Speech are traced to possible roots in the
      ancient Elven tongue, although there is no authority for confirming such a derivation; the terms are
      derived from ancient English, especially Anglo Saxon


Ohtar     Q; see OKTA- Q ohta war [Etym] and KOT- [> KOTH-] strive, Q ohta war [Etym]; while -r
      normally indicates a Q plural, here probably the intent is tar- high, noble [appx]; in one source it is
      explained that the name is more of a title for those who, while being experienced at battles, had not
      yet achieved the title of 'knight'; '[Noble] Warrior', esquire of Isildur
Oiolossë     Q; see OY- Q oi ever [Etym]; see also GOLÓS- Q olosse snow, (poetic) snow-white [Etym];
      'Ever-snow-white'; common name for Taniquetil; S Amon Uilos [the Sindar had not seen the
      Undying Lands]
Oiomúrë     Q; oio- see previous, Q oia everlasting; the last element could be derived from a root in the
      older lexicons: MURU 'to slumber'; however, it seems more likley related to MOR- black, but in its
      meaning of 'obscurity, dimness'; the Ilk form is muri-, but there is no similar Q form [Etym; this
      analysis may conflict with what appears to be the same element in Ulumúri (below)]; perhaps this
      element results from a blending of MOR- and MUY- Q muina hidden, vagueness [Etym];
      'everlasting veil'; a region of mists near the Helcaraxë
Olórin     Q; A Maia, one of the Istari (Wizards); see Mithrandir; also Gandalf; 'enabler', 'counselor';
      for etymology see LOTR Dictionary
olvar     Q; probably related to GÓLOB- branch, Q olwa [Etym; -r forms a Q plur; -va was an ancient Q
      adjectival suffix, supposedly made plural as -ve (archaic -vai), but perhaps -r is used as a 'class'
      plural]; 'branches' (?or 'roots' as branched); related could be GAWA- [or GOWO-] devise, aule
      invention [Etym; a name of one of the Vala]; the second element could imply BAR- raise [Etym] in
      the sense of 'raised up'; a cosmological concept - 'growing things with roots in the earth'; see next
      and see kelvar
Olwë     Q; the first element is an 'abstract' stem [OL], considered primeval and without translation;
      perhaps it is related to GÓLOB- branch, Q olwa [Etym; see previous] in the sense of 'brother', Olwë
      being leader of the Teleri with his brother Elwë [Thingol]; OL may also relate to the name of the Vala
      Aule invention, from GAWA- contrive [Etym]; also see WEG- vigour, Q vie manhood, masculine
      suffix taking Q and Nol form -we [Etym], generally used agentally, often to a person of rank
Ondolindë     Q; see gond stone, Q ondo [appx; initial 'g' does not occur in Q]; see also LIN²- sing, Q
      linde [Etym; the form was often blended with LIND- fair (Etym)]; 'Stone Song' or '[Fair] Singing
      Stone'; Q name of S Gondolin
Orcs     see LOTR Dictionary
Orfalch Echor     S [?dialectal]; see ORO- rise, high, Nol or, or- [Etym]; -falch is from the older lexicons,
      a derivation of FLKL Q falqa 'cleft, mountain pass, ravine', (Nol) falc gash, ravine ['much the same
      as cris (KIRÍS- cut)'; its retention here is a bit odd, as it appears to conflict with PHAL- foam (also
      SPAL-; Etym); it could well be a dialectal variant, perhaps 'Northern Sindarin'; related stems could
      be KWAL- agony (Etym) and ÑGWAL- torment (Etym) - in the sense of 'severe']; in the dialect
      pehaps SKAL¹- 'hide' [Etym] was implied; also see echor encircling [appx; see Echoriath]; 'Steep
      Cleft of the Echor'; a great deep narrow ravine that naturally guarded the approach to the hidden
      city of Gondolin
Ormal     Q; oro- see previous; see also mal- gold [appx]; one of two tall lantern-posts, one with golden
      light, one with silver; 'Lofty Gold'; in almost every ancient cosmology, the sun is identified with gold
      and the moon with silver, for obvious reasons; these primeval lights were destroyed by Melkor; see
Orocarni     Q; see ORO- rise ... ÓROT- mountain, Q oron, N orod [Etym]; in this primitive sense, oro-
      also refers to Q óre rising, referring to the rising sun or 'East'; see also caran red, Q carnë [appx];
      the -i forms a Q plural; 'the Red Mountains'; eastern-most mountains of Middle Earth in its most
      primitive age; the name is subsequently lost
Orodreth     S adaptation of Q Artaresto [ar(a)- royal, arat- eminence (S rod; appx) + tar- 'high' (appx) +
      ESE-, ESET- precede, Q esta first (Etym; -o masculine pronominal suffix) = 'His Most Royal
      Highness']; adapted to S as Rodreth, which is a bit nonsensical, but altered to Orodreth [orod- see
      previous] because of his love of the mountains; the -reth suffix in S may have been blended with
      ERE- alone [Etym], given in the older lexicons as ereth solitude, in the sense of his high regal
      position; son of Finarfin
Orodruin     S; 'Mountain of Blazing Fire'; called also Amon Amarth 'Mount Doom'; forge of the Ruling
      Ring; for etymology of Orodruin see LOTR Dictionary; see Gallery
Oromë     Q adaptation of Valarin Aromez [although the -o- is described as an 'open' -a-]; see OROM-
      and RÓM- horn blast [Etym]; implied is ORO- rise, high [Etym], denoting not only 'high, noble', but
      also the rising sun - the 'East', also OM- Q óma voice [Etym], because of the sounding of his horns,
      and because he helped the awakened Elves with speech; in the S version of the name - Araw -
      RAW- lion [Etym] is implied, as Oromë was a great hunter, and his horn 'roared' across the new
      lands of Middle Earth; similarly RAB- wild, Nol rhaw [Etym] seems implied; 'Horn-blowing' or
      'Sound of Horns', although one suspects also 'Chanticleer'; also known [in S] as Aran Tauron 'King
      Forester' [ar(a)- high, S aran king (appx) + taur forest (appx); -ron is an agental suffix: 'one who is'
      or 'one who does']; M Béma, probably related to Welsh bêm, German Baum 'tree'; A Vala; leader of
      the Elves from Cuiviénen; see Valaróma; see Gallery
Oromet     Q; see ORO- rise, high [Etym]; see also MET- end, point [Etym; in Etym the Q form is mente,
      but the form met is found, for example in The Calendars of Appendix D to LOTR in the Q name
      mettarë for the last day of the year; still, its usage here as a final element is singular in Q]; 'End
      Point'; a tower-hill in western-most Númenor
Orthanc     S; 'Forked Height'; tower of Isengard; see LOTR Dictionary
Osgiliath     S; see os(t) fortress [appx]; see also gil star, giliath 'host of stars' [appx]; -ath is a S
      collective plural [see Argonath]; 'Fortress of the Stars' [also see Elostirion]; a city of ancient
      Gondor that spanned the river Anduin; see Gallery
Ossë     Q adaptation of Valarin Ososai 'foaming' [older Quenya Lexicon: solossë 'surf, surge' (see SOL-
      surf - Etym), (Nol) thloss, floss 'breaker' (see PHAL-, PHÁLAS- foam, surf - Etym)]; the name is
      often mentioned in the phrase 'the wrath of Ossë', which implies violent surf and great waves; in
      Etym the name derives from GOS-, GOTH- dread, Q osse terror, Nol gost, goth [Etym], as Ossë was
      noted for his fierce anger; however, in his notes Tolkien gives the S form as Gaerys, from GÁYAS-
      fear, Nol gaer dreadful [Etym], S adjective gaira fearful [the -ys ending may be a S accommodation
      of Ossë > Yssi]; Gaerys relates to AY- ... AYAR- sea, Nol oear [Etym], S (g)aear [because they
      beheld the sea with awe; see Belegaer]; a Maia, aide to Ulmo; instructor of the Teleri, who loved
      the sea all the more because of him; see  Gallery
Ossiriand     S; see OT- seven [Etym], S ot, os [in subsequent Tolkien notes]; see also sîr river [appx];
      -i- denotes a possessive; also see LAD- Q landa wide, plain [Etym; the -l- becomes a syncope in
      complex combinations]; 'Land of Seven Rivers'; eastern reaches of Beleriand beneath the Ered Luin;
      the seven rivers were Gelion and its six tributaries: Adurant, Duilwen, Brilthor, Legolin, Thalos and
      Ascar; after the drastic earth-changes following the defeat of Morgoth at the end of the First Age,
      the region remaining above the waves became known as Lindon
Ost-in-Edhil     S; see os(t) fortress [appx]; -in- is a genitive article [see I- ... Nol i- 'the', plural in or i-
      (Etym)]; see also edhel elf [appx], plur edhil; 'Fortress of the Eldar'; a city of Eregion
Outer Sea     see Ekkaia

Palantíri     Q; 'Watch from afar', 'far-seeing'; see LOTR Dictionary
Pelargir     S; 'Garth of Royal Ships'; haven above the delta of Anduin; see LOTR Dictionary
Pelóri     Q; see pel- go round, encircle, and by implication 'fence' [appx]; see also ORO- high, Q óre
      rising [Etym]; -i forms a plural in Q; 'The fencing or defensive heights'; also 'the Mountains of Aman'
Periannath     S; The Halflings (Hobbits); see LOTR Dictionary
Petty-dwarves     translation of Noegyth Nibin

Quendi     Q; see KWEN(ED)- Elf and KWET- (and PET-) say [Etym], associated with PEG- mouth
      [Etym] and PHIN- nimbleness, skill [Etym]; see also quen- (quet-) say, speak [appx]; the -i forms a
      plural; 'Those that speak with voices'; initial Elvish name for themselves
Quenta Silmarillion     Q; see KWET- say, Q qenta tale [Etym]; see also Silmarils; the final elements -li
      and -ion derive from LI- many [Etym; used for plurals], with -ion as a genitive plural; 'The History of
      the Silmarils'
Quenya     Q; quen- see previous forms; the ending -ya forms an adjective in Q ['Elvish'], but here could
      also hint at YA- of time, ago, Q formerly, of old [Etym]; 'the ancient tongue'; also called Eldarin or

Radagast     M; 'Wise Messenger'; one of the Istari (Wizards); see LOTR Dictionary
Radhruin     ?S or M; Anglo Saxon (h)raðe quick, hasty; see RAD- back, east, Dor radh- east [Etym;
      'back' and 'East' because normal map orientation was facing West]; also see ROY²- red, Nol gruin
      [Etym]; see also ruin red flame [appx; from a stem not in Etym: RUN red, S ruin 'fiery' red, also S
      ross red (see following)]; in Eldarin, presumably 'Red Flame of the East'; Tolkien rendered the name
      originally as Radros [same etymology]; an Adan
Ragnor     ?S; the term seems to mirror an ancient Icelandic mythological term ragna rök, meaning
      roughly 'the fatal destiny of the gods'; in Scandanavian the name became 'Ragnar' and 'Ragnarok'
      [Old Norse regin > ragna 'of the gods']; see RAG- crooked [Etym] and RAK- reach, arm [Etym;
      Anglo Saxon ræcan reach, take]; see also NAR¹- flame, Nol naur, [Etym], (Q) nár 'fire', S naur, -nor
      [appx]; perhaps 'flaming arm' or 'fiery reach'; an Adan
Ramdal     S; see ram wall [appx; from RAMBA- wall, Nol rham (Etym)]; see also TAL- foot [Etym],
      often used for 'end, lower end', in association with DAL- flat [Etym], i.e.: where the end of the
      escarpment goes flat; 'Wall's End'; a long cliff-like fall that ran East-West through part of Beleriand;
      also Andram
Rána     Q; see RAN- wander, Q Rana Moon [Etym]; 'The Wanderer'; an early name of the Moon, given
      before it had a regular course across the heavens
Rathlóriel     S; see RAT- walk, Nol rath river bed [Etym]; see also (Q) laurë gold, S (g)lór [appx]; the
      -iel suffix is a bit problematical, but apparently is used here as a dative ending and/or a collective
      single indicating 'a group' [for example, the name in Beleriand for the 'first clan' of the Eldar was
      Miniel, plur Mínil (MINI- 'one, first'; Etym); the Noldor were once called the Goldriel (ÑGÓLOD-
      'the wise folk; Etym)]; 'Golden-bed' or 'Bed (for the) Gold'; another name for the river Ascar, given
      after King Thingol's wealth was submerged in the stream
Rauros     S; 'Roaring Spray'; great falls of the Anduin; see LOTR Dictionary
Red Ring, The     see Narya; see LOTR Dictionary; see Rings of Power
Region     S; see ereg thorn, holly [appx]; see also ERÉK- thorn, Dor regorn holly-tree, plur regin,
      genitive plur region '[land of] hollies' [Etym; the ending was apparently used expansively for a
      whole district]; forest region of southern Doriath
Rerir     M or S? a problematical form; ?Anglo Saxon ræran to elevate, begin - since it forms one bank
      of the mountain Lake Helevorn, part of the headwaters of the Gelion; the name occurs in old Norse
      legends as one of the demigod-heroes genre, but sheds no light on the current issue; most likely the
      name implies 'scattered'; described variously as 'outlier of the Ered Lindon' and 'about it many lesser
      heights stood out from the main range'; see RED- scatter, sow, Q rerin I sow [Etym], although the
      Nol seems to veer back to red-; Old Norse offers róa to row, pull (away), with verb forms reri, reyri,
      also reyrr heap of stones, cairn; Old Norse reyra means 'to fasten'; the older lexicons give a root
      RAHA 'arm', from which such stems as RAM- wing [Etym] and RAMBA- wall [Etym] derive; the
      Ered Lindon widen to the west at this point, and the 'arm' of Mt. Rerir forms a cul-de-sac with the
      main chain - open to the south - where lies Lake Helevorn; another tributary of this branch arises on
      the western slopes of Mt. Rerir
Rhovanion     ?S; the name would seem to relate to RO- rise, Nol †rhufen east [Etym]; -ion is used as a
      genitive plural suffix, apparently sometimes used expansively for a whole district - '(lands of) the
      east'; however, such an analysis would not lead to the English definition 'Wilderland'; the first
      element appears to relate to a term for the non-Elf Friends [non-Edain]: Q Hravani, or S Rhevain [Q
      hrávë flesh (?from hröa physical matter), S rhaw (see the Appendix to the Index in Morgoth's Ring)]
      = 'wild(men)'; this is supported by the stem RAB- wild, untamed, Q ráva, Nol rhaw wilderness
      [Etym; a recently published addendum to Etym adds to this entry: [=] rhofan, rhofannor (ravanda)];
      the early Common Eldarin base is taken to be *SRAWE 'flesh', which would produce Q hráv-, S
      rhaw-; it is surmised that S -aw- evolved to -au- and eventually to -o-, producing the form rho-; S
      -van [or -fan] is formed from a Q suffix -man [by softening of m > v - lenition], which seems to
      simply indicate 'being', although often referring to 'four-footed animals' - in keeping with 'wild'; the
      possible source of this element also appears in the updated notes to Etym, as BAN²-, related to
      BAN¹ ['fair'] & MAN; the Stem MAN- 'holy spirit, blessed' [Etym] is also expanded upon with a
      reference to BAN²- followed by an extended stem MANDA, which appears to relate to 'dread' and/
      or 'doom'; the intent seems to be that beasts were 'fair', but 'doomed' to short troubled lives [this
      terminology was possibly formed prior to the 'awakening' of men]; the text translates Rhovanion as
      'Wilderland': rhaw 'wild' + van 'four-footed beast' + -ion 'land'; the Old English was wildear,
      wilddeor, wilder = wild deer or 'wild beast' - 'Wilderland'; however, it seems likely that rhevain 'non-
      Edain' was understood because Rhovanion was the area where many of the mortal non-Elf Friends
      resided; also see LOTR Dictionary
Rhudaur     S? see RO- rise, Nol rhûn east [Etym]; see also TÁWAR- forest, Nol and Ilk [S] taur [Etym];
      -nt- > -d-; 'Eastern forest'; there is an ambiguity, however, to taur, which was blended with TA3-
      high [Etym] to form an element meaning 'mighty, huge', S -daur in combinations - thus possibly
      '(Large) Eastern Highlands'; forested region of Eriador in the foothills of the Misty Mountains
Rían     ?S or M; see RIG- Nol rhî crown, Rhian 'crown-gift' [Etym]; see also ANA¹- to, Nol ant gift
      [Etym]; rig-anna 'crown-gift'; perhaps as likely is Welsh rhiain, rhian 'maiden, Lady', from the
      Gaulish rix, Latin rex 'ruler'; perhaps even Anglo Saxon ryan, ryn [rynan] 'to roar, rage'; known as
      'Rían the sorrowful'; an Adan, mother of Tuor
Ringil     S; see ring cold [appx]; see also gil star [appx], from GIL- shine (white or pale) [Etym; from a
      base /NGIL 'silver glint' (probably /ÑGIL is intended)]; perhaps ril brilliance [appx], and sil- shine
      silver [appx] are implied; 'glitter like ice' or 'Cold Glint'; sword of Fingolfin
Ring of Doom     see Máhanaxar
Rings of Power     the One Ring; Three Rings of the Elves [see also Narya, the Ring of Fire, Nenya, the
      Ring of Adamant, and Vilya, the Ring of Sapphire]; Seven Rings of the Dwarves; Nine Rings of
      Men; see LOTR Dictionary; see Appendix A
Ringwil     S; see ring cold, chill [appx], Dor ring [Etym]; the last element could derive from WIL- fly,
      air, Nol gwil- [Etym]; 'cold air' or 'flying chill'; while this is somewhat unsatisfactory, the river is
      described as 'short and foaming' and 'tumbling', thus creating an impression of flying [and spraying]
      cold mountain water; perhaps 'Cold Spray'; contrarily, in the older lexicons gwîl is a 'Nol' word for
      'peace'; yet in some of Tolkien's oldest notes, wilwa meant 'flutter', and one wonders if such was in
      his thoughts here; a tributary of the river Narog; also see Rivil (below)
Ring-wraiths     see Nazgûl; see also Úlairi. see Appendix A; see LOTR Dictionary
Rivendell     translation of Imladris; see LOTR Dictionary; see Gallery
Rivil     S [perhaps dialectal]; see RIP- rush, Nol rhib- flow like a torrent [Etym], perhaps riv- in the
      dialect of Northern S; just as likely the first element could be associated with the Q word for 'winter':
      hrívë, for which the S cognate is rhîw; Northern S might follow the Q somewhat as riv-; the
      etymological source of these terms has not been established, but this author supects it could be
      related to GIR- shudder [Etym; i.e.: shiver from cold, fear, etc.], perhaps from a Common Eldarin
      stem such as *S-RIB 'to quiver', 'to chatter' or perhaps even 'to shatter'; while this river may have
      had a steep fall, it is said to derive from a single source, a 'well' [spring]; since the relatively short
      stream appears to describe the northern rim of the Echoriath where it towers over the western edge
      of the highland pines of Dorthonion, the first element may derive from RI- edge, Nol rhîf [Etym],
      Northern S riv [presumed]; the last element could derive from WIL- fly, also 'air', creating an
      impression of flying [and spraying] water; some have proposed -il as a diminutive suffix ['small' -
      certainly true of this stream], but is is not possible to confirm the idea conclusively; 'small seam
      (river)', 'little torrent' or 'fast and cold'; also Rivil's Well and Fen of Rivil; see Serech; also see
      Ringwill (above)
Rochallor     S; see roch horse [appx]; see also GALA- thrive, healthy, Nol galw, galo to grow [Etym];
      the -or ending can be ambiguous, but can generally be attributed to a somewhat agental intention
      [e.g.: KHAT- hurl, Nol hador thrower - Etym]; 'Spirited'; horse of Fingolfin
Rohan     S; 'The Horse-country'; later name of Calenardhon; see LOTR Dictionary
Rohirrim     S; 'The Horse-lords'; see LOTR Dictionary
Rómenna     Q; see rómen east [appx; from RO- rise (of the Sun; Etym) + MEN- Q ména region (Etym)];
      see also NA¹- towards, Q na [Etym]; 'Eastwards'; haven of Númenor
Rothinzil     N for Vingilot, with the same meaning, 'Foam-flower'
Rúmil     Q; in the older lexicons the name is attributed to a primeval stem RÛ(M) 'secret, mystery'; other
      older roots that impinge upon secret are FOHO 'conceal, hoard', FURU 'conceal, lie', and LOMO
      'gloom, shadow'; what distinguishes RÛ(M) is that it seems to refer to 'hidden wisdom', and
      produces for example rui 'whisper'; the subtlety becomes lost in the later Etymologies; in Anglo-
      Saxon rûn means 'secret' as well as 'counsel' and 'whisper', and also can refer to runic 'writing'; a
      rûnwita was a 'wise man'; the last element could relate to KHIL- follow, Q -hil- [Etym] - 'student of
      secret wisdom', or perhaps MIL-IK- Q milme, -mil- desire [Etym] - rûm + mil 'eager for mysteries'
      (although the element has a negative connotation); an ancient Noldorin Elf that created written
      characters, also recorded primeval histories, most likely including the Ainulindalë; apparently
      Rúmil never left Aman, and it was another Noldorin Loremaster, Pengolod [Pengoloð] that brought
      the annals of the earliest ages with the Exiles into Beleriand

Saeros     ?Silvan; there is likely a play on words involved; see SAY- know, Q saira- wise [Etym; the
      Silvan form cannot be known for certain, but saer- is a possiblity; Saeros was a Nandorin Elf living
      in Doriath, who was described by King Thingol as 'faithful and wise']; see SAG- Nol saer bitter
      [Etym; the Dor form was likely similar]; the last element could be traced to a much older [Nol] form -
      rost 'steep', 'rise' (-ing) [related to ORO- rise (Etym)]; or perhaps in the Silvan tongue it refers to
      RUS- flash, glitter of metal, Nol rhoss, ros [Etym; in his notes Tolkien narrows the definition to
      'copper coloured'], here referring to hair color [related to RUSKA- Nol rhosc brown (Etym), from
      Common Eldarin (U)RUS, russa 'brownish-red', S rust, ross]; in Silvan: 'Wise- and Russet-Headed',
      in S ?'Rising Bitterness'; Nandorin 'guest-Elf' and counselor of Doriath; died while acting on extreme
Salmar     Q; in the older lexicons the Q list offers SALA, salma 'lyre', salmë 'harp-playing'; vestiges of
      this older root can be found, for example, under ÑGAN-, ÑGÁNAD- play ... Salgant [lord of the
      People of the Harp; Etym], and SYAL- Q hyalma conch, one of the horns of Ulmo made by Salmar
      [Etym]; the -r ending in this form would be a plural - ?'Musical [Instruments'], ?'[Sound of] Lyres';
      the name contains alma [GALA- prosper, alma blessed (Etym)]; once also called Noldorin [ÑGOL-
      wise ... ÑGÓLOD- the wise folk, masters of lore, Q ñoldo (Etym)], also Lirillo [from an old root LIRI
      'sing', lirilla 'lay, song', with -o as a male ending; see LIR¹- sing, trill (Etym)]; a Maia; maker of the
      Ulumúri; also see Valaróma
Sarn Athrad     S; see SAR- stone, Nol sarn stone [Etym]; see also AT(AT)- again, back, Nol prefix ath-
      on both sides, across [Etym]; also see RAT- walk, Nol râd path [Etym]; 'stone path across' - ford;
      'Ford of Stones'; for a different form of 'ford' see Arossiach; crossing of the river Gelion
Saruman     M; 'Man of Skill'; one of the Istari (Wizards); also Curunír; see LOTR Dictionary
Sauron     Q-influenced S; see thaur abominable, evil-smelling [appx], from THUS- Q saura foul, Nol thû
      stench [Etym], Nol form: Gorthû 'Horrible Stench'; [This etymology is similar to the abomination
      that maketh desolate (the 'beast') of the Bible's Book of Mathew, chapter 24; the Greek word used
      for 'abomination' is bdelugma, implying 'idolatry'; it derives from a stem bdeo - to stink]; in his
      Letters Tolkien mentions the adjective aura, from a base /THAW 'detestable', which yields
      'contemporary Q' Sauron [note that Tolkien uses the Greek letter Theta]; -ron is agental - 'one who
      is' or 'one who does', perhaps taken from an older Q form hrondo [a physical body], although by
      one analyst the affix is formed by -r as the normal nominative plur ending plus the genitive ending
      -o plus a second plural marker -n; S [old] Gorthaur [ÑGÓROTH- horror, Nol gorth- (Etym) + THUS-
      foul (Etym), S thaur (appx)]; the term seems to imply UR- be hot, Q úr fire, Nol ûr [Etym]; 'the
      abominable one', 'The Abhorred', 'Corrupted'; a fallen Maia of Aulë; see Appendix B
Seeing Stones     see Palantíri
Serech     S [?dialectal]; seemingly from sereg blood [appx], as some muddy waters were nicknamed
      [called 'reedy Serech', implying slow-moving water]; or 'bloody' due to the battles fought in the
      environs; however it is possibly a Northern S dialectal form derived from STAR- stiff, Q sara stiff
      dry grass, bent, Nol thâr (Etym; perhaps the dialect follows the Q as ser(e)-); -ech could then be a
      dialectal adjective suffix similar to -ui in Dor, or perhaps taken from eg² 'wide' in the older lexicons;
      ?'Reedy'; a great fen north of Dorthonion at the confluence of the rivers Rivil (above) and Sirion
seregon     S; see sereg blood, Q serkë [appx]; see also gond stone [appx]; a word of irony, as the blood of
      Túrin's companions 'mantled the stone' like the flower covered the rocky hillside; 'Blood of Stone'; a
      blood-red flower that grew on Amon Rûdh
          [the source of sereg is speculative; most likely it relates to a Common Eldarin base srawe flesh,
          which produced the Q word hrávë, S rhaw [also see discussion at Rhovanion (above)]; similarly
          related is s-ron substance, which produced Q hrón (incarnate) body; perhaps SIR- flow [Etym] is
          related; however, these elements are too far removed to be of much use; precise etymolgy is not
          possible without further data]
Serindë     ON and Q; see SER- love [Etym]; the second element may relate to a base in the older
      lexicons: GWERE [or GWIDI] 'twirl, twist', under which is winda 'woof' [later form: WEY- weave;
      Etym]; ser + winda [-ë forms a genitive suffix in Q] = Serindë - 'love of yarn'; 'The Broideress';
      Tolkien offers an alternate way to interpret the name - as the Vanyarin name Þerindë; see TER-,
      TERES- pierce, Q tere- [Etym], ?Vanyarin *þere needle, ?Nol *sere; the ancient þ, while retained in
      Vanyarin in Aman, evolved in exile to s in Q and perhaps 'Nol'; -ndë is a feminine ending from NDIS-
      woman, bride [Etym], with -ë forming a genitive case in Q - thus 'woman of the piercing' or 'Needle
      Woman'; in older texts Tolkien names her 'Byrde Míriel', byrde - broideress - taken from OE byrdan
      to embroider; Míriel, wife of Finwë in Valinor; also see Míriel¹
Seven Stones     see Palantíri
Shadowy Mountains     see Ered Wethrin
Shepherds of the Trees     Ents; see LOTR Dictionary
Sickle of the Valar     see Valacirca
Silmarien     Q; see SIL- shine silver, Q silma [adjective] white-shining [Etym; also see next entry]; see
      also RIG- Q rie crown, rína crowned [Etym; denoting royalty]; the latter element is a Q feminine
      ending [YO, YON- son, Q yondo, -ion, Q yende daughter, -ien (Etym)]; Silmaril (next) is likely
      implied, the star of her ancestor Eärendil that led the Edain to the new island of Númenor; 'Silver-
      crowned Lady'; daughter of the fourth King of Númenor
Silmarils     anglicized Q; see sil- shine (with silver light) [appx]; the Q word Silmaril is said to derive
      from silima, 'shining silver', the name Fëanor gave to the liquid luminesence from which he made the
      Silmarilli [-ima forms an adjectival suffix in Q]; also the -ma(r) ending may imply MA3- ... MAG-, Q
      mára useful, good [of crafted things; Etym], as Fëanor was jealous of recognition of his
      craftsmanship, and the Noldorin Kings were willing to die to retain the fabulous jewels; see also ril
      brilliance [appx]; the proper plur ending should be -li, taken from LI- many, Q -li plur suffix; the
      anglicized plural -s is odd in this context; '[Crafted] Brilliant Silvery Lights', or, by Tolkien in his
      Letters: 'radiance of pure light'; three jewels made by Fëanor and filled with the light from the Two
      Trees; this great triumph turned to become the doom of the Noldor, fueled by their excessive pride
Silpion     Q; sil- see previous; see also SIL- shine silver ... *SÍLIP Q Silpion [no forms and no
      meanings given; Etym; possibly: SIL- + LIP- wine, drink (Etym) = liquid silver light]; the element
      -ion is ambiguous, used expansively in S, as well as a patronymic suffix in both Q and S; however,
      in the older (Nol) Lexicon, under the entry Sil is stated: properly = 'Rose of Silpion'; the older Q
      has pio 'plum, cherry', and the (Nol) Lexicon offers piog 'berry'; there is an implication of rose-red
      tinting; in subsequent usage the term 'silver rose' was applied to the light of the Moon; in one place
      the element is identified with the 'cherry blossom'; the -ion suffix is identified in one place as a
      'poetic' ending, perhaps a poetic way of expansively saying 'first' or 'foremost'; the first of the Two
      Trees, and forebearer of a number of 'offspring'; another name of Telperion
Silvan Elves     see Nandor
Sindar     Q; see THIN- pallid, grey, Q [adjective] sinde grey [Etym], [S] thin(d) 'grey', [Q] [noun] sinda,
      plur sindar 'the greys' [appx]; the Sindarin Elves never traveled to Valinor and looked upon the light
      of the Two Trees, thus were 'Elves of the twilight' [grey], reflecting only the pale sparkling light
      [TIN- Etym] of the stars; the Grey-elves - some Elves of Telerin origin, stalled on the journey West
      by a search for Elwë, their King, and found by the returning Noldor in Beleriand; 'grey' is attributed
      to Elwë´s S name Thingol ('Grey-cloak')
Sindarin     Q; sindar- see previous; the -in element is a plural of the dative case in Q: '[of ] Sindar'; the
      term is most often applied to the 'tongue of' the Sindar; the predominant Elvish tongue of Beleriand
      at the time of the return of the exiled Noldor
Singollo     Q; also Sindacollo [appx]; see Sindar; for etymology see Thingol
Sirion     S; see sîr river [appx], from SIR- flow [Etym]; -ion is used as a genitive plural suffix, an
      augmentative element here [see Thalion below] - '(great) flow', the 'Great River'; divided West from
      East Beleriand
Sons of Fëanor     see Maedhros, Maglor, Celegorm, Caranthir, Curufin, Amrod and Amras
Soronúmë     Q; see thoron eagle, Q Soron [appx]; see also NDU- go down, Q númen west [Etym; in
      recently published addenda to Etym is found (Q): also nume-]; -ë can form a genitive case in Q;
      '[Shining] Eagle of the West'; a constellation
Strongbow     see Cúthalion
Súlimo     Q; see THU- blow, Q súya- breathe, súle breath [Etym], also sûl wind [appx]; it contains the
      name of another Vala - Ulmo [see ULU- pour, flow (Etym)]; -mo is an old Q suffix similar to -
      'person', used agentally; the suffix -o is also used as a masculine ending; another name of Manwë;
      'Lord of the Winds' or 'Lord of the Gods' [spirit = wind]; his 'eyes' over Middle-earth were the noble
      far-ranging eagles; a related stem is LAM(A)- Q lamya to sound [Etym; said otherwise to denote
      'inarticulate' sounds]; also related is LIN²- sing, Q linde air, musical sound [Etym], and SYAL- Q
      hyalma conch, horn of Ulmo [Etym]; the 'month of winds' was Sulimë, generally equivalent to
      March [S Gwaeron, from WA-, WAWA-, WAIWA- blow, Nol gwaew; Ilk (S) gwau (Etym), S
      gwaer]; -ron is an agental suffix; he is most closely associated with the color blue; [the contrary
      stem to THU- is THUS- stink, Q saura evil-smelling (Etym), source of the name Sauron]
Swanhaven     see Alqualondë

Talath Dirnen     S; see talath plain [appx], from TAL- foot and DAL- flat, Nol dalath plane [Etym]; the
      second element implies LAT- lie open, cleared land [Etym], although -ath is a S collective plural [see
      Argonath]; see also TIR- watch, guard, Nol dir-, (verb form) tirn-, -dirn- [Etym; in The Road Goes
      Ever On Tolkien explains: the stem TIR, 'to look at (towards), watch, watch over' ... -dir with S
      change of medial t > d, although the 'medial' position seems to be generated here by the preceeding
      -th]; -en is a S adjective form; however it may be that NAD- watered plain, Nol nann wide grassland
      [Etym] is implied; 'The Guarded Plain'
Talath Rhúnen     S; talath- see previous; see also rómen ... S rhûn east [appx], adjective rhûnen
      'eastern' [see previous entry]; it may be that NAD- watered plain, Nol nann wide grassland (Etym) is
      implied; 'The East Vale'; see Dor Caranthir, also Thargelion
Taniquetil     Q; see TA-, TA3- high, lofty [Etym], tar- 'high' ('royal') [appx]; see also NIK-W- Q niqe
      snow, white [Etym; ta- + nique- = 'Royal White' or 'Lofty Snow']; also see TIL- point, horn [Etym];
      'High White Peak'; highest of the mountains of Aman; see Oiolossë; the S [who had never seen
      Aman] form was Amon Uilos 'Mount Ever-white' [which misses the nuance of lofty or regal], also
      Ras-Arphain [ras horn peak (appx) + ar(a)- high, noble (appx) + ?SPAN- white, Nol fein white, faun
      cloud (Etym); the S form could presumably be phain ?'cloudy'; more likely the last element is from
      PHAY- (corrected to PHAI- in a recently published addendum) 'radiate' (Etym), ?participial or
      gerundial -in - 'High Radiant Peak']
Tar-Ancalimon     Q; see tar- high ('royal') [appx]; an- is given as a Q intensive prefix, possibly related
      to NA¹- Q an, ana, na to [Etym], or an(d) long [appx]; see KAL- shine, Q [adjective] kalina light
      [Etym; -ima is a Q adjectival suffix - 'bright'; however, this is misleading and the source of
      controversy; it appears that the -lim- element could be related to a stem GLIM 'gleam with bright
      slender shafts of light' (not in Etym), even though Tolkien notes that the stem does not occur in Q;
      in his Letters he defines kalima as 'shining brilliant' and ancalima as 'exceedingly bright']; the -on
      suffix is agental [see Sauron (above)]; 'Resplendent Royal One'; a king of Númenor
Taras     S; see tar- high [appx]; see also ras horn, peak [appx]; 'Lofty Peak'; mountain of Nevrast; also
      see Vinyamar
Tar-Atanamir     Q; tar see previous; see Atanamir; 'Noble Jewel of the Edain'; king of Númenor
Tar-Calion     Q; tar see previous; see also KAL- shine [Etym]; the suffix appears to indicate 'son' [YO,
      YON- son, Q yondo, -ion (Etym)] - 'Royal Son of Light'], but the -ion suffix can be ambiguous; here
      it could also be an intensive, as he called himself 'the Golden' in his M tongue, and it is said that his
      sails appeared on the horizon as 'golden' [see Thalion below]; Q for M Ar-Pharazôn
Tar-Ciryatan     Q; tar see previous; see also kir- cut, cleave, Q círya ship [appx; -ya is an adjectival
      suffix in Q] + TAN- make [Etym]; 'the Shipbuilder', 'Shipwright King'; a king of Númenor
Tar-Elendil     Q; see tar- high [appx]; also see êl, elen star, and by extension 'Elf' [appx]; see also
      -(n)dil devotion, friend [appx]; 'Royal Elf-friend'; also Parmaitë [PAR- compose, Q parma book
      (Etym; in Q -ma is a noun-forming affix meaning 'thing') + MA3- hand, Q maite skilled (Etym;
      elsewhere as 'handed') = 'Learned']; a king of Númenor, progenitor of Elendil
Tar-Minastir     Q; tar- see previous; see minas tower [appx; ?MINI- stick out (Etym) + NAS- point
      (Etym)]; see tir watch [appx]; 'Royal Watch-tower'; so named because he built a great tower on the
      western coasts of Númenor; a great mariner and eleventh king of Númenor
Tar-Minyatur     Q; see tar- high [appx]; see also MINI- stand alone, Q minya first [Etym]; TUR-
      mastery [Etym]; 'noble supreme victor' or 'Royal First Ruler'; Elros, first king of Númenor
Tar-Míriel     Q; tar- see previous; 'Royal Jeweled Lady'; see Míriel²
Tarn Aeluin     S [?dialectal]; tarn could be M, from the Middle English word tarne for a small alpine
      lake, Old Norse tjörn; in Elvish, the older ['Nol'] Lexicon offers tarn 'gate' [to a hidden path
      southwards; perhaps related to THAR- across (Etym), older Q Lexicon root TARA 'to cross', tarna
      'passage']; perhaps tarn is a shortening of taur-na- [TÁWAR- forest, Nol and Ilk taur (Etym) +
      NA¹- Nol na with, by (Etym) = 'forest beside (Aeluin)']; see aelin lake, pool [appx], from AY- pool,
      lake, Nol oel [Etym], S ael; -uin could be a genitive suffix '[Lake] of the [Forest]', but more likely
      blends with luin blue [appx], because the dark waters reflected the stars brightly; afterwards related
      to Taur-nu-Fuin [see below]
Tar-Palantir     Q; see tar- high [appx]; also see palan far [appx; PAL- wide (Etym) + LAD- wide, Q and
      Nol lan(d) (Etym) = distant], and tir watch [appx]; 'King who Looks Afar'; a king of Númenor; see
      Inziladûn; see LOTR Dictionary Palantír
Taur-en-Faroth     S; see taur forest [appx]; -en- indicates a genitive article; see also faroth [appx; from
      SPAR- hunt, pursue, Nol faro to hunt + hoth host (appx) = 'hunters']; 'Forest of  the Hunters',
      although it is translated 'Hills of the Hunters', perhaps blending tar- high [appx]; wooded highlands
      west of the river Narog; also called the 'High Faroth'
Taur-im-Duinath     S; taur- see previous; -im- is likely a shortening in S of Q imbe 'between' [perhaps
      based on I- ... Q and Nol i- 'the', Nol plural in (Etym) + MI- inside (Etym) = 'the inside' = 'between'];
      see also duin river [appx]; -ath is a S collective plural [see Argonath]; 'The Forest between Rivers';
      wild country between Sirion and Gelion
Taur-nu-Fuin     S; see taur forest [appx]; see also NU- beneath, under [Etym]; also see fuin darkness
      [appx; from PHUY- deep shadow, Nol fuin night (Etym)]; 'the Forest under Night'; see Deldúwath;
      see also Tarn Aeluin
Tauron     Q-influneced S; see taur forest [appx], from Etym TÁWAR- forest, which in Nol becomes
      blended with tar- high ('royal') [appx], meaning 'mighty, vast'; -ron is an agental suffix, perhaps
      related to an older Q form hrondo [hrón; a physical body; see Sauron (above)]; 'Forester', although
      often as 'Lord of Forests', incorporating tar-; S name of Oromë; also see Aldaron
Teiglin     S; earlier Taiglin; see AYAK- sharp, pointed, Ilk taig deep, ?steep [Etym; AYAK- is blended
      with TA- high, lofty = taig (Etym)] - 'Deep Music'; the water course ran through steep gorges in
      places; however, in other notes Tolkien gives a different etymology: a base /TAYA line, [?Q] tayak
      boundary, S taeg- [see TEÑ- line, Nol < TE3-, Nol line - Etym; there seems to have been
      changes made to these stems, as *TEÑ came to mean 'to indicate', which may have restored TE3-
      line]; see lin-² sing, Nol lin- 'make a musical sound' [appx], as Teiglin was an icy cold freshet with
      fast-moving water bubbling over rocks and falls - 'Border Song'; the stream defined one boundary
      of the Forest of Brethil; a tributary of Sirion
Telchar     S; the first element would seem to derive from TÉLEK- stalk, leg, N telch [Etym], perhaps
      referring to pikes and swords; however it could be related to TEL-, TELU- hood, covering
      [Etym], since he is credited for fashioning the Dragon-helm of Dor-lómin; see also KAR- make, Q
      karo doer [Etym], Dor -char [presumed]; 'Armourer'; renowned Dwarvish smith, maker of Angrist
Telemnar     Q; see KYELEP- silver, Q [adjective] telemna [Etym]; see also NAR¹- flame, fire, Q nár
      [Etym]; 'Silver Flame'; a king of Gondor
Teleri     Q; see tel- 'finish, end, be last' [appx], from TELES- tarry, Q Teler, plur Teleri hindmost [Etym;
      in other notes Tolkien gives *TELE 'come at the end', tele- 'be last in a series'; these seem to blend
      with /TEL, *TEL-U 'cover in, finish', offered by Tolkien elsewhere]; -er may be agental in this case,
      perhaps from ERE-, Q er one; tel- + er + -i (Q plur) = 'hindmost ones'; third of the three hosts of the
      Eldar traveling West; the Sindar and at least some of the Nandor were Telerin Elves
Telperion     Q [?influenced by Telerin]; see celeb silver, Q telep, telpë [appx], Q tyelpe, Telerin telpe
      [Etym; according to Letters the second -e- in tyel(e)pe becomes a syncope]; the -r- element is
      controversial; this author relates it to ERE- be alone, Q er one, erya single [Etym; perhaps used
      agentally; i.e.: 'the silvery one', also 'elder' since it was the first, thus called 'the elder']; -ion is a
      variable suffix, but in these ancient names it appears to be possibly genitive and probably an
      augmentative - here reinforcing 'the one', 'the first' [see Thalion below]; 'Great One of Silver (Light)'
      by one account the last element is a 'poetic' ending; the Valarin form was Ibriniðilpathanezel
      [(in)iðil = flower, ezel = green (perhaps referring to green leaves, or the 'green mound' of Túna);
      one analyst suggests: 'Silver-flower leaf-green']; the first of the Two Trees of Valinor; also Silpion
Telumendil     Q; see TEL-, TELU- hood, covering, Q telume dome [Etym; an original term for the
      'firmament', later replaced by menel 'the heavens' (MEN- place {Etym} + EL- star {Etym} = 'place of
      the stars'), which is duplicated in Telumen 'dome-place']; see also -(n)dil, a very common element in
      personal names - 'devotion', 'friend' [appx]; 'Friend [in the] Starry Dome'; a constellation
Thalion     S; see thalion strong, dauntless [appx; from STÁLAG- stalwart, Nol thala, thalion hero
      (Etym)]; the -ion suffix is a genitive plural used apparently as an intensive element - 'very
      unmovable'; Etym attributes the term to the construct *stalgondo, perhaps incorporating an
      agental suffix [?based on a Q form hrondo (hrón; a physical body) - 'firm one'; see Sauron and Tar-
      Ancalimon (above)]; this etymology may help to explain the -ion suffix in many entries [e.g.: see
      Sirion]; 'Steadfast'; see Húrin
Thalos     S; see STAL- steep, thalos torrent [Etym; the stem occurs only in 'Ilkorin', which was
      generally absorbed into S in the later lexicons]; also see los 'snow' [appx; also used to mean 'white'] -
      'White water'; perhaps the final element derives from GOS-, GOTH- dread, Nol -os fearful [Etym] -
      'Terrible Rush'; a tributary of Gelion
Thangorodrim     S; see thang oppression [appx; from STAG- press, Nol thang compulsion (Etym)]; see
      also [S] orod mountain [appx; from ORO- high (Etym)]; also see rim host, here as a collective plural
      [appx]; 'Mountains of Tyranny'; heaved up by Morgoth in the North
Thargelion     S; see THAR- beyond [Etym], thar- 'across' [appx]; see Gelion; 'The Land beyond
      Gelion'; see Talath Rhûnen
Thingol     S for Q Sindacollo; see thin(d) grey [appx; from THIN- grey, Q sinde, Ilk (S) thind (Etym)];
      the last element would seem to derive from ÑGOL- wise, as it does in Etym, but here that is implied;
      the last element refers to a Common Eldarin base in Tolkien's late writings: *KOL (*kalo) ?'bear', Q
      kólo 'burden', S caul 'affliction', and in another place Q kolla 'worn, especially a vestment or cloak
      ... Sindicollo is masculinized'; later the Q k- was normalised in writing as c-, S -g- in compounds,
      and the S -au- became -o-; thus the Q -colla (-o) became S -gol 'cloak, vestment'; [this etymology
      may not be a settled issue; in other relatively late notes Tolkien proposed a stem *kulda 'hollow',
      which yielded (?Q) coll, S -goll]; 'Grey-cloak', 'Grey-mantle'; Elwë, one leader of the Teleri along
      with his brother Olwë; became King of Doriath; also see Sindar
Thorondor     S; see thoron eagle [appx; from THOR- come swooping down (Etym) + -ron an agental
      suffix (see Sauron above) = 'one that swoops down']; see also TA-, TA3- lofty; noble, often found
      in names, as Tor-, -dor [Etym]; 'King of Eagles'; see Crissaegrim
Thousand Caves     see Menegroth
Thranduil     Sindarin Elf, King of the Silvan Elves in northern Mirkwood; see LOTR Dictionary
Thuringwethil     S; see THUR- surround, secrete, Ilk [adjective] thúren hidden, Dor thurin [Etym]; see
      also WATH- shade, Ilk gwath [Etym], gwath, wath 'shadow', (also) -gweth [appx]; -il is a seldom
      used feminine suffix; this may be blended with THEL- sister, Nol gwathel, plur gwethil [Etym];
      'Woman of Secret Shadow'; identified as a 'vampire' or a 'great bat'; if -wethil implies a plur, then
      perhaps there were more of these creatures; messenger of Sauron and a disguise of Lúthien
Tilion     Q; see TIL- point, horn, Nol and Q Tilion 'the Horned'  [Etym]; -ion is a genitive plur element
      in S, but appears to be the agental -on here - 'the one with horns', also perhaps expansive as 'the
      Moon' [see Sauron and Silpion (above)]; said to be the name of the 'man in the Moon', also a Maia
      of the Moon; the 'horned' reference is obscure; it derives from an archaic English term for the
      crescent moon [horning], which has an appearance of an animal 'horn'
Tintallë     Q; see TIN- sparkle, Q tinta- to kindle, cause to sparkle [Etym; perhaps here TA-, TA3- high,
      noble (Etym) is implied]; in Tolkien's notes the last element is assigned to /ÑGIL, related to the Nol
      stem GIL- shine pale white [Etym], Q ñillë silver glint, and by extension 'star'; tinta [?+ ta] + ñillë =
      Tintallë '(Royal) Star Kindler'; however, this may be over-complicated, as the Q affix -le is used to
      form nouns 'properly to have been universal and abstract' [further Tolkien notes]; name of Varda;
      see Elbereth, Elentári
Tinúviel     S for Q Tindómerel; see TIN- sparkle, Nol tinnu dusk, twilight [Etym]; see also DO3, -
      night, Nol nightfall [Etym], but more at DOMO- dim, Q tindóme starry twilight, Ilk dûm twilight
      [Etym; m > v in S by a process called 'lenition']; (S) tin- 'sparkle' ('star') [appx] + 'dimness' [appx] =
      tinnu = 'twilight'; see also SEL-D- daughter, Nol -iel(l) [Etym - as a feminine ending]; name given to
      the stunningly beautiful Elven Princess Lúthien, in whose children were found the seed of the
      Ainur [Melian], the Elves [Thingol] and the noblest of Men [Beren (her husband)] - the hope of
      humankind; a poetic word for 'nightingale'; '[Sparkling] Daughter of Twilight'; see Gallery
Tirion     Q; see TIR- watch, guard, Q tirion watch-tower [Etym]; -ion is a genitive plur element in S,
      apparently used as an intensive in S and Q, and also appears agental here - 'the one for watching'
      [see Thalion and Telperion (above)]; 'Great Watch-tower'; city on the hill of Túna in Aman
Tol Eressëa     Q; see tol isle (rising with sheer sides) [appx]; see also ERE- be alone, Q eresse [noun]
      solitude, eressea [adjective] lonely [Etym], eressë 'singly' [adverb; from the older lexicons]; in one
      place the Q suffix -sse is stated to be 'locative' ['in solitude']; 'The Lonely Isle'; island in the Bay of
Tol Galen     S; tol- see previous; see also KAL- shine, Nol calen bright-coloured [Etym], [S] calen
      (galen) 'green' [appx]; 'The Green Isle'; island in the river Adurant where dwelt Beren and Lúthien
      upon returning to mortal lands; also see Dor Firn-i-Guinar
Tol-in-Gaurhoth     S; tol- see previous; -in- forms a genitive plural article [see I- (deictic particle) ... Nol
      plural in 'the'; Etym]; see also gaur werewolf [appx], from ÑGAW- howl [Etym]; also see hoth host,
      horde [appx]; 'Isle of Werewolves'; later name of Tol Sirion
Tol Morwen     S; see tol isle (rising with sheer sides) [appx]; see also Morwen; the stone under which
      Morwen was buried was preserved above the cataclysmic waters that drowned Beleriand
Tol Sirion     S; tol- see previous; also see Sirion (above); island in the river in the Pass of Sirion, site
      of the tower of Minas Tirith¹; 'Isle (of) Sirion'; later called Tol-in-Gaurhoth
Tulkas     Q; see TULUK- Q tulka firm, strong, immoveable [Etym]; called 'Tulkas the Strong'; said to be
      patterned after Valarin Tulukhastaz [tuluk-ha(n) yellow + (a)sata- hair (of head) = 'golden-haired'];
      see also KAS- head [Etym]; the golden hair is associated with the Sun, and the strength of Tulkas
      in overthrowing Melkor and his abominations is associated with flame [see Melkor and his
      association with 'cold']; 'Strong-headed'; [unhappily this etymology is in doubt; firstly, the tuluk-
      element shows no evidence of ever being developed in Q as 'yellow'; secondly, final -s in Q has
      been controversial, being considered a short form of the locative suffix -sse by some - which it
      cannot seemingly be here; nor has any issue been made of the head of Tulkas, except that it was
      'golden' and associated with the Sun; Tolkien once rendered the name in Old English as Afoðfréa
      (afoð 'strength' + fréa 'ruler') 'Titan'];  the mightiest of the Valar; in the older lexicons known as Q
      Poldórëa, (Old?) Nol Polodweg [POL-, POLOD- physically strong, Q polda mighty (Etym) +
      ORO- high, Q óre (Etym); the endings are agental - 'one who is'] '(Noble) Strong One'; implied stem
      elements contained in Tulkas could include ÁLAK- rushing [Etym], LEK- loosen, set free [Etym],
      TEL-, TELU- covering, sky [Etym], TÉLEK- leg [Etym] and TUL- come, Q tulta fetch [Etym]; see
      also Astaldo
Tumhalad     ?S & M? see tum 'valley' [appx]; see also SKAL¹- screen, hide (from light), N hall [Etym];
      seemingly 'Hidden Valley'; however there is no evidence that this fairly broad land was hidden; the
      name is probably a mixture of Elvish and M tongues - 'Valley of the Haladin', which in the ancient
      language of Bëor meant 'warden' or 'protector'; land between the rivers Ginglith and Narog
Tumladen     S; tum- see previous; see also LAT- lie open, Nol lhaden open [Etym], and LAD- wide
      [Etym], lad 'plain, valley' [appx]; in S -en is an adjectival suffix; 'The Wide Valley'; the hidden vale
      in which stood the city of Gondolin (afterwards the name of a valley in Gondor)
Tumunzahar     D; see Nogrod
Túna     Q; see TUN- hill, Q [noun] tuna, [adjective] tunda tall [Etym]; also Q Tún, Nol Tûn Elf-city in
      Valinor; the brilliant green hill of Aman; it is worth noting that dún means 'hill, mountain' in Anglo-
      Saxon, and tún means 'enclosure, village' and is the source of English 'town'; also known as Tirion
      (above); see Corollairë; also see Ezellohar
Tuor     S; see TUG- strength, Ilk [S] tughtu muscle, physical strength [Etym]; also see GOR-
      violence, haste, Nol gorf [in late published addendum to Etym: in compounds -ore] vigour [Etym];
      the name may relate to M through a Gaelic / Celtic root teugh, tuq 'strike'; 'Hero', 'Herculean'; an
      Adan; son of Huor
Turambar     Q; see tur power, mastery [appx]; see also MBARAT- Q umbar fate, doom [Etym], [S]
      amarth 'doom', Turamarth 'Master of Doom' [appx]; the mutation to -ambar [AM²- up, Q prefix am-
      up, (adverb) amba up(-wards) (Etym) + MBAR- inhabit, land, Q a-mbar = Earth] may imply his fate
      to rise to the heavens at the restoration of the world to fight with Morgoth and defeat evil forever;
      another name for Túrin; an Adan
Turgon     S adaptation of Q Turkáno; tur- see previous; see also KAN- dare, valour, Nol -gon [Etym];
      Tolkien restructured this stem as KAN cry aloud, Q káno commander, S -gon [appx; as a rank of
      royalty]; 'Masterful Commander'; son of Fingolfin, became king of Gondolin
Tûr Haretha     ?M and S [Dor]; here Tûr is seemingly a form of TUN- hill, mound [Etym]; however,
      almost certainly at least tûr is M and derives from an ancient Celt source *turi-; Gaelic has tòrr a
      'conical mound', 'heap' or 'castle', the Early Irish tor, tuir [more at 'tower']; Angl-Saxon torr tower,
      crag, and Old English tur tower, Welsh twyn hillock, twr [tuur], tyrau tower, also 'heap'; the forms
      are said to derive from Latin turris tower, but also relate to Old French / Latin torner to turn, make
      round [French tour turn, Old French torn]; the plur is possibly tyrn [see Supplemental entry Tyrn
      Gorthad]; see also 3AR- have, hold, haran [male] chieftain [the stem implies nobility]; -eth is a S
      feminine suffix that derives from Q -issë, related to NIS- woman, bride, Q nis, nissi [Etym]; ?M and/
      or S Hareth [q.v.] = 'noble woman, Lady' - also the name of an Adan woman, mother of Húrin; the
      -a would presumably form a genitive suffix [as it does in Dor]; the meaning of the term is 'Mound of
      the Lady'; burial site of the Lady Haleth; also see [pure S form] Haudh-en-Arwen
Túrin     ?S [adaptation of Q Turindo]; see TUR- power, victory [this stem became blended with TA-
      'high' to often mean 'mighty'; Etym]; see also ID- heart, desire, Q indo heart, Nol in(n) mood [Etym];
      'Heart of Victory'; an Adan; son of Húrin; see Neithan, Gorthol, Agarwaen, Mormegil, Turambar
Twilight Meres     see Aelin-uial
Two Trees of Valinor     see Telperion; see also Laurelin

Uinen     Q; said in one place to have been adapted from a Valrin name, now lost; one Valarin element is
      ulu 'water', which is probably a part of such Valarin words as mirub 'wine' and ulban 'blue'; see UY-
      [long] seaweed [Etym]; the first element might better be assigned to UNU- under [Etym], although it
      does not appear to produce Q uin- [perhaps unu- blends with I- 'the' (Etym) to create uin- 'under
      the']; see also NEN- water [Etym]; ?'Under the Water'; called 'Lady of the Seas'; perhaps the first
      element is related in Primitive Eldarin to AY- [body of water] ... AYAR-, AIR- sea [Etym]; the last
      element could possibly relate to INI-, Q , inya female or WEN- maiden [Etym]; implied stems might
      include OY- ever, eternal, Q oi eternal, ON ui- [Etym], also GAWA-, GOWO- devise, aule invention;
      a Maia, along with Ossë (above), believed by mariners to rule all matters relating to the seas
Úlairi     Q; see ÚLUG- hideous, horrible, Q ulu- [Etym; while this is almost certainly the intended
      etymology, the Q forms of this stem are rather undeveloped; some believe the stem was re-written
      as *ÚLUK-, Q ulun-, -ulka; ul(u)- may be a shortened poetic form, as appears in 'Nol']; also see
      DAY- shadow, Q laira [Etym]; -i forms a Q plur; 'Hideous Shadows'; see Ring-wraiths
Uldor     ?S and M; ul- see previous, S Ul- in given-names [Etym]; in Gaelic ula means beard, and in
      Old Norse ull means 'wool'; in older English ul- is sometimes a shortened form of ulf [see next]; also
      see TA-, TA3- lofty; noble ... found in names, as Tor-, -dor [Etym] - here probably as 'chief' -
      'Horrible Chief' - as it was Uldor that led the betrayal by his men; son of Ulfang, an Easterling;
      called 'the Accursed'; the name was given by the Elves
Ulfang     ?S and M; see ÚLUG- horrible, S Ul- in given-names [Etym]; see also SPÁNAG-, Nol fang
      beard [Etym; see Uldor just previous]; 'Bearded Horror'; called 'the Black'; an Easterling, father of
      Uldor, Ulfast and Ulwarth; while the name was given by Elves, in Anglo Saxon ulf is a shortened
      form of wulf wolf, devilish person; perhaps more at 'Wolf Fang', although in Anglo-Saxon fang is
      'booty' or 'plunder' - 'Wolfish Plunder'
Ulfast     S; ul- see previous; see also PHAS-, [Exilic] Nol fast shaggy hair [Etym; see Uldor above];
      'Shaggy [Bearded] Horror'; son of Ulfang the Black; while the name was given by Elves, in Anglo-
      Saxon ulf is a shortened form of wulf wolf, devilish person; Anglo Saxon fæst fixed, obstinate, Gaelic
      fàs empty, waste
Ulmo     Q; see ULU- pour, flow, Q Ulmo 'The Pourer' [or Ulumo; Etym]; -mo is an old Q agental suffix
      similar to - 'person' [see Manwë; also see 'the problem with moth' in the Supplemental Appendix];
      the suffix -o is likely also a masculine ending; the Valarin form was Uluboz [ul(l)u 'water' + bhoze
      agental suffix]; related stems might include UB- abound, abundant [Etym], AY-, *ai-lin- pool [Etym],
      3EL- sky [Etym] along with WAY- enfold, *waya Outer Sea [Etym], IL- all [Etym], LAM- to sound
      [Etym] and YUL- smoulder [Etym]; a Vala; 'Lord of (All) Waters'; also 'The Rainer'
Ulumúri     Q; see ULU-pour, flow, Q Ulumo, a form of 'Ulmo' [Etym]; see also UR- large, great, Q úra
      large [Etym; this analysis may conflict with what appears to be the same element in Oiomúrë
      (above)]; -i forms a plural; '[Ulmo´s] Great Out-pourings'; the cornucopian horns of Ulmo; see also
      Valaróma; also see Salmar
Ulwarth     ?S and M; see ÚLUG- hideous, horrible, Ul- in names [Etym]; in Gaelic ula means beard,
      and in Old Norse ull means 'wool'; in older English ul- is sometimes a shortened form of ulf 'wolf'
      [see Ulfang (above)]; see WAR- let down, betray, Nol gwarth betrayer [Etym]; 'Terrible Traitor';
      the M form of the second element might relate to Gaelic gart 'surly', goirt 'sour, bitter'; ?'Surly
      Beard'; an Easterling; son of Ulfang the Black; name given by Elves
Úmanyar     Q; also Úamanyar; see UGU- and UMU- negative stems, Q prefix ú- [Etym]; see also man-
      good, blessed - Aman ['Blessed Land'; appx]; in Q -ya is an adjectival suffix [-r making it a plur
      noun] - 'the not of Aman-ers'; YAR- blood, Q yár may be implied [Etym; in the sense of ethnic
      blood]; 'Those [Elves] not of Aman'; Amanyar 'Those of Aman'
Úmarth     S; see UGU- and UMU- negative stems, ?Nol um bad [Etym], [later] S ú- [Lord of the Rings,
      Appx A (Gilraen's linnod)]; see also MBARAT-, Nol (am)marth fate, doom [Etym]; 'Ill-fate'; in Gaelic
      and Early Irish mart was a cow for killing, perhaps connected with a Gaulish root *marvo-s 'die,
      death'; a fictitious name for the father of Túrin
Umbar     see LOTR Dictionary
Undying Lands     Aman and Eressëa; see also LOTR Dictionary Uttermost West
Ungoliant     S adaptation of Q Ungoliantë, Ungweliantë; the term means 'Gloomweaver'; see UÑG-
      gloom, Q ungwe, ungo, Ilk ungol darkness [Nol form taken from Q; Etym]; ungol likely hints at
      NDUL- conceal, Q nulla, Nol doll - concealing gloom [Etym], as the great spiders of Middle-earth
      wove their webs so thickly that they shaded out most light; in his Letters Tolkien states that ungol
      means 'spider', and in Lord of the Rings, Appx E, Tolkien offers ungwe 'spider´s web'; but this
      causes problems, since there was apparently no knowledge in Gondor that Cirith Ungol housed one
      of the great spiders; that the term might imply 'spider' would seem to be a late [Fourth Age]
      development; see also LAN- weave, Q lanya [Etym; Q forms only], along with SLIG- Q lia fine
      thread, Nol thlê, Q liante spider, Nol thling spider, spider's web [Etym; the older lexicons offer a
      root LI 'twine', li + ya (verbal ending) = 'entwine' (also see discussion of -ya in Vilya {below})]; also
      related is LING- Q linga- hang [Etym], and likewise YAT- join, Q yanta yoke [Etym] iant 'bridge'
      [appx]; the origin of the spider Ungoliant is speculative, but presumably she slipped into Aman
      from the void when the Ainulindalë began to take material shape; gluttonous of light, with the help
      of Melkor she drained the Two Trees of life; some speculate that once she reached Middle Earth,
      her greed became so great that she consumed herself; at any rate, we never learn the fate of this
      ravenous demon; the great spiders descended from her in some unknown fashion; see also LOTR
      Dictionary Shelob, the last known of her kind
Union of Maedhros     see Maedhros; see also Nirnaeth Arnoediad
Urthel     S; see UR- great, Nol ûr [Etym; but see next entry]; also see STELEG- Nol thela point (of
      spear), -thel [Etym]; the last element may derive instead from a stem not in Etym - STEL remain firm,
      S thel resolve; 'Great Spear' or 'Great Resolve'; if the name had a M cognate, perhaps it relates to
      Latin ursus 'bear'; an Adan
Urulóki     Q; see UR- hot, Q úr fire, úruva fiery [Etym; in appx ur- is defined as 'be hot', but in Etym
      Tolkien earlier may have expressed his intention to abandon this definition; apparently eventually
      both meanings - 'great' (see Urthel above) and 'hot' - share the form]; see also LOK- great serpent,
      Q lóke dragon [Etym; -i is a Q plur], lok- 'bend, loop' [appx]; 'Fire Dragons'
Utumno     Q; see UR- fire [Etym; but also see UR- large, great, (Etym); see commentary in previous two
      entries; see also UB- abound, Q úv (Etym); as a prefix U- could sometimes be an augmentative
      element, although it usually appears as a negative prefix (UGU- Etym; see Úmanyar {above})]; also
      see TUB- deep valley, Q [adjective] tumna deep [Etym]; given in one place as 'the Deep Hidden'
      [Tolkien actually proposed a stem in connection with this name: TUI 'cover over, hide' (Utupnu >
      *Utubnu > Utumno), but there is no evidence that it was retained]; the form was changed from
      Utumna ['Deep Gloom'] to Utumno [-o as a single genitive suffix] - 'Depth of Fire' or 'Hell'; S Udûn
      [see LOTR]; the one thing Melkor needed was 'heat', and his early delvings in the North of Middle-
      earth 'begat' the fire - with the help of Sauron - that he coveted; first stronghold of Morgoth

Vairë     Q; see WEY- wind, weave, Q *weire > Vaire [Etym]; [at the time Etym was conceived by
      Tolkien, there was no letter 'V'; later this stem was changed to VEY and - per late Tolkien notes -
      perhaps to *WIR, Vaire 'ever-weaving' (?OY-, Q oi ever < (?abandoned) GEY- everlasting, Q íre
      eternal - Etym)]; -ë is used in Q as a genitive suffix, perhaps here agentally - 'one who weaves'; this
      word is a good example of how Tolkien sometimes mirrored anglicized forms; in English a weir is a
      fence or 'net' stretched across a river for catching fish; related stems would include WAY- enfold
      [Etym], AY- [body of water] ... AYAR-, AIR- sea [Etym], GIR- shudder [Etym], ar(a)- high, noble
      [appx], along with ORO- rise, high [Etym], YUR- run, course [Etym], KAR- make, fashion [Etym],
      and UR- be hot, also 'great' [Etym]; 'The Weaver'; 'weaver' because she was the goddess of fate;
      one of the Valier
Valacirca     Q; see Valar; also see KIRIK- Q kirka sickle [Etym]; 'The Sickle of the Valar'; name of a
      constellation, also 'the Plough', 'Big Dipper'
Valandil     Q; see Valar; also see -(n)dil devoted to, friend [appx]; 'Devoted to the Valar'; son of
      Isildur, King of Arnor
Valaquenta     Q; see Valar; also see KWET- say, Q qenta tales, history [Etym]; 'Account of the Valar'
Valar     Q; (singular Vala); the name is derived from BAL- Q [noun] Vala Power, God [in Q -r forms a
      plur; Etym], val- 'power' [appx]; there were nine 'chief' Valar: Manwë, Ulmo, Aulë, Mandos, Lórien,
      Tulkas, Ossë, Oromë, and Melkor; the Valier [Valatári - Queens of the Valar] were Varda,
      Yavanna, Nienna, Vána, Vairë, Estë, Nessa, and Uinen; they were charged with the governorship
      of Arda [generally 'Middle Earth', but also the Undying Lands]; in the earliest periods the Ainur -
      Valar and Maiar - came to Middle Earth, but by the time of the War of the Ring, the only super-
      natural beings known to be in Middle Earth were Sauron and the Istari, especially Saruman and
      Gandalf, one Balrog at Moria [see next entry], and perhaps Tom Bombadil; in Lord of the Rings,
      Appx E, defined as vala 'angelic power' 'Those with Power', 'The Powers'; see also Ainur; see
Valaraukar     Q; see val- power, [noun] vala [appx]; also see RUK- demon, Q -rauko [Etym; -r forms a
      plur in Q; the change to -ar at the end is puzzling]; this stem likely relates to the term Orc 'foul' [see
      LotR], from ÓROK- goblin [Etym] through an ancient Common Eldarin root *RUKU, referring to
      anything that causes fear; a 'strengthened' stem was *(G)RUK, further elaborated to *(Ñ)GURUK
      ?> *NGUR 'horror and ÑGUR- death [Etym]; 'valar' implies the supernatural origins of these
      monsters; 'Demons of Might'; Q form of S Balrog
Valaróma     Q; see Valar; see also ROM- horn-blast, Q róma loud trumpet-sound [Etym]; horn of the
      Vala Oromë; also see Ulumúri; also see Salmar
Valier     Q (singular Valië); the - ending is problematical, often used with verbs; here it would seem
      to be a feminine affix - 'female Vala'; it may be that in older Q, any normally masculine word is made
      feminine by adding an - or - ending [for example the masculine name Imin, his mate Iminyë, Tata
      and Tatië, etc.; the element may relate to YEL- daughter, Q & Nol -iel (Etym)]; the -r ending forms a
      plur in Q; 'The Queens of the Valar'
Valimar     see Valmar
Valinor     Q; see BAL- Q Vala Power, God, plur Valar [Etym]; see also NDOR- dwell, Q nóre dwelling
      place [Etym], blended with NO- beget, Q nóre race, people [Etym]; in appx it gives the S as dôr
      'land', and comments that the Q was Valinórë 'the people of the Valar' and Valindor 'the land of the
      Valar'; likely the shortened version - Valinor - became a convention over time; 'Land of the Valar'
Valmar     Q; val- see previous; see also MBAR- dwell, inhabit [Etym], [S] bar 'dwelling', Q már 'home'
      [appx]; '(City) of the Valar'; also occurs in the form Valimar, with -i- forming a genitive case in Q
Vána     Q; see BAN- ['fair, fresh'], Q [noun] Vana, Q [adjective] vanya beautiful [Etym]; at one point
      Tolkien assigned the element to WAN- pale [listed in Etym as 'depart'; in the song Namárië Tolkien
      defines avániër as '(they) have passed away'; thus it appears that the name Vána is a hold-over
      from the older lexicons; see next entry]; one of the Valier; called 'Ever-young'
Vanyar     Q; van- see previous; -ya is a Q adjectival ending, -r making it a plur noun; if the first
      element is assigned to BAN- fair [Etym], since they had blonde hair, then the name means - as the
      text states - 'The Fair'; if it is assigned to WAN- depart [Etym], since they were the first Elvin group
      to depart for the West upon the invitation of the Valar, then the name means 'The Departed';
      apparently a conflict arose in Tolkien's lexicons with the element van- which may not be resolved;
      perhaps YAR- 'blood' [Etym] is implied in an ethnic sense; see Finarfin, who was also fair
Varda     Q; see BARÁD- lofty, supreme, Q [noun] Varda , Telerin Barada [Etym], also barad 'tower'
      [appx; as 'lofty']; 'The Exalted', in the older lexicons the name was derived from a stem VARD- to
      rule, govern; 'The Sublime'; one of the Valier; some stems perhaps implied in her name are BAR-
      raise, Q varya- to protect [Etym], BER- valiant, Q verya bold [Etym], BOR- endure, Q voro ever
      [Etym], 3AR- have, hold [Etym; its derivatives generally imply nobility, also Q arda 'The Kingdom'
      or 'the world'], MBAR- dwell, Q a-mbar Earth [Etym; in the older lexicons Marda meant 'world'],
      RAD- back, and by extension 'East' [Etym], and RED- sow [Etym]; other names of Varda, as maker
      of the stars [also the Sun and Moon] were Elbereth, Elentári, and Tintallë
Vása     ?Q; see BARÁS- hot, burning [b > v (see Varda above)], ON barasa burning, b'rás-se heat
      [Etym; no Q forms given, although the Q version of the name would presumably be Vársa]; this
      source seems related but unlikely; the text states the name means 'Heart of Fire' or  'The Consumer',
      and is ``a name of the Sun among the Noldor´´ ['Consumer' because with the appearance of the Sun
      in the sky the place of the Elves in Middle-earth began to diminish, and the importance of Men
      began to rise]; the appx states that the root element for the Sun was as- [arien]; in early writings
      Tolkien named the Sun Âs and the spirit of the Sun Azië [later Arië]; he later expanded the name Âs
      to Asa; it may be that the Va- prefix derives from an ancient root *AWA 'away' [as 'far-off fire'], or
      from WA3- stain, Q vára soiled [Etym], because it is said that when Melkor tried to seize the Sun
      for his own, his own light was darkened, and the Sun ``was stained by the assault of Melkor´´;
      ?Wa3 + Asa = Vása; in later published notes Tolkien writes of a Q verb vasar, from an older form
      waþar, 'veil' [``not in daily use´´]; this seems to lead to the stem WATH- shade [Etym; S gwathra-,
      verb, ``overshadow, veil, obscure´´ later in the same published notes], perhaps relating to WA3-
      and the diminishing of the Sun by Melkor; a likely related stem in Etym would seem to be PHAY-
      radiate, Q faina- emit light, ON phaire; see Arien, also Anar sun
Vilya     Q [adopted into S]; see WIL- fly, Q vilwa air [Etym]; the -ya suffix denotes a Q adjectival suffix;
      the ending - when used in Sindarin - may have implied WAY- enfold, *waya envelope [Etym], ?S
      uia-, and YAG- gape, gulf, Nol ia [Etym] - as a ring 'encloses' the finger; the element appears in S as
      void - as enclosing the Earth [appx], iant bridge - as enclosing a chasm [appx], and iâth fence - as
      an enclosure [appx]; in the older lexicons -ya is identified as meaning 'entwined'; the 'Ring of Air',
      also called 'The Ring of Sapphire'; see Rings of Power
Vingilot     ?adapted Q (in full Q Vingilótë); also Vingelot; see WIG- Q winge foam [Etym], [S] wing
      'foam, spray' [appx]; normally the initial w > v in Q, but one text states that the source of the element
      was actually M - wing in the Bëorian tongue - designating the spray that blows off of the top of
      waves [Early Irish úan, froth, foam, Welsh ewyn < *oveno- (source uncertain), ?Anglo-Saxon wæg
      (wegan) 'billow, sea'; ?Germanic wega- (water in motion), or ?Latin ventus 'wind']; it was also stated
      that the inspiration of the element wing was actually the name of Eärendil's wife, Elwing; the
      element only occurs in these two names; see also LOT(H) flower, Q lóte (large single) flower
      [Etym]; the -i- can denote a genitive case - 'flower of the foam'; 'Foam-flower'; name of Eärendil's
      ship; it is notable that the name contains the stem GIL- shine white or pale [Etym], the base for Nol
      and S 'star', which was the ultimate fate of Eärendil's vessel [not in Q, however, which should be
      ñillë < /ÑGIL]; the name was inspired from an Old English passage in Chaucer, where the vessel is
      named Guingelot ['slow-goer' by one commentator, although Tolkien would appear to disagree]; S
      Gwingloth; N Rothinzil
Vinyamar     Q; the text states that the meaning is probably 'New Dwelling'; see WIN-, WIND- blue-
      gray, pale, Q vinya evening [Etym]; this raises an apparent conflict; in recently published addenda
      to Etym appears: WI-, WIRI-, WINI- new, fresh, young ... Q virya fresh, vinya young; -ya is an
      adjectival suffix in Q; in most places where vinya appears there can be little doubt that it means
      'young' or 'new'; in the original Etym appears GWEN- green, fresh, youth, and also in the addenda
      is GWIN- new, fresh, Q winya [also vinya] new, Nol bîn [also gwîn]; in Appendix D of The Lord of
      the Rings Tolkien names the first month of the year in Q Narvinyë, S Narwain, which surely means
      'New Sun'; it would appear that GWIN- comes closest to clearing up the matter - at least in terms of
      'new'; it is notable that Etym also offers MINI- stand alone, Q minya first [Etym]; also note WEN-,
      WENED- maiden, Q wéne, véne and venesse virginity [Etym]; see also MBAR- dwell, inhabit [Etym],
      [S] bar 'dwelling', Q már 'home' [appx]; 'First Habitation', 'New Home'; the halls of Turgon on the
      shores of Nevrast under Mount Taras, his first home upon returning to Middle-earth from Valimar
                                                                                          - - - - -
          the older Quenya Lexicon reinforces the vinya derivative of WIN-; it has a root GWINI with
          derivative word wintil 'a glint', and the Nol forms would be gwim, gwinc 'spark, flash', gwimla
          'wink, twinkle'; this recalls the stories of the blue lamps of the Noldor, 'made of old in Valinor,
          and neither wind nor water could quench them, and when they were unhooded they sent forth
          a clear blue light from a flame imprisoned in white crystal.' [Unfinished Tales, Part One,
          Chapter I - Of Tuor and His Coming to Gondolin]; Vinyamar was nestled on the coast by
          encircling mountains on the westernmost promontory of Nevrast; the hearts of the Noldor
          were ever mindful of the sea, and the lost shores in the West; as the twinkling lights of Eldamar
          beckoned to the weary sailor from the Shadowy Seas, so the twinkling blue lights of Vinyamar
          by the Great Sea may have given succour to the Noldor returning from their journeys; thus
          perhaps Vinyamar = the Home of the Pale-blue Glint [as well as 'New Home']
                                                                                          - - - - -
Voronwë     Q; see BOR- endure, Q voro ever, *bóron faithful man [-ron is an agental ending - see
      Sauron] ... BORÓN- extension of [BOR-], Q voronwa enduring, faithful [Etym]; also see WEG-
      vigour, Q vie manhood, taking form -we in names [Etym; also an agental suffix - see Manwë]; 'The
      Faithful', 'The Steadfast'; M Tréowine [Anglo-Saxon: treowe true + wine friend - 'True Friend']; Elf
      of Gondolin

Westernesse     M; rare Middle English term - 'Western Lands'; see LOTR; see Anadûnê; also Númenor
White Mountain     see Taniquetil
White Tree     see Telperion; also Galathilion; also Nimloth¹
Wilwarin     Q; see WIL- fly, float in air, Q wilwa [Etym; in Appendix E to The Lord of the Rings
      Tolkien identifies wil- as an 'older' form'; see Vilya (above)]; see also SKWAR- crooked, Q hwarin
      [Etym]; 'Butterfly'; name of a constellation, perhaps Cassiopeia
Wizards     see Istari

Yavanna     Q; see yávë fruit [appx]; see also anna gift [appx] - i.e.: 'Giver of Blessings', 'Giver of Fruits'
      [of the Earth]; related is UB-abound, Q úvea abundant [Etym]; it also contains BAN- Q Vana
      beautiful [Etym], which is the name of another Valier; similarly it contains YAN- Q yána sanctuary
      [Etym], also AWA- forth, Q ava [Etym] because she is always giving; one of the Valier, numbered
      among the Aratar; called also Kementári

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